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Final Exam Study Guide for HOM 195 (Performance Live)

by: Caroline Hill

Final Exam Study Guide for HOM 195 (Performance Live) HOM 195 - M002

Marketplace > Syracuse University > Music > HOM 195 - M002 > Final Exam Study Guide for HOM 195 Performance Live
Caroline Hill
GPA 3.8
Performance Live
S. Hutchinson Mengel

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This is a detailed and cumulative study guide of everything that could be on the final exam. It includes the powerpoint notes, my own lecture notes, information from the quizzes/midterm, informatio...
Performance Live
S. Hutchinson Mengel
Study Guide
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Hill on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HOM 195 - M002 at Syracuse University taught by S. Hutchinson Mengel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 256 views. For similar materials see Performance Live in Music at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 12/07/15
Final Exam Studv Guide HOM 195 Performance Live Unit 1 Music and Performance Introductory Lecture The meaning of musical performance depends a lot on context Sound is just one aspect of musical performance All of us participate in musical performance in some way audiences play important roles What is Music Is music universal 0 Yes if we take the view that music is found in every human society and that all humans connect musical sounds in some way with emotion O No if we are looking for specifics what music means to people Not every culture understands music in the same way I Our definitions of music are a product of our own experiences preconceptions and beliefs They vary from person to person culture to culture Concepts of music differ by culture group so they can t be judged by the same criteria Some things that sound like music to us aren t and vice versa 0 Koranic recitation is not considered music because it is not performed when we impose our own culturally grounded perspectives and assumptions on other peoples practices and ways of life including music Also when we judge someone else s culture or music according to the standards of our own culture preferred music and preconceptions studies music inas culture What is Performance The definition of music 0 humanly organized sound does not always work it should be consciously organized sound 0 We decide what music is and its definition based on our point of view What is to perform 0 Showing doing I Pointing to underlining and displaying doing I Performer is conscious about what she is doing I Someone is usually watching it I All performances require rehearsaltraining of some kind I No two performances are alike What is a performance 0 Definitions change over time and vary substantially according to culture 0 What happens on a stage dependent on a particular context 0 Everybody performs all the world s a stage no one particular context 0 When studying music from other cultures performances are best judged according to the standards of their home culture I Ex within the context of western art music John Cage s 4 33 a piece that consists of only silence might be considered music because this musical culture defines music according to a composer s intentions 0 Musical performance is important because it shows what a group of people consider to be ideal relations between one another between individual and society and between human natural and supernatural cue the viewerlistener that a performance is occurring and how to interpret it They are important in performance disrupting or reversing the frame can be funny it occurs precisely because we all know how to interpret performances within our own culture from prior experience Two types of performance O musical socializing multiple roles listening while doing no performanceaudience separation littleno preparation less common in US culture ex contra dance singing happy birthday at a party 39 Judged on quality of participation and interactions 0 listening and doing are separated preparation is separate from performance performance is by specialists only more common in US culture ex James Brown singing 39 Judged on skill virtuosity authenticity interpretation uniqueness or other genrespecific factors viewing music as a process not an object something we do rather than something that just is It is taking part in a musical performance as a performer listener etc 0 It includes composing practicing rehearsing performing listening buying etc Performance is part of something bigger Guest Lecture and Mediated Performance Recorded performance 0 Music was first recorded on the phonograph created by Thomas Edison 0 Recorded performance can be edited redone etc I Positives the producer can create a song that can t be done on stage the content is easily accessible via the internet special effects are used I Negatives no human error or going to the edge exciting feature an entirely different performance producer is also an artist some say it loses authenticity no live audience creating excitement 0 Recorded performances transformed music I Expectations for how long a song should be 24 minutes I Made it everyday commonplace universal I Higher expectations for perfection I Relationships between people especially in ethnographic fieldwork 0 Recording technology is not neutral it causes changes in what we think and do 0 Today many performances incorporate recording technology and the liverecorded distinction becomes blurred Today we often are not physically present to experience a performance Also we may experience a performance without the musicians being physically present Live performance may not be the most common way we experience music It is a performance experienced