Final exam review
Final exam review BIOL 3000-005
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Toni Thomason on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3000-005 at Auburn University taught by Michael C. Wooten in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biological Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 12/07/15
Final study guide Goodluck Test 1 materials 0 Theories of Heredity Spontaneous Generation100005000 Idea that living structures form without decent from similar organisms eg sheepgtbone gtmaggotgt y sheep can transform into ies gt Involves the concept of a deity to set the process in motion gt Concept that blood is important gt Males provided form and females brought it to life greek idea gt RightLeft theory lie on one side you had a daughter other side a son gt Pasteur disproved this method with the Swan Neck Experiment Preformationism28001850 organisms develop from miniature versions of themselves gt Microscopes provided pictures of what looked like folded people in sperm gt Harvey39s theory that humans come from eggs gt Charles Darwin ended this when he discovered Pangenesis greek concept Pangenesis18005 theory that boy cells and structures shed small parts of themselves that collect in the reproductive organs prior to fertilization gt Gemmules particles produced from each organ that contributes to reproduction gt Follows ideas of blended inheritance gt Inherited traits are determined randomly by range of parents gt Theory of regression if one tall parent and one short parent reproduce then the kid will be shorter than the tall parent Continuously producing shorter offspring gt Regression was a direct opposition to Darwin39s theory of evolution gt Pangenesis followed idea of acquired traits gt Lamarck vs Darwin Darwin said variations help them survive and Lamarck said organisms change over time of life gt Rat tail experiment disproved Lamarck Epigenesis current theory all structures appear during the development of an organism and are not present at the time of fertilization gt Idea came about by domestication gt Gametesquotblueprintsquot code for information passed on gt Also known as De Novo development or Germ Plasm Theory 0 Molecular genetics Genotypeljphenotype alterations in genotype affect phenotype Genetics as a science evolved in the biological revolution of the 405039s There is a 3 year double rate for information on molecular genetics 0 Research contributing to molecular genetics gt 1927 Grif th 1944 Avery Macleod ampMcCarty transforming properties heritable properties are carried in DNA gt 1952 Hershey and ChaseDNA is the biomolecule of heredity gt 194953 Erin Chargaff Base composition amp chemistry of DNA gt 1953 Watson and Crick Chemical components physical structure and molecular form of DNA 0 Question What is the chemical nature of genetic information gt Successful genetic material must 1 Store complex information 2 Faithful replication high delity 3 Be capable of encoding phenotype 4 Be mutable able to change 0 Important experiments and discoveries gt Grif th Genetic makeup experiment 1927 Inserting dead bacteria cells into rats Dead material alone did not give the rats pneumonia Conclusion something in the preparation changed the avirulent material gt Avery Macleod and McCarty 1944 Genetic makeup of 1 organism could change another transforming property Potential agents RNA DNA Proteins Lipids Tests can only disprove agents using scienti c method Cannot prove anything in science DNA in living systems is called Chromatin gt Hershey and Chase Phage genome is DNA Experiment showed DNA is the biomolecule of heredity DNA is responsible for directing phage reproduction Protein is NOT genetic material gt DNA was nally accepted as the genetic material Chemical structure of DNA Tetranucleotide Hypothesis Levene 1910 Some levels of ATCG arranged in a pattern gt Leveneamp Chargaff DNA is made of a nitrogenous base Sugar Phosphoric acid All of which make up what is known as a nucleotide gt Purine 91 bonding adenine and guanine gt Pyridine 11 bonding thymine and cytosine Chemical unit DNA Structural unit nucleotide Edwin Chargaff Ratios of bases are not equal Chargaff tested the tetranucleotide hypothesis and proved it wrong ACTG Number of A number of T and number of Gnumber of C of GC does NOT equal of TA GC content increases the thermos stability of DNA A and T connect with 2 hydrogen bonds G and C require 3 bonds Linus Pauling 2x Nobel prize winner for helix structure Helix is a triple string Negative phosphates near axis Vanderwaal distances too short Look into the contributions of Watson and Crick Rosalind Franklin xray diffraction and Maurice Wilkins Physical Structure of DNA 0 Sugar phosphate backbone 3 539 polarity Bases are 034 nm apart and DNA is 2 nm in diameter Each helical turn is 34nm Antiparallel 10 bases per turn of the helix with major in minor grooves 2 right handed poynuceotide chains coiled around a central axis How is this model successful Replication transfer of information storage molecular basis of mutation Forms of DNA 0 Beta form Watson and Crick model Different forms have different structures beta is aqueous