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COLORADO / Political Science / POLSCI 2012 / Are social identities always political or politicized? if not, what is

Are social identities always political or politicized? if not, what is

Are social identities always political or politicized? if not, what is


School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Political Science
Course: Intro to Comparative Politics
Professor: Andy baker
Term: Fall 2015
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam Study Guide
Description: This is my study guide for the final exam. These are the things Professor Baker included in his email but the final is cumulative so look over study guides for the first two midterms too. Good luck and I hope this helps!
Uploaded: 12/07/2015
4 Pages 109 Views 8 Unlocks

Saturday, December 5, 2015

Are social identities always political or politicized? if not, what is likely to make them politicized?

Final Exam Study Guide


- Social Identity: the sense of belonging to a group that constitutes an important part  of a person’s self-definition and self-differentiation from others

- Political Identity: a social identity that is relevant to contestation over public  authority, a politicized group is one that makes ingroup-specific demands on the  political system  

- Primordialism: politicization of identity is innate  

- Constructivism: politicization of identity is created/constructed by society  - Class consciousness: self awareness of the political implications of being a member  of a particular economic class (Marx)  

What is secularization and where is it occurring and not occurring?

- Ethnicity: identity based on a common culture, history, and ancestry (constructed)  - Race: identity based on group-level phenotypic differences (primordial-born with a  certain race)  

- Gender: identity based on biological differences in the process of reproduction  - Caste and jati: identity based on a Hindu-inspired system of socially stratified,  hereditary groupings  

- Religion: identity based on beliefs and organizations that relate humans to a  supernatural order

- Clash of civilizations: Samuel P. Huntington’s idea that the lines of civilizations  (based on religion) will become the lines of conflict in the future (ex: 9/11, Paris  attacks, immigration from Mexico)  

How have relations between muslims and hindus in india changed through time?

If you want to learn more check out What is realigning and extending fabrics to uniform width by using a tenter frame with a device that has a pair of endless chains on horizontal tracks?

- Protestant ethic: Max Weber’s idea that the theology of Protestantism made people  harder working and therefore lends itself to democracy (a primordial explanation)  

- Hindutva: describes the feeling of Hindu nationalism, specifically, a dislike for  Muslims  

- Civil law code: a set of laws that covers issues pertaining to private property rights  and family law  


Saturday, December 5, 2015 If you want to learn more check out What is the enlightenment?

- Secularization: the decline in importance of religion in a society, happens as a  country becomes wealthier/more developed  

- Traditional values: people who value traditional forms of political authority (kings,  etc.) are more likely to be religious, nationalistic, and respect hierarchical authority  - Descriptive representation: the idea that leaders should not only promote the  substantive interests of their constituents but also “look” like them (it’s important to  have women in leadership positions)  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the promotional advantages and disadvantages of radio?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the applications to behavior problems?

- Gender inequality: the inequality in politics, economics, health, and violence that  women face as a result of their gender  

- Gender vs. sex: the way in which society interprets sex differences vs. the biological  assignment given at birth  

- Traditional gender gap: when women were more likely to vote for conservative  parties than men were (50 years ago)  

- Modern gender gap: women are more likely to vote for liberal parties than men are  - Gender quota laws: rules that require a certain number of candidates for office or  legislative seats be women  

- Missing women: phenomenon caused by a cultural preference for sons (caused by  neglect as children or sex-selective abortions)  

- Political violence: the use of force by states or non-state actors to achieve political  goals  

- Civil war: armed combat within the boundaries of a state between parties that are  under a common authority at the start of conflict  

- Interstate war: the use of violence by states against each other to achieve political  goals  

- Terrorism: threatened or actual use of violence for political purposes by non-state  actors, particularly towards civilians  We also discuss several other topics like It is a disorder that enjoys dressing as opposite sex, what is it?

- Guerrilla wars: wars in which small groups of insurgents use irregular military tactics  (sabotage, ambushes) to engage the state’s military forces  

- Genocide: a coordinated plan seeking to eliminate all members of a particular ethnic,  religious, or national group, through mass murder  


Saturday, December 5, 2015

- Revolution: armed conflict within a state between insurgents and the state, in which  both the insurgents and the state receive support from a significant portion of the  population; authority is forcibly taken by the insurgents, who completely renew the  government  

Thematic Questions  

- What is the difference between Karl Marx’s and Max Weber’s thoughts on social  and political identity? Marx believed that identity, specifically political identity, was  entirely based on the economic class you belonged to; Weber believed that identity,  both social and political, was mainly cultural

- Are social identities always political or politicized? If not, what is likely to make  them politicized? Social identities are not always politicized, things like  discrimination, elite mobilization, or opportunity can cause a social identity to become  a political one  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four stages of getting a stimulus to the brain?

- How would primordialists and constructivists differ in their explanations for the  Rwandan genocide? Primordialists would say that this genocide occurred because  of ancient conflict between the Hutu’s and Tutsi’s but a constructivist would say that  this conflict was not always present, and was constructed over time  

- How does the politicization of race differ across societies? Politicization of race  is different across different societies because in some states, race is merely a social  identity, but as the second question (above) states, there are some things that cause  social identities to become political identities  

- Are some religions more amenable to democratization and democracy than  others? What are the various arguments along these lines? Weber would say  that because of the Protestant work ethic, protestant countries are more likely to  economically successful, and that Islamic countries cannot support democracy.  However, it is other factors that lead to democratization and it is just a trend that  wealthier countries happen to be Protestant  

- What is secularization and where is it occurring and not occurring?  Secularization tends to occur in wealthier and more developed countries, whereas  poorer countries tend to be more religious  

- How have relations between Muslims and Hindus in India changed through  time? It can be said that there has always been some degree of conflict between  Hindus and Muslims in India, beginning with the Partition at independence in 1947,  


Saturday, December 5, 2015

where there was a huge, violent conflict between the two groups, resulting in the  creation of Pakistan as a separate state. However, India’s population is still 15%  Muslim, and there are still feelings of animosity from both groups, which has led to  the creation of Hindu Nationalist Parties and sporadic conflict since then  

- What does it mean to treat gender as a category versus as a process? Treating  gender as a category means that gender is a socially constructed category that one  fits into, either as a man or a woman, and that that category identity can have some  variation across societies. Treating gender as a process means that gender can  change over time, for example, in the United States, women have achieved legal  equality (right to vote, etc.) and the gender roles that were in place a hundred years  ago have evolved since then

- What is descriptive representation and why do some people think it is  important? Descriptive representation means that the leaders of a constituency not  only share ideologies and goals with their constituents, but also look like them. This  means that if a population is 50% female, 50% of the political leaders should be  female as well, constituents want leaders with whom they can relate  

- What are the various forms of gender inequality? Different forms of gender  inequality include inequality based on politics, health, economics, and violence  - What explains variation in gender inequality across countries and through  time? Gender inequality can be explained by the level of economic development in a  country, the level of secularization, and the prevalence of social movements  

- What are the various explanations for civil war? For revolution? Some  explanations for civil war/revolution include: poverty, non-democracy/state weakness,  colonialism, geography, cultural grievances, and international context  

- What are terrorism and genocide, and how do they differ from other forms of  political violence? Terrorism is defined as ‘threatened or actual use of violence for  political purposes by non-state actors, particularly towards civilians,’ while genocide is  defined as ‘a coordinated plan seeking to eliminate all members of a particular ethnic,  religious, or national group, through mass murder.’ These types of violence are  different from other forms of political violence because they involve targeting civilians  in order to achieve political goals  


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