Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide PSCI 2012-100
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Molly Mortimer on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSCI 2012-100 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Dr. Andy Baker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 153 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comparative Politics in Political Science at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 12/07/15
Saturday December 5 2015 Final Exam Study Guide Concepts Social Identity the sense of belonging to a group that constitutes an important part of a person s selfdefinition and selfdifferentiation from others Political Identity a social identity that is relevant to contestation over public authority a politicized group is one that makes ingroupspecific demands on the political system Primordialism politicization of identity is innate Constructivism politicization of identity is createdconstructed by society Class consciousness self awareness of the political implications of being a member of a particular economic class Marx Ethnicity identity based on a common culture history and ancestry constructed Race identity based on grouplevel phenotypic differences primordialborn with a certain race Gender identity based on biological differences in the process of reproduction Caste and jati identity based on a Hinduinspired system of socially stratified hereditary groupings Religion identity based on beliefs and organizations that relate humans to a supernatural order Clash of civilizations Samuel P Huntington s idea that the lines of civilizations based on religion will become the lines of conflict in the future ex 911 Paris attacks immigration from Mexico Protestant ethic Max Weber s idea that the theology of Protestantism made people harder working and therefore lends itself to democracy a primordial explanation Hindutva describes the feeling of Hindu nationalism specifically a dislike for Muslims Civil law code a set of laws that covers issues pertaining to private property rights and family law Saturday December 5 2015 Secularization the decline in importance of religion in a society happens as a country becomes wealthiermore developed Traditional values people who value traditional forms of political authority kings etc are more likely to be religious nationalistic and respect hierarchical authority Descriptive representation the idea that leaders should not only promote the substantive interests of their constituents but also look like them it s important to have women in leadership positions Gender inequality the inequality in politics economics health and violence that women face as a result of their gender Gender vs sex the way in which society interprets sex differences vs the biological assignment given at birth Traditional gender gap when women were more likely to vote for conservative parties than men were 50 years ago Modern gender gap women are more likely to vote for liberal parties than men are Gender quota laws rules that require a certain number of candidates for office or legislative seats be women Missing women phenomenon caused by a cultural preference for sons caused by neglect as children or sexselective abortions Political violence the use of force by states or nonstate actors to achieve political goals Civil war armed combat within the boundaries of a state between parties that are under a common authority at the start of conflict Interstate war the use of violence by states against each other to achieve political goals Terrorism threatened or actual use of violence for political purposes by nonstate actors particularly towards civilians Guerrilla wars wars in which small groups of insurgents use irregular military tactics sabotage ambushes to engage the state s military forces Genocide a coordinated plan seeking to eliminate all members of a particular ethnic religious or national group through mass murder Saturday December 5 2015 Revolution armed conflict within a state between insurgents and the state in which both the insurgents and the state receive support from a significant portion of the population authority is forcibly taken by the insurgents who completely renew the government Thematic Questions What is the difference between Karl Marx s and Max Weber s thoughts on social and political identity Marx believed that identity specifically political identity was entirely based on the economic class you belonged to Weber believed that identity both social and political was mainly cultural Are social identities always political or politicized If not what is likely to make them politicized Social identities are not always politicized things like discrimination elite mobilization or opportunity can cause a social identity to become a political one How would primordialists and constructivists differ in their explanations for the Rwandan genocide Primordialists would say that this genocide occurred because of ancient conflict between the Hutu s and Tutsi s but a constructivist would say that this conflict was not always present and was constructed over time How does the politicization of race differ across societies Politicization of race is different across different societies because in some states race is merely a social identity but as the second question above states there are some things that cause social identities to become political identities Are some religions more amenable to democratization and democracy than others What are the various arguments along these lines Weber would say that because of the Protestant work ethic protestant countries are more likely to economically successful and that Islamic countries cannot support democracy However it is other factors that lead to democratization and it is just a trend that wealthier countries happen to be Protestant What is secularization and where is it occurring and not occurring Secularization tends to occur in wealthier and more developed countries whereas poorer countries tend to be more religious How have relations between Muslims and Hindus in India changed through time It can be said that there has always been some degree of conflict between Hindus and Muslims in India beginning with the Partition at independence in 1947 Saturday December 5 2015 where there was a huge violent conflict between the two groups resulting in the creation of Pakistan as a separate state However India s population is still 15 Muslim and there are still feelings of animosity from both groups which has led to the creation of Hindu Nationalist Parties and sporadic conflict since then What does it mean to treat gender as a category versus as a process Treating gender as a category means that gender is a socially constructed category that one fits into either as a man or a woman and that that category identity can have some variation across societies Treating gender as a process means that gender can change over time for example in the United States women have achieved legal equality right to vote etc and the gender roles that were in place a hundred years ago have evolved since then What is descriptive representation and why do some people think it is important Descriptive representation means that the leaders of a constituency not only share ideologies and goals with their constituents but also look like them This means that if a population is 50 female 50 of the political leaders should be female as well constituents want leaders with whom they can relate What are the various forms of gender inequality Different forms of gender inequality include inequality based on politics health economics and violence What explains variation in gender inequality across countries and through time Gender inequality can be explained by the level of economic development in a country the level of secularization and the prevalence of social movements What are the various explanations for civil war For revolution Some explanations for civil warrevolution include poverty nondemocracystate weakness colonialism geography cultural grievances and international context What are terrorism and genocide and how do they differ from other forms of political violence Terrorism is defined as threatened or actual use of violence for political purposes by nonstate actors particularly towards civilians while genocide is defined as a coordinated plan seeking to eliminate all members of a particular ethnic religious or national group through mass murder These types of violence are different from other forms of political violence because they involve targeting civilians in order to achieve political goals
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