second hand via mass media recordings etc 0 Examples YouTube videos dance video games watching videos of live concerts watching live broadcasts of performances etc The medium is the message McLuhan 0 The medium is more important than the actual message within it 0 The technology itself changes us and how we perceive O A large group of people assembling suddenly in a public place performing an unusual and pointless act for a brief time then quickly dispersing usually not pointless 0 First one was organized in 2003 0 Links to earlier countercultures Happenings in 1950s NYC guerilla theater yippie actions pig for president uxus movements Yoko Ono O 3 main goalstypes I Celebration I Political action I Advertisement I Or all may be merged 0 Circular media ow created online or via mobile phone rehearsal materials on YouTube live rehearsals live performance performance posted on YouTube 0 3 reasons for effectiveness I Reconfiguration of public space forces attention I Performers bodies conspicuously mobilized as in ads I Large scale May create a feeling of solidarity 0 Flash mobs are presentational 0 Anyone can perform and a performance can take place anywhere What does musical performance do Music and boundaries 0 Music is often about creating or maintaining borders between us and them 0 Stokes says Music is socially meaningful not entirely but largely because it provides means by which people recognize identities and places and their boundaries 0 Kinds of boundaries ethnicracial national age religious class placebased gender 0 Music can construct national identities or contest them I National anthems dances radio I Jimi Hendrix at Woodstock 0 Music and dance is often used to teach cultural ideas about what is male or female 0 Music is effective in creating and maintaining boundaries because I Participation can create a sense of community I And it can create such powerful associations and memories I This can be a positive or negative thing mass singing in German Nazism Mobilizing Music examples of how music can createmaintain boundaries 0 American Civil rights movement positive 0 Northern Ireland negative I Protestant July 12 parades in Belfast I Irish Catholic traditional music marks the other side of the border Eurovision contest suggesting alliance Ozomatli in LA embracingcelebrating differences Used as torture in Waco Iraq Guantanamo East German Rock musicians aiding the fall of the Berlin Wall Arab Spring 2011 Khaled Al Zaher and the song Hurriya Freedom OOOOO Music s power is activated through how it is used and in what context Music makes messages more powerful because it is memorable it activates emotional memories and it is a social act Unit 2 Music in Africa Intro to African Music Part 1 Africa is a huge and diverse continent so we should be cautious when making any generalizations African Music 0 Is as diverse as its peoples vocal music stringed instruments tuned percussion wind and brass globalized popular music drum ensembles 0 Almost every major international popular music has roots in African music from mambo to hip hop and rock to reggae 0 Is not universal it is found nowhere else 0 Is oriented towards participatory performance 0 Is not always centered on drumming Common musical features in Africa 0 two or more sound sources may interlock to create a single melody in European art music this is called hocketing two parts may interlock through rhythm and movement each part is unique but combines to add to the whole r is one type between voices or instruments 0 Musical form is determined by what is repeated and what changes mapped as letters 0 In SubSaharan Africa I Cyclical and openended forms predominate I One or more repeated melodiesrhythmic patterns may serve as foundation I Europeans call these I The repetition of these patterns over a long period of time often with gradual variation facilitates parcipitation Intro to African Music Part 2 Rhythmic complexity O Occurs at many levels in individual parts or in the interaction between parts 0 As the juxtaposition of different meters ex 2 against 3 F 0 As the layering of different rhythmic patterns 0 Through the interaction between core partsfoundation and elaborating improvised parts the characterquality of sound ex how we tell one instrument from another playing the same note 0 In SubSaharan Africa there is a preference for dense rich sounds and for buzzy timbres rather than clear ones 9 Oral traditions and parcipitation 0 Music is central to every aspect of traditional life from rituals to entertainment 0 Music is passed on through 0 Ensembles combine core parts ex basic rhythmic patterns and elaboration parts ex what the master drummer plays I Virtuosic soloists rotate in and out 0 The variety of parts and roles allow for maximum participation West African drum and dance 0 Drum ensembles typically play for rituals weddings religious etc for political events for social events in stage shows and even in contemporary popular music Ivory Coast dunun O O O The 3 sizes have different roles I Largest dununba low pitched accentuatesinteracts with middle drum I Middle sangban plays core rhythm I Smallest kenkeni keeps beat I Also includes a bell Together these instruments interlock to create a polyrhythm Djembes also included in improvising role Ghana Ewe Dance Drumming O O 0 Voluntary dance clubs perform for important events like funerals also they serve as social support for migrants Drumming dancing singing hand clapping form an integral whole They are interdependent and interlock Each plays a variety of different dance rhythms Ewe Drum Ensembles O O 0 Different instruments play different roles I Double bell gnagokui plays a timeline pattern I Shaker axatse plays a basic beat I Smallest drum kaganu plays a repeated