in low salt conditions 0 Alpha forms compressed form28 A high salt conditions cause DNA to shrink Zen form left handed backwards and very irregular Example questions 0 Molecule with 5000 base pairs double stranded DNA gt Number of nucleotides 5000x2 10000 gt Number of sugars 10000 gt Number of helical turns 500010 500 gt Total length 034xn1169966 gt How many phosphodiester bonds 499949999998 If dna molecule has 10 G how much T is present gt 40T Given the following is it ssDNA or ds DNA A18T26 C26 630 gt Molecule is ssDNA Chromatin structure and DNA condensation 6 billin base pairs in humans 2 meters of DNA in each cell Condensed in 10nm nucleotide Models for association of DNA and proteins gt Folded ber model 1965 Dupraw Consisted of a single ber that was wadded up gt Nuceosome model 1975 RD Kornberg and P Oudet Simplest packing structure of all eukaryotic chromatin Classes of histones Core histones H2A HZB H3 H4 gt Consists of 120 amino acids gt Highly conserved gt In combination form the core particle Linker histone H1 gt 200 amino acids gt Tissue speci c expression gt Not highly conserved gt Loosely associated with core particle o Nucleosomes are llnm long hydrophilic outside and hydrophilic inside 0 HDAC and HAT proteins 0 Supercoiling of DNA Solenoid vs Zig Zag model 0 High order coiling Chromatinrosettescoils Built with help of topoisomerases Figure 819 0 Summary of stages nucleosomes solenoidsintense condensatioanold around protein scaffolds in prophase 0 DNA replication 0 Cell division cell size is limited due to ability to transport food and oxygen from cell membrane 0 Tissue replacement shedding differentiation proliferation Embryogenesis Replication has nothing to do with cell division 60 no longer dividing ex Brain cells Glgrowth phase preparing for dna synthesis 5 dna replication 62 growth phase cell division preparation Process is semiconservative only half the original parental strand is conserved in new 3 types of replication Semiconservative half and half Conservative each parental strand links and well as new strands Dispersive parental strand goes through a cleavage process followed by reforming all the strands together old and new in each strand Taylor Woods and Hughes 1957 faba beans 0 Arthur Kornberg mechanism of DNA synthesis Discovery of dna polymerase o 4 stages of replication Initiation unwinding primer synthesis 0 Make sure you understand each part of the replication process 00000 O 0 test 2 materials Organization of genes in euchromatin Flanking regions exons introns promotor TATA box termination etc KNOW TRANSCRIPTIONTRANSLATION BY HEART RNA processing and DNA gene expression Basic Rules of Transcription Transcription is a Selective Process Only certain parts of DNA are transcribed RNA is transcribed from ssDNA Within a quotgenequot only one strand is normally transcribed RNA messages are antiparallel and complementary to the DNA template strand Transcription is always in the 539 339 direction Transcription depends on RNA polymerase RNA Pol RNA Pol is a complex multimeric enzyme complex Promoters contain short sequences motifs critical in the binding of RNA Pol to the DNA strand Translation Start codons AUG auburn university is great Stop codons UAAUniv of Alabama awful UGA U of Georgia is awful UAG University of Alabama is gross Written in a linear form stored in the mRNA Coded as triplets codons Unambiguous 1 codon 1 amino acid Degenerate 1 amino acid AA can be coded for by more than one codon Speci c start and stop codons Start AUG Stop UAA UGA UAG Commaless there are no pauses in the code Nonoverlapping mNOWU39lhUJNH universal Steps of Translation 1 Activation Correct amino acid covalently bonds to correct tRNA CHARGING 2 Initiation Small ribosomal subunit binds to the 539 end of mRNA along with initiation factors IF and Large ribosomal subunit 3 Elongation Sequential binding of aminoacyltRNA to the ribosome along with GTP and elongation factors EF 4 Termination The A site of the ribosome recognizes a STOP codon Gene Regulation Levels of Regulation of Gene Expression 1 Transcriptional quotON OFFquot subject to In uenced by internal or external cellular environment Constitutive or Inducible 2 PostTranscriptional message stability the number of times an mRNA can be used prevents message degredation cap and tail addition RNA Degradation PolyA tails Cap removal RNA Splicing RNA Interference Test three materials KZHGEIE N lhlE GEHEHTIFPEE P39HSEHEWTFEIEE m PureA all slim II aa iIaa Purea allaa allaa ii u l iaa Parental alll ita all m Ari iii A31 Fl Cross I M agiaa 3A iaa a At Kala Recesaiue Ma fail HAL at in Backcr ose m Dunfhant i lail all L I Backcross TEEI CI ESE I an Examples of modes of inheritance 1 Incomplete dominance snapdragon plants and frizzled fowl 2 Codominance roan cattle 3 Dominant lethal 4 Recessive lethal 5 Sex linked feathers in chickens 6 Sex in uenced pattern baldness Look at multiple allele examples like blood type You can often use the basic 9331 Assortment Ratio as a starting point for EPISTASIS problems Single dominant 1231 Double dominant 151 Single recessive 934 Double recessive 97
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