Chap 8, 10, 14 Vocab and Key Idea
Chap 8, 10, 14 Vocab and Key Idea KIN 201 - 00
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Cary on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 201 - 00 at University of Montana taught by Steven E. Gaskill (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see Basic Ex Prescription (SERV) in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 12/07/15
Exam 1 is Friday, September 25 , in class during our normal meeting time. Please bring a scantron and a couple of #2 pencils to use when filling it out. No phones or other electronics will be allowed, except for calculators (and you won’t even really need a calculator; no using your phone as a calculator). Questions will be drawn from lecture material, from the readings, and from the clicker questions I posed in class. All of them will be multiple choice (not my preferred format, but the only reasonable approach in a class this large!). I will focus primarily on information from the lectures and related material in the readings; but anything in the assigned chapters is fair game. A few comments about studying. In theory, you are already a skilled studier and have been working on this material since the beginning of class. If not, here are a few pointers. When you’re studying you have to do two things at once: (1) understand the facts, terms, and the individual points or sentences as they go by in the lecture or chapter; and (2) piece together a mental map of the concept that’s being discussed. Many of us are good at 1 (although it’s important not to let new terms slip by without making a note of them and looking up their meanings). Doing 2 well is more difficult. You have to step back from the sentence-to-sentence stuff and think about the overall view: What’s the key concept in this section of my book or the lecture? How does it fit in with other related concepts? Why is this concept in here? Can I say what that concept is without any crutches (looking at the book or listening to the lecture)? Give an example? To develop your skills on #2, I would recommend Writing a 2 – 3 sentence summary of each section in your book from memory after you read it Answer all of the ‘concept check’ sections, at the end each section. Do any ‘scientific skills exercise’ modules in the assigned chapters (there are good ones for chapters 23 and 24!). Read the Chapter Review at the end of each chapter, and go through the ‘test your understanding’ questions (also at the end of the chapter). I would recommend NOT doing things like Just reading and assuming you’ll remember it all; it helps *a lot* to force yourself to write down information. Highlighting; highlighting can make you feel like you’re studying, but it’s my impression that it often is just busywork with no real value. Only making flashcards for terms and facts. It’s fine to make and use flashcards. They provide practice on only the lowest levels of knowledge (definitions, facts)(and there will be questions on this level on the exam). You should spend most of your time & energy on higher levels of knowledge (application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation), and flashcards don’t lend themselves well to that end. Those higher levels require concentrated thinking and writing. Ten practice questions for exam 1. These are designed to give you a sense of how I write multiple choice questions. Note that I generally don’t write in throw-away answers. The exam will have on the order of 35 – 40 questions. 1. The DNA of dogs indicates that: a. Their closest relatives are coyotes. b. They originated in China. c. They originated at least 10 million years ago. d. They were created about 4,000 years ago. e. They likely evolved several times independently from populations of wolves. 2. During the drought in the 1970s, the main environmental event selecting on beak size of Galapagos finches was a. Hot temperatures. b. Lack of available drinking water; big-beaked birds were better able to break into cactuses and drink their internal water. c. Intensified competition for mates; birds use their beaks in antagonistic interactions over mates. d. Shifts in food resources available to birds; in particular, well into the drought, most remaining seeds were hard and large. e. A major shift in most populations from eating seeds to eating insects, which works best with larger beaks. 3. Which of the following best describes the idea of ‘strong inference’? a. Inferences that are especially well-grounded in prior theories. b. It’s the intellectual complement to ‘strong deduction.’ The difference lies in how much they rely on formal logic. c. It’s the process of developing multiple competing hypotheses about some phenomenon, then devising a test or series of tests that distinguishes unambiguously among them. d. It’s the process of devising an especially strong test of an hypothesis. 4. The term ‘heritability’ describes a. Traits that are under the control of genes. b. The fact that family members usually resemble one another. c. The physical legacy that one generation of a family leaves for the next —for example, bees in a particular summer generation can use the hive constructed by last years’ bees. d. Traits in which at least some of the variation in phenotypes is due to variation in the genes. e. Traits that evolve by genetic drift. a b 5. If a population of snails has only two alleles (S and S ) at a gene locus, and the frequency of S is 0.8, what’s the frequency of the genotype S S if the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? a. 2 b. 0.8 c. 0.64 d. 0.5 e. 0.04 6. What are the three requirements for a population to evolve by natural selection? a. Contains > 100 individuals, reproduces sexually, and contains genetic diversity. b. Strong competition for mates between the sexes, presence of ornaments or weapons, and limited breeding grounds. c. Very small population size, geographic isolation, and some change in the environment. d. More than one chromosome, multicellular, and large population size. e. Phenotypic variation in a trait, heritability of that trait, differential survival or reproduction based on that trait. 7. In the context of speciation, what is ‘reinforcement’? a. One species outcompeting another with help from a third species. b. A process in which pre-zygotic barriers evolve to be stronger because hybrids between two populations have low fitness. c. A process in which differences in genotypes evolve to match differences in phenotypes. d. It’s when post-zygotic barriers reinforce the action of pre-zygotic barriers. 8. What is allopatric speciation? a. Speciation that occurs when two populations are separated for a period of time by some kind of geographic barrier. b. Speciation that occurs when two populations are overlapping in time and space. c. Speciation that is driven by polyploidy. d. Speciation that results in the evolution of slight reproductive barriers but these barriers later collapse and the populations fuse back into a single species. 9. Why is the climate drier on the leeward side of mountain ranges that are subjected to prevailing winds (in this US, the leeward side is to the east)? a. Deserts usually are found on the leeward sides of mountain ranges. b. More organisms live on the sheltered leeward sides of mountain ranges, and the ecological communities that form there use up more water, leaving less left over. c. The sun is brighter on the leeward sides, which heats them up and dries them out. d. Air masses pushed by prevailing winds are stopped by mountain ranges and the moisture is used up in the stagnant air masses on the leeward side. e. Air masses pushed by prevailing winds rise up the windward side, which cools the air and causes the moisture to precipitate out; when that air moves down the leeward side and warms up, it’s dry. 10.Why do CO lev2ls in the Earth’s atmosphere fluctuate on an annual cycle? a. They are influenced by annual cycles of photosynthesis and decay on land masses. b. The levels reflect annual cycles of volcanic activity on Earth. c. They are driven by annual changes in how far the sun is from the Earth. d. They are concentrated and diluted by annual changes in how much nitrogen the atmosphere contains. Answers (no peeking before you try them on your own!): 1. e 2. d 3. c 4. d 5. c 6. e 7. b 8. a 9. e 10. a
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