rhythmic pattern ostinatio include I Large drums play complex patterns some improvised I Medium drums play interlocking parts or call and response Listening for layers 0 O TUBS notation time and unit box system X high sound low sound these are just a few of the parts Fontomfrom an Akan royal drum tradition O O O Akan are the largest ethnic group in Ghana and Ivory Coast and were one of the most powerful West African nations in the 17th19th centuries Akan chiefs political leaders use fontomfrom performances to symbolize power Fontomfrom drums may be used for drum speech making statements like Nana bre bre Chief walk majestically Fontomfrom ensemble I Midsized drum talking drum I Largest drum plays the lead I Smaller drums I Bell I Fontomfrom has very intense and detailed polyrhythms West African Music in the World Talking Drums 0 Some drums can actually speak by using varying tension on the drum head to emulate the pitches of African tone languages 0 Sped up such patterns can be turned into musical rhythms O Yoruba talking drums are the best known What do the drum ensembles we looked at have in common O 0000 Three or more drum parts each differently pitched that interlock to produce a polyrhythm A timeline often provided by a metal bell Core rhythms and elaborating parts the latter often improvised Dancing singing clapping many ways to participate Many have been transformed from participatory to presentational performances I National companies formed to stage traditional dance beginning around the time of independence mainly in the 1960s 0 National Dance Company of the Ivory Coast 0 Ghana National Ensemble Transforming a music from participatory to presentational changes the tradition O O O O O 0 Changes occur both in musical sound and in social practices and their meanings By changing the performance frame By incorporating many different ethnic groups and their music into one performance often meant to symbolize the nation By orienting it towards an audience rather than towards participants By standardizing steps rhythms etc By placing greater focus on technical features like virtuosity synchronization In uence of West African Musical Thought Call and response is commonly used in music from funk to salsa Cyclic forms based on riffs or ostinati are the basis of genres from blues to rock to merengue Rhythmic complexity combined with a focus on the verbal arts found in many oral traditional cultures makes hip hop work polyrhythms also found in music from jazz to rap a transnational ow of people culture and music resulting from the slave trade Paul Gilroy s term US popular music like jazz and rock Caribbean music like reggae and salsa and West African traditional and popular music are all part of Black Atlantic exchanges along with many others What is a 0 An asymmetrical rhythmic pattern that functions to organize time in a piece of music 0 Western classical music does this through meter even symmetrical beat groupings 0 In Africa asymmetrical timelines are often played on a bell of some sort and other rhythms are oriented around that pattern 0 Other times the timeline is implied but not played by any one instrument Why is this rhythm so prevalent 0 Mathematical analysis suggests reasons why this rhythm is so popular Its asymmetries and the beats it leaves out makes it compelling 0 But this rhythm travelled because people travelled It s part of the connective tissue of the Black Atlantic and Western popular music is a part of that web too West African music is one of the most rhythmically and mathematically complex in the world That complexity was passed down through the oral tradition and is used to foster participation and community cohesion But it hasn t stayed the same over the centuries It s also developed into new forms of music and performance Even though Western music tends to be much less complex rhythmically West African musical thought is a fundamental basis for much of the music we listen to on a daily basis Zimbabwe Mbira Music Zimbabwe is a very large and diverse continent It had British rule until 1980 Ongoing tensions between white and indigenous Zimbabweans Zimbabwean music 0 Known internationally for mbira and marimba traditions good examples of African harmony O was introduced in Zimbabwe in the 1960s as a new national instrument since it had no ethnic associations there I But its music is based on that of the traditional mbira Indigenous Shona music A this means sound is made by metal keys Often placed inside a gourd resonator or Sometimes called a thumb piano but Africans see this as a colonial term It s considered to create a link between the human and spirit worlds It attracts the attention of ancestors Played both in participatory and presentational performance contexts O OOOOOI I The first is associated with rural areas indigenous values and religion I The second is associated with urban areas cosmopolitan values and political struggle 0 Played for personal enjoyment or in ceremonies called I Indigenous and Christian belief systems overlap I Different forms of music dancing involved 0 Features of mbira music many of the same features as in other African music I Interlocking patterns cyclic forms ostinatos multiple roles to facilitate participation improvisation buzzy timbres provided by bottle caps or other metal pieces on the instrument I Polymeter 2 against 3 interactions between mbiras and shakers when two or more independent melodies occur at once 0 Occurs in mbira playing 0 Fontomfrom and Ewe drumming do not use Mbira Mbira patterns 0 Mbira players improvise over core ostinato patterns which creates complex polyphonic textures O The lead part is called the and the intertwining part is called the I Each player can introduce improvisations 0 Although