Saturday, December 5, 2015
Final Exam Study Guide
- Social Identity: the sense of belonging to a group that constitutes an important part of a person’s self-definition and self-differentiation from others
- Political Identity: a social identity that is relevant to contestation over public authority, a politicized group is one that makes ingroup-specific demands on the political system
- Primordialism: politicization of identity is innate
- Constructivism: politicization of identity is created/constructed by society - Class consciousness: self awareness of the political implications of being a member of a particular economic class (Marx)
- Ethnicity: identity based on a common culture, history, and ancestry (constructed) - Race: identity based on group-level phenotypic differences (primordial-born with a certain race)
- Gender: identity based on biological differences in the process of reproduction - Caste and jati: identity based on a Hindu-inspired system of socially stratified, hereditary groupings
- Religion: identity based on beliefs and organizations that relate humans to a supernatural order
- Clash of civilizations: Samuel P. Huntington’s idea that the lines of civilizations (based on religion) will become the lines of conflict in the future (ex: 9/11, Paris attacks, immigration from Mexico)
We also discuss several other topics like What is realigning and extending fabrics to uniform width by using a tenter frame with a device that has a pair of endless chains on horizontal tracks?
- Protestant ethic: Max Weber’s idea that the theology of Protestantism made people harder working and therefore lends itself to democracy (a primordial explanation)
- Hindutva: describes the feeling of Hindu nationalism, specifically, a dislike for Muslims
- Civil law code: a set of laws that covers issues pertaining to private property rights and family law
Saturday, December 5, 2015 We also discuss several other topics like What is the enlightenment?
- Secularization: the decline in importance of religion in a society, happens as a country becomes wealthier/more developed
- Traditional values: people who value traditional forms of political authority (kings, etc.) are more likely to be religious, nationalistic, and respect hierarchical authority - Descriptive representation: the idea that leaders should not only promote the substantive interests of their constituents but also “look” like them (it’s important to have women in leadership positions)
- Gender inequality: the inequality in politics, economics, health, and violence that women face as a result of their gender
- Gender vs. sex: the way in which society interprets sex differences vs. the biological assignment given at birth
- Traditional gender gap: when women were more likely to vote for conservative parties than men were (50 years ago)
- Modern gender gap: women are more likely to vote for liberal parties than men are - Gender quota laws: rules that require a certain number of candidates for office or legislative seats be women
- Missing women: phenomenon caused by a cultural preference for sons (caused by neglect as children or sex-selective abortions) If you want to learn more check out It is the ability to target specific groups of individuals with a minimum of waste coverage, what is it?
- Political violence: the use of force by states or non-state actors to achieve political goals
- Civil war: armed combat within the boundaries of a state between parties that are under a common authority at the start of conflict
- Interstate war: the use of violence by states against each other to achieve political goals Don't forget about the age old question of Who studied eyewitness testimony in a classroom setting?
We also discuss several other topics like It is a disorder that enjoys dressing as opposite sex, what is it?
- Terrorism: threatened or actual use of violence for political purposes by non-state actors, particularly towards civilians
- Guerrilla wars: wars in which small groups of insurgents use irregular military tactics (sabotage, ambushes) to engage the state’s military forces
- Genocide: a coordinated plan seeking to eliminate all members of a particular ethnic, religious, or national group, through mass murder
Saturday, December 5, 2015
- Revolution: armed conflict within a state between insurgents and the state, in which both the insurgents and the state receive support from a significant portion of the population; authority is forcibly taken by the insurgents, who completely renew the government If you want to learn more check out What is the role of glia in the cns?
- What is the difference between Karl Marx’s and Max Weber’s thoughts on social and political identity? Marx believed that identity, specifically political identity, was entirely based on the economic class you belonged to; Weber believed that identity, both social and political, was mainly cultural
- Are social identities always political or politicized? If not, what is likely to make them politicized? Social identities are not always politicized, things like discrimination, elite mobilization, or opportunity can cause a social identity to become a political one
- How would primordialists and constructivists differ in their explanations for the Rwandan genocide? Primordialists would say that this genocide occurred because of ancient conflict between the Hutu’s and Tutsi’s but a constructivist would say that this conflict was not always present, and was constructed over time
- How does the politicization of race differ across societies? Politicization of race is different across different societies because in some states, race is merely a social identity, but as the second question (above) states, there are some things that cause social identities to become political identities
- Are some religions more amenable to democratization and democracy than others? What are the various arguments along these lines? Weber would say that because of the Protestant work ethic, protestant countries are more likely to economically successful, and that Islamic countries cannot support democracy. However, it is other factors that lead to democratization and it is just a trend that wealthier countries happen to be Protestant
- What is secularization and where is it occurring and not occurring? Secularization tends to occur in wealthier and more developed countries, whereas poorer countries tend to be more religious
- How have relations between Muslims and Hindus in India changed through time? It can be said that there has always been some degree of conflict between Hindus and Muslims in India, beginning with the Partition at independence in 1947,
Saturday, December 5, 2015
where there was a huge, violent conflict between the two groups, resulting in the creation of Pakistan as a separate state. However, India’s population is still 15% Muslim, and there are still feelings of animosity from both groups, which has led to the creation of Hindu Nationalist Parties and sporadic conflict since then
- What does it mean to treat gender as a category versus as a process? Treating gender as a category means that gender is a socially constructed category that one fits into, either as a man or a woman, and that that category identity can have some variation across societies. Treating gender as a process means that gender can change over time, for example, in the United States, women have achieved legal equality (right to vote, etc.) and the gender roles that were in place a hundred years ago have evolved since then
- What is descriptive representation and why do some people think it is important? Descriptive representation means that the leaders of a constituency not only share ideologies and goals with their constituents, but also look like them. This means that if a population is 50% female, 50% of the political leaders should be female as well, constituents want leaders with whom they can relate
- What are the various forms of gender inequality? Different forms of gender inequality include inequality based on politics, health, economics, and violence - What explains variation in gender inequality across countries and through time? Gender inequality can be explained by the level of economic development in a country, the level of secularization, and the prevalence of social movements
- What are the various explanations for civil war? For revolution? Some explanations for civil war/revolution include: poverty, non-democracy/state weakness, colonialism, geography, cultural grievances, and international context
- What are terrorism and genocide, and how do they differ from other forms of political violence? Terrorism is defined as ‘threatened or actual use of violence for political purposes by non-state actors, particularly towards civilians,’ while genocide is defined as ‘a coordinated plan seeking to eliminate all members of a particular ethnic, religious, or national group, through mass murder.’ These types of violence are different from other forms of political violence because they involve targeting civilians in order to achieve political goals