History FINAL EXAM ESSAY notes
History FINAL EXAM ESSAY notes History 103-014
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bria Calhoun on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to History 103-014 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by George Rable in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see American Civilization to 1865 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 12/07/15
Citing at least three specific movements in your analysis describe the characteristics leaders conditions and events that drove religious and reform movements from the 1830s through the 1850s how successful were the movements in achieving their goals A Religious Reforms a Second Great Awakening i Timothy Dwight Pg 387 1 Became the president of Yale in 1795 a Campus had become a hot bed of infidelity b He helps launch the second great awakening by revivals on campus c Believed that salvation was available to all those who could accept Christ into their lives ii There was half a revival in the England territories and half was in the Tennessee backwoods Burned over District Pg 390 1 Regions swept by revival fevers were compared to forest devastated by fire a Western New York had eXperienced such intense levels of evangelical activity that it was labeled the burned over district b Lyman Beecher one of the towering champions of revivalism stressed that the second great awakening was not focused simply on promoting individual conversions it was also intended to reform human society iv Charles Finney 1 Major leader in the burned over district 2 Finney wrestled with a question that had plagued Protestantism for centuries what role can the individual play in earning salvation 3 He had theatrical methods with those of campaigning politicians who used advertising and showmanship to attract attention v William Millerilt 1 Came up with a date for when the world would come to an end a To his credit he kept this information to himself b Believed the world was going to come to an end in 1843 1844 i Some people took this very seriously ii One man cut his wives throat for not believing it iii Another woman killed herself and her children 2 Became a revivalist a Told people that the world was going to come to an end 3 The world never came to an end in 1843 so he said it was October 22 1844 instead 4 What would you do to prepare if the world was coming to an end a Confirm your religious beliefs 5 b Spend all your money some people paid off all their debts some sold all their belongings Should people vote in this election a Election day could have been before or after the day the world ended depending on where you lived 6 Created what is now known as the Seventh Day Adventist church b Mormons 1 The bumed over district in Western New York crackled with spiritual fervor and gave rise to several religious movements the most important of which was Mormonism ii Founded by Joseph Smith 1 B Reform Movements Joseph smith had a dream in which God and Christ came to him and told him all other religions were false and an angle named Moroni came to him and showed him were the gospel of Mormonism had been hidden some 1400 years earlier Brigham Young takes over the church after joseph smith and in 1846 they go to Salt Lake City a In 1848 Utah was admitted into the united states as a state and Brigham Young was the Governor or Utah a The body Reformersgt1lt i Sylvester Grahamgt lt 1 2 3 This is where the Graham cracker comes from Began his career as a temperance preacher Later decided that we need to change the American diet a All about all natural diet b Wanted people to go back to grain diets c Woman have to bake the bread Wrote about the dangers of seX a Wanted young men to practice not having seX b He said once a month for married couples c Said sexual desire could be controlled by a blander diet d Believed seX lead to heart attack collara just about everything bad was caused by seX Started giving lectures are collara a He believed that it was caused by spices alcohol and tobacco b Irritation of the stomach was what caused the illness Believed we needed to avoid meat a Said that they over excited the digestive system Graham Boarding housed were established with a few rules a No woman b 2 vegetarian meals a day c wake up and go to sleep at a certain time everyday To what extent did mistakes made by politicians North and South between 1846 1861 make the outbreak of the civil war unavoidable In answering the question be sure to cite specific examples of how politicians dealt with or failed to deal with the question of slavery in the national territories o Manifest destinv i 1 2 ii Put pre The phrase was coined by John L O39Sullivan to acquire Oregon Pg 427 He wrote on expansionism and said god I other words deemed that the united states should extend itself from the Atlantic to the pacific and beyond He made expansion of the united states a religious calling ssure on both north and south for how slavery would be seen in the western territories iii Moral Justification for Territorial expansion iv Popular Sovereigntv issue 1 0 People did not understand how the question of slavery was a moral question not a question of weather the majority liked it or not President Taylor Pg 476 v Panic of 1857 1 Financial panic caused by vi Dred Scott court case 1 2 Supreme court ruled that blacks didn39t have citizenship because they were property and therefor could not sue in the united states court system This happened two days after Taylor took office vii Issues in Kansas 1 viii 4 5 o Filmore and th Lecompton Constitution What Taylor believed Pg 461 Slavery should be upheld where it existed he believed but he had little patience with abstract theories about slavery in territories where it probably could not exist Why not make Cali fornia and New Mexico free states immediately he reasoned and bypass the vexing issue of slavery Taylor did not see himself as a defender of slavery a Said quotI am a whig but not an ultra whigquot Taylor saw himself as a Jackson or a Washington someone who could unite the country Taylors Proposal create two states one would be California and the other would be New