cyclic the performers do not consider any one point of the cycle the beginning or the end A piece is not fixed but rather a set of patterns meant to be varied O Mbira are accompanied traditionally by hosho O The way in which kushaura kutsinhira hosho and clapping relate is an example of polyrhythm O Mbira music has also been used in popular music styles Chimurenga meaning struggle is guitar band music originating in the 1960s 0 Thomas Mapfumo played mbira tunes on guitar with Shona lyrics advocating revolution 0 Use of indigenous music during apartheid was a clear political statement 0 Chimurenga is another example of transforming a participatory performance tradition into a presentational one I Chimurenga demonstrates a blend with cosmopolitan values while traditional mbira demonstrates indigenous values 0 Guest Lecture Mbira music is owing and pattern based It is polyrhythmic It is cyclical 4 phrase pattern that repeats Repetition with a single difference 0 Why repetitionsimplicity Because introducing something new will be special The beat is in between the first two beats O Westerners have a hard time finding this Hosho marks beat and Not supposed to be a lot of audience and performance separation Played at ceremonies spirit possession Unit 3 Popular Music and Performance What s popular about popular music 0 Music of the masses music that is marketed to a large population and disseminated by mass media What makes a music traditional 0 Passed on primarily through facetoface interactions 0 Clear and usually conscious relationship to a particular history 0 Belongs to an identifiable community You could say that today all music is sometimes in some way mediated But for popular music this is a primary factor in its existence What we call pop music is just one kind of popular music Popular sounds and structures 0 Usually based on Western harmony plus African organizational principles 0 Common forms versechorus strophic ostinatoriffbased 0 Almost always vocal music 0 Is highly commodified Frith asks us to think about voice 0 In classical music the composer s voice is dominant O In popular music we hear the musical composer the lyricist the producer the singer and the persona of the singer Why make popular music 0 Popular music is important to many listeners and it can be made for lots of reasons but one of the main ones is to make money and that is what separates it from the other types of music we have looked at Music in marketing 0 People in marketing know that music is about more than sound 0 The music we choose to listen to often says something about our beliefs ideals and the sort of person we want to be or want others to think we are 0 Chain stores choose music to align themselves with the customers they want to attract and purchase it from services 0 Music is an important part of branding I Ex Starbucks is known for their music I It helps create a whole lifestyle out of a product one designed to appeal to target groups 0 The music industry is manipulating us I The more you hear a song the more likely you are to like it I Major labels find ways to pay to ensure their artists get played more on the radio and they also pay popular retail stores to play their music I They tend to encourage the production of musical sameness 0 However people and artists find ways to make personal connections I Ex OK Go and their lowbudget DIY music videos with fan responses Listeners have agency 0 means that a person agent is capable of acting on their own 0 The fact that popular music is commercially driven doesn t prevent people from engaging with it at a personal level 0 People search out new music on their own I EX through music blogs which take away power from major labels 0 A kind of community centered around taste Distinguished by dress as well as musical preference 0 Another example of how music is a social activity that binds groups together and draws boundaries 0 They create meaning through style clothing bodily adornment dance music behavior 0 Often associated with particular racial ethnic class age or gender groupings Many are transgressive O Eventually subcultures are mainstreamed and commodified sometimes leading members to move on O O a part of US American sports culture that descended from military music It is made up of snare drums bass drums tenor drums and optional symbols Intro to Jazz Jazz does not fit the old threepart division Its somewhat classical somewhat popular somewhat traditional At the same time its partly none of these It is partly written this is where it resembles classical music It is party an oral tradition improvisation this is how it is partly traditional Early jazz was tied to the birth of the recording industry sheet music sales and social dance this is how it is somewhat popular Jazz roots 0 Draws from diverse facets of American history I African American work songs blues spirituals brass bands quadrilles Minstrel shows ragtime etc Early jazz 0 Traced to 1910s New Orleans A Caribbean city 0 Also known as hot jazz or Dixieland it was the crossover success of its day it was also subject to racism 0 polyphonic multimelody characterized New Orleans Jazz in the 1910s20s everyone improvising at the same time and creating new melodies O Draws on Caribbean in uences as well as funeral brass band traditions that survive today Jazz as a popular music 0 For 50 years jazz was a major form of popular music in the US I 1900s ragtime Scott Joplin 1910s Dixieland or New Orleans jazz Louis Armstrong 1920s jazz age appers youthful rebellion women s rights and Chicagostyle hot jazz 1930s swing Lindy Hop and jitterbug dances 1940s big bands Duke Ellington Jazz as a classical music 0 Inspired many classical composers from early on 0 Jazz still serves as an ambassador of the US abroad In the past 50 years jazz has developed in many different directions 0 in the 1940s they began to shift it away from dance music to a cerebral intellectual realm I Black jazz musicians are artists and intellectuals not just entertainers serving white audiences O beginning in the 50s it explored playing without a specific melodic or harmonic framework or a fixed form 0 Other styles and Jazz is a way for African Americans to explore new ideas for possible futures O pioneer of he drew on classical music ragtime blues be bop etc in imagining new musical directions I His music was a vehicle for black liberation and as postracial I Space imagery his own unique world Almost all of jazz involves improvisation O creating music as it is being performed opposite of pre composition I Always based on some kind of rules or framework in jazz this probably consists of a tune standard a harmonic progression a form Jazz framework 0 A and B parts adding in instruments Reading by Ashe 0 According to Ashe in a jazz performance this is performed I The jazz musician as a persona I Both a rebellious stance and an American classical music I A representation of AfricanAmerican culture I A struggle for autonomy and freedom What happens at a jazz concert 0 It is either participatory or presentational 0 Certain practices are wellknown to audience members I Individual or collective improvisation trading fours audience responses I Trading fours A common practice in jazz where musicians take turns playing short solos O The audience at a jazz concert I Depends a bit on context playing for insiders vs playing for outsiders I What Ashe calls playing with rather than to the audience Classical Music A conductor s job keep the beat learn about composers regulate volume correct musicians communicate a musical vision to the orchestra 0 The size of a conductor s movement patterns in uences volume Meters in Western classical music are far more complicated than Indian rhythmic cycles What is classical music 0 Western art music from the classical period 17501820 for example Mozart and Beethoven Western Art Music theory principles Western staff notation Supposed to be serious music created by performers performed in concert halls O Called classical music because artists loved Greece and Rome the term appeared in 1836 0 It is a written tradition everything is played from a score I Pros everything is preserved quick learning access to musical thought of the past I Cons no improvisation no performer contribution OO This total emphasis on what s written is a pretty recent invention Scores used to be much vaguer what chords to improvise on and when to change In the classical period soloists were expected to improvise 0 During section of a concerto a piece for an orchestra with a featured soloist usually consisting of three movements Classical music has changed a lot 0 Now concert halls quiet knowledgeable audience no improvisation composer has control greater fidelity to score more research more power to conductor not just the wealthy can enjoy it Being a knowledgeable listener 0 Knowing the form of pieces and when to clap I Clap after every major piece is performed Listening attentively for themes and how they are transformed Knowing the pieces performed and how they have been performed in the past Observing the interactions of the musicians orchestra conductor All this means you will know what to expect and notice when performers do something unexpected OOOO is a large ensemble featuring stringed wind and brass and percussion instruments based around a written tradition a musical form often considered the highest form of classical music It is a largescale musical work typically lasting a half hour or more played by orchestras Sometimes called 0 Usually consists of four or individual pieces each with a different speed and form I Fast I Slow I Medium often a dance movement in triple meter I Fast 0 The four movements together are considered one piece 0 Each movement has a particular internal form Mozart s symphony number 40 0 One of 2 minor key symphonies that Mozart wrote 0 One of his best known and most performed works 0 Most common for first movements 0 3 main parts presents main themes I takes main themes through various transformations and keys I restates main themes I Optional tail that extends the or final chords that serve as musical punctuation Musical themes 0 Have their own distinctive structures 0 Are made up of smaller units called and I The motive is repeated and combined into phrases with a questionanswer form the first part rises the second part falls a shorter work meant to convey a particular image story or mood to the listener in contrast to the symphony where the listener should focus on musical material Is there classical music in other cultures 0 If we broaden the term 0 We can find many styles of music considered serious associated with courts and nobility written tradition I Indian Indonesian Korean Chinese Japanese Persian etc Western classical music is no longer just western 0 It is considered prestigious all over the world 0 It bridges differences West Eastern Divan Orchestra Unit 3 Indian Classical Music Indian Classical Music Part 1 Two systems 0 Northern Hindustani more ties to Muslim world 0 Southern Karnatak or Carnatic 0 Different sets of instrumentspractices What is written down varies from tradition to tradition Hindustani North 0 In uenced by Islamic culture Persians and Turks moving into northern India since the 13th century 0 More improvisation O Traced back to a 16th century court musician the MozartBeethoven of Hindustani 0 Teachers are called a school of followers is called a I Often the students live with the teachers learning a whole way of life KarnatakCarnatic