Mexico and admit them immediately Died in office during the summer of 1850 e Compromise of 1850 Pg 465 ix 4 a new Fugitive Slave Act put the matter of apprehend ing runaway slaves wholly under federal jurisdiction and stacked the cards in favor of slave catchers and 5 as a gesture to anti slavery forces the public sale of slaves but not slavery itself was abolished in the District of Columbia The awful spectacle of chained together slaves passing through the streets of the nation39s capital to be sold at public auctions was brought to an end xi Offered strong temptation to try and kidnap free black slaves in the north because in the south they were denied a trial by jury o The Armistice of 1850 xii Painting of war times with Mexico 1 xiii xiv ewwe Had two black men in the bottom corner which has to do with the possibility of expansionism of slavery in the western territories A Permanent Crisis Was slavery a permanent issue will we always have to fight this issue Social economic political every type of crisis you can think of slavery was a crisis of What to do with new land from Mexico Popular sovereignty Territorial division Permit slavery Do not permit slavery xv Wilmot Proviso 1 2 xvi xvii xviii 1 Anything land granted from Mexico will not have any slavery in it at all Calhoun said that this would go against the 5th amendment because slaves are property and this would make it so people could not bring their property into new territories of the united states Territorial Division Divide the land by extending the line from the Missouri compromise Popular Sovereignty Should they allow the people to decide for themselves weather or not to let slavery into the new territory Southern Position Allow slavery in the new territory a Lead by John C Calhoun 2 Whigs did not trust Calhoun 0 Kansas and Nebraska crisis xix They basically allowed the states to decide weather to be slave states or free states by popular sovereignty this undid the Missouri compromise which stated slavery shale not exist above 363930 1 Franklin Pierce was president and he was a weak one at that he drank to much and hated controversy ampLecompton constitution Pg 477 1 People of Kansas said that they would be a slave state and it was boycotted then Buchanan said that he would back them as a slave state It was a very unpopular decision so it was amended and finally struck down 0 Lincoln v Douglas debates XXi Douglas failure to recognize that popular sovereignty was to ambiguous of a policy it didn39t really solve anything it was more a toss up XX11 To him slavery wasn39t a morality question and it was more a question of what people want Its worse because it39s a question of morality not of popular vote XX111 Lincoln doesn39t want to fight slavery but he does see it as morally wrong and he does want to stop the spread of slavery XXiv Took place August 21 October 15 1858 0 Lincoln told them in his inaugural address that he said he had no plan of messing with slavery anywhere which it already stands XXV Was a free soiler 1 Believed that they shouldn39t mess with slavery where it already was 2 J effersonian belief style 3 They thought that eventually slavery would go away Compare and contrast the reasons for secession and war in 1860 1861 with the reasons that the union won and the confederacy lost the civil war How are the two sets of issues related Did the causes for secession and war dictate the outcome In answering the question be sure to deal with the entire period from 1860 through 1865 Secession and states rights 0 Territorial eXpansion as an instigator for this Separate elections in the north and south because they wouldn39t put northern candidates on the ballot in the south Kansas v Missouri football game is called the boarder war and it goes back to the 185039s and bleeding Kansas Lincoln was called a black republican 0 They thought him to be basically abolitionists Immediatists v Cooperationists o Immediatists wanted to secede from the union immediately 0 The cooperationists wanted to wait and see what Lincoln did before they seceded Slavery is in more danger within the union than out of the union 0 If the south seceded then the north would go to war to regain the lost territories this would lead to an immediate decision on slavery however if they had stayed in the union it is hard to tell how long it would have taken for slavery to get abolished Missouri came out with a declaration about what would happen if they were to abolish slavery they talked about the dangers of racial equalitV Lincoln sneaked into Washington after his inauguration because of threats of assassination 0 March 4th 1861 o Said he did not want to touch slavery where it already eXisted o On his first day in office march 5th 1861 Lincoln is told about how fort Sumter was going to be evacuated Union advantages 0 O O 0 Turning in 1863 McCullen was a terrible leader XXVi Never attacked and always watched and positioned and maneuvered himself More man power and soldiers Using the emancipation proclamation to undermined the South39s labor force 1 The blacks left their owners and ran to the north and really freed themselves Confederate advantages 0 00000 0 Geography was an advantage and a disadvantage No sound currency Didn39t have the same type of infistructure Not as much partisanship as the north Election of Lincoln For a while they were winning the war More effective military leadership Davis v Lincoln 0 O 0 Davis should have been better he was a west point graduate Lincoln was a militia officer but he was intelligent and had the ability to grow and learn He was eXible Lincoln has to grow as a strategist in this war Grant v Lee 0 Grant went to west point gets along well with Lincoln 0 Lee was also a very successful general and he worked well with president Davis 0 Difficulty of maneuvering large armies Montgomery Meigs 0 Made the northern army the best supplied army in American history 0 Created sizes for men39s clothing so that for the first time ever they are able to send bulks of clothing and not material to make the uniforms o The north was significantly better organized than the south
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