South 0 Mainly Hindu tradition O Traced back to an 18th century singersaint contemporary with Beethoven O Madras Chennai is a main center 0 Teachers are called guru not exactly equivalent to music 0 Broader than our conception more than just sound music dance dramatic expression Kathak northern dance tradition Bharata natyam southern dance tradition Common Southern instruments 0 VinaVeena melody instrument I String instrument that dates back to 1600s associated with the Saraswati Hindu goddess of Music 0 Violin melody instrument I Came to India in 18th century tunedheld differently than Western classical violin alternates with a vocalist O Mridangam rhythm instrument I Early versions made of clay today it is a 2headed wooden drum Hindu God Ganesh depicted playing it Northern Instruments 0 Sitar melody instruments I Modified by Mughal musicians from the veena named after Persian setar meaning 3 strings I Popularized in the West by and the Beatles 0 Ravi Shankar fused western and Indian music in his art 0 Sarod melody instrument I Related to a ian rubab 1725 strings O Bansari ute melody instrument I Bamboo instrument dates back 2000 years associated with Krishna 0 Harmonium melody instrument I Small reed organ came to india in 19th century mostly used to accompany devotional music 0 Tabla rhythm instrument I Dates back over 2000 years pair of hand drums in different pitches create many different sounds by using fingers and heel of hands they are represented and taught through syllables called Drone instruments 0 Provide primary pitches O TamburaTanpura I 4 string rich in harmonies played continuously through performance provides foundation for the melodic instruments first mentioned around 1620 0 Or there is the electronic droid or the tanpura droid app Rolestexture O refers to how many parts there are and how they interact their roles There are 3 basic layers 0 Along With melody instruments there is usually voice Along With rhythm instruments there is also usually a soloist Secondary soloists may be added 00 In performance 0 Improvisation not precomposed 0 Indian scales are not constructed from a totally different set of pitches than Western ones 0 Pitch based on scale but more 0 A system of rhythmic organization rhythmic cycles patterns of strong and weak beats similar to meter but much more 0 1 beat of the cycle it is the most important beat a combination of syllables that help teach talas and drum or footwork patterns Many dozens in the north 7 main ones With 5 variations each 35 in the south Knowledgeable listeners follow the tala using handclap patterns Most common tala in Nortw Most common in South is Whereas Western meter 0 Are usually short seldom more than 4 beats in a cycle 0 Are either simple or compound 0 Tala is different because I It is a hierarchy of beats Within a cycle I Many different formulas used for spice I A rhythmic more than a meter O OOOO 0 A mode is not only a series of beats it has a particular order ways of playing and other associations I The way of organizing pitches is also a kind of mode Special patterns spice it up 0 special uneven rhythmic patterns that may be played several times to end a section 0 They must conclude on the and their repetition produces complicated mathematical patterns Indian Classical Music Part 2 A collection of pitches but more a mode more than a scale Not just pitch but how one moves through them May include specific melodic patterns ornamentation Process of unfolding the raga may ascend and descend in different ways Each associated with a season time of day mood Usually 57 notes ordered hierarchically 200 in north 72 main ones in south SA RI GA MA PA DHA NI SA a ways of naming pitches and learning ragas SA is almost like D0 in the Western world OOOOOOOO Whereas Western scales 0 Consist only of a set of pitches I Do re mi fa so la ti do 0 Only go up or down usually the same both ways 0 May be considered happy or sad but seldom have other explicit associations 0 Paintings dating back to medieval times that illustrate the characteristics of and relationships between ragas O For each raga they show color mood an associated hero or heroine season time of day and associated deities Structure 0 North I opening section free rhythm no drums establishes the raga I I a clear rhythmic pulse is established I faster virtuosic section fixed precomposed tune Tabla enters tala introduced a faster section with both raga and tala exploration ends the piece Indian and Western classical written and oral traditions 0 What is written differs I In both cases theory analytical ideas about music is written down I In Indian music some melodies are written down and you can look up ragas and talas I But entire compositions are never written down 0 What is orally transmitted differs I Western musicians learn about technique like articulation phrasing body movement from their teachers I Indian musicians learn an entire approach to music and life from their teachers Comparing and contrasting Western vs Indian Classical 0 What is different from Western classical music I Improvisation is central I Precomposition plays a minor role I 3part texture 0 What is similar to Western classical music I Elaborate analytical written music theory I Largescale forms built out of repetition and contrast 0 What comes first is significant I Sonata form jumping in with a theme that is then developed I Khyal form easing into a mood by outlining a raga that is then unfolded further 0 What is performed I In the West it is a performance of a work and the work appears on a program I In India there is no work They perform raga and tala thus music theory and a lineage The raga is announced in concert Unit 4 Intro to Caribbean Dance and Dance Music The Caribbean is a cultural crossroads This region brings together much of what we ve studied this semester Latin American and Caribbean music have a huge impact on music industries The Caribbean is also a part of the Black Atlantic Caribbean diversity 0 Very small islands Montserrat to very big ones Cuba 0 Very small population Turks and Caicos 12000 to very big ones Hispaniola 16 million 0 A variety of languages Spanish French English Patois Dutch O A dance described in Cuba in the 1590s in Panama in the 1539 It became a European trend in the 17th century though much transformed It is described as done with immodest shaking of the body a circle of fire in which Satan occupies the center and his angels the circumference and so lascivious in its words so ugly in its sway it was enough to set decent people afire I The source comes from a word that means let the spirit rip There are many similar dances here and in the Caribbean 0 Shared cultural roots and histories Columbus started here colonialism slavery 0 Similar process of the mixing of cultures through active selection of elements to be retained leading to the formation of new identities 0 Geography ows of migration trade 0 Points of contact New Orleans and NYC I Lots of Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in MYC I Lots of Cubans in Miami 0 Ideas and practices still circulate today twerking as do fears misunderstandings and prejudices Caribbean cultures have shared roots 0 The Three Cultures I Indigenous Taino Caribbean I European French Spanish English Dutch I African multiple ethnic groups I 4th culture Asian East Indian Chinese Middle Eastern 0 Similarities provide glue I European plantation economies similar social structures I Common African roots I Creolization culture language music Indigenous heritage 0 Not much is left in its original form no indigenous communities 0 We don t know much about their music and dances but many have attempted reconstructions European heritage in Caribbean dance 0 Postures partnering 0 Social dance forms I Quadrilles square dances Contra dances line dances ballroomstyle dances 0 But most dances are a blend of in uences African heritages 0 African diaspora many cultures religions and languages 0 Maroon societies Nations and nation dances I African refuges who escaped from slavery in the Americas and formed independent settlements African religions 0 African traits in dance values aesthetics movements beliefs practices like the dance circle 0 Wisdom and knowledge transmitted through the body 0 The Caribbean as a musicdance region Music is inseparable from dance in the Caribbean A common body of African and European dances circulated throughout the region in the colonial period 0 These included both Africanorigin ones and Europeanorigin ones Only later 19th20th centuries did things become more separated due to independence struggles and the search for unique local identities 0 National dance of Dominican Republic O The national dances of Cuba Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic are strikingly similar to one another because of their similar origins Caribbean dance today 0 Caribbean music and dances have a huge worldwide impact 0 Their particular mix of in uences make them always seem vital and new 0 Their deep histories also have an attraction for those looking for roots US Latino Music 1 in 6 Americans are Latino There are many Puerto Ricans and Dominicans in NYC along with other Hispanics 0 In NYC Dominican Puerto Rican and Mexican music are the most prominent There are many kinds of Latino music in the US so many that any one Latinoa will only know a small portion of them Countrywide Latinos are a huge and powerful consumer group meaning that they also power a large profitable music industry Latinos and the music business 0 The Latino music industry is a major one 0 A giant piece of radio s future will be determined by Hispanic audiences I Latino radio is now the only growth segment in the radio industry 0 Latin digital music sales grew twice as much in the past year as digital music sales overall Half of these sales were of regional Mexican music Dominican music 0 Bachata Merengue Reggaeton Dominican traditional music Dominican classical music 0 The are a popular drum They come from the generic drum of the Congo The DR and Haiti 0 There is a con ict going on regarding people of Haitian descent in the DR which is based on longstanding racial prejudices 0 The musical traditions of these two countries are very close African based belief systems are found in both countries under different names they share the same deities African derived music is found in both countries under different names with similar musical practices 0 Some traditions are binational and bilingual like the O Merengue was a national dance on both sides of the islands and has many deep roots in the border area Dominican music in the US 0 A new cultural context has in turn led to the development of new identities and these in turn in uence the development of music 0 Many Dominicans are surprised to find themselves categorized as black in the US 0 The experience of living as an oppressed minority group has led to greater identification with blackidentified music styles from hiphop to 0 Many Dominicans react to being cut off from their roots by gaining a greater interest in roots music The need to connect with roots has led to the skyrocketing popularity of genres like merengue tipico Puerto Rican Music 0 Salsa Reggaeton Puerto Rican popular music Puerto Rican traditional music Centered on barrilbomba drum and its relationship to dancers Shows Congo in uence in drumming practices Rhythm names show other in uences in local culture Solo dancer faces lead drummer inside a circle of onlookers Drummer must follow the dancer s improvised moves Resurging in popularity in both PR and NYC Emerges in the early 20th century tied to migrants from Englishspeaking islands Mainly an urban black style musical newspaper early pleneros might be jailed because of social commentary Instrumentation varies but must use frame drums Now popular in NYC too Salsa Musica J ibara O O O 0 Rural music associated with Spanishdescended peasants in the mountains Various dance rhythms played on generally considered the Puerto Rican national instrument Used for festive occasions especially Christmas Has dealt with immigration experiences since the 1920s was popular in some NYC clubs prior to salsa s emergence Puerto Rican music in New York 0 O 0 Salsa first emerged among Puerto Ricans in NY in the 1960s Music doesn t only come from the Caribbean to NY it goes the other way too They drew from Cuban musical roots as well as those just described Puerto Ricans in NY also played important roles in the emergence of hip hop not long after salsa began Puerto Ricans are also among some of the best known performers in reggaeton a perfect example of the ongoing circular ow of music around the Caribbean I Reggaeton Today s most popular dance music Cuban Mexican South American and Central American Music 0 0 All have a presence in the US Mexican styles are by far the most popular and recordings sell in the millions I Mexico has long been a powerhouse of film and music production exporting all around the region I Popular Mexican music types ranchera corrido cumbia I Popular Mexican groups mariachis bandas conjutos Historic Connections 0 O O O 0 Puerto Ricans have been migrating to NYC since the first half of the 20th century East Spanish Harlem and South Bronx are centers of Puerto Rican culture by the 1960s Since early on Puerto Ricans in NYC shared neighborhoods and culture with African Americans and Cubans 12 million Puerto Ricans in NYC today Many engage in circular What is salsa O O A term for food applied to Cubanbased music played by Puerto Ricans in the NYC beginning in the 60s Promoted by throughout the US and Latin America Early salsa was politically engaged and had to do with the liVing situations and prejudices many Puerto Ricans experienced Becomes symbol of NY Puerto Rican Nuyorican culture later a PanLatino dance with different forms in different places O 0 Based on clave rhythm which itself is an important symbol for Puerto Ricans I an instrument and a timeline pattern It is the key of salsa but the instrument is barely used It holds everything together and is polyrhythmic It is found in many different contexts including West African It is a clear example of Black Atlantic connections that live on today More a way of making music than a set of specific musical characteristics Where does salsa come from O O 0 All over although it is strongly associated with Cuba and Puerto Rico Caribbean creolization recording industry NYC creolization Started in marginal places and communities rejected by upper and middle classes in US and PR for a while Context of salsa s birth O 0000 The music we call salsa now in the US was born in New York barrios Spanish Harlem South Bronx The street Rising PanLatino consciousness and identification Racism exclusion poverty Multicultural environment 1960s youth rebellions antiwar and Civil Rights movements How is the clave rhythm political O 0 It is of utmost importance in Puerto Rican salsa in NY and on the island less so in Cuba and South America It is a tightlylocked rhythm section that is also key to Puerto Rican style playing with a community rather than as improvising individuals I Being in sync in these ways can create powerful feelings of bonding with a group Thus clave has become a symbol of Puerto Rican identity and values I Demonstrating understanding of clave is a powerful way of claiming Puerto Rican identity BerriosMiranda reading 0 According to BerriosMiranda salsa is a way of Musicking a synthesis of various Caribbean music and rhythms an identity symbol for Puerto Ricans and a claveoriented musical genre Salsa sytles O O 0 It is played in different ways in different places The classic NYC sound of the 60s70s is called hard salsa and was made by musicians of different backgrounds The sounds clearly relate to the dance movements of different dance styles O Dancers can recognize many kinds of salsa Puerto Rican Cuban Colombian Dominican NY LA etc I LA style ash and trash I NY style smooth I Puerto Rican Style laid back close to NY Why are there so many salsa styles 0 Dancers always bring their prior embodied experiences into new learning experiences 0 In each place that salsa took root people drew on their own local histories of music and dance 0 Salsa today has become globalized so some of these styles are taught in congresses around the world Meanwhile in Cuba 0 1959 Fidel Castro no more exchange between US and Cuba embargo I Cuban music and musicians no longer came to NY Cuban dance and dance music developed separately wheel or started out as a dance of elite social clubs casinos in the 50s where people danced things like chachacha in a group 0 After the revolution these clubs were nationalized and turned into Cuban Salsa 0 This term is not historically accurate I Cubans may enjoy salsa but recognize it as foreign music 0 It differs rom other salsa styles because it I Is danced in circles ruedawheel I Is led by a man who calls or signals steps I Also features sections called where women show off solo moves I Involves frequent partner changes I Has a collective nature I Can be danced to many music styles but mainly danced to 0 Has become increasingly popular abroad the last 20 years taught all over the world 00


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