Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide HIST 100
Popular in History of Western Civilization
Popular in History
This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cailyn Notetaker on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 100 at George Mason University taught by Scala in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization in History at George Mason University.
Reviews for Final Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 12/07/15
Week 10 Notes 11032015 The European Worldview Transformed The Scienti c Revolution and the Enlightenment The Scienti c Revolution 15401700 Key development in emergence of modern worldview and modern world Emergence of science as such ie as both method and discrete body of knowledge Unparalleled explanations of workings of natural world Laid intellectual foundations for the Enlightenment Link between technological change and the tools that can be used 0 Telescope becomes important 0 Compass gunpowder lenses PreScienti c period the Earth was at the center of the universe and all of the planets and the sun revolved around Earth Geocentric views reinforced by religious views More and more Greek texts bring knowledge and familiarity into ancient scienti c and medical texts More and more of a divide between theology and reason Discovery of the New World provides thought experiments for mankind Nicolaus Copernicus 0 First major development in the Scienti c Revolution 0 He was an astronomer motivated by the calendar and its relationship with the stars 0 First major work of revolution published by him 0 Makes a very powerful case for the heliocentric conception of the universe Sun is at the center of the universe Lacked some mathematical basics Work published after his death so there were weak spots to his work 0 The earth turns on its axis and revolves around the sun but the orbits around the sun are still circular o Tycho Brahe 15461601 0 Rejects heliocentric view and in its place comes up with geo heiocentric view of the universe Earth is still at center and the sun and moon revolve around the earth but the other planets revolve around the sun Johannes Kepler 15711630 0 Student of Brahe key gure in bridging the gap between two views of the universe 0 Three laws of planetary motion Elliptical orbit around the sun Speed of planets vary depending on their distance from the sun The magnetic forces between the sun and planets in uence planets orbita motion 0 Galileo Galilei o Telescopes gave him better picture of what was going on in the solar system 0 Sees craters on the moon Jupiter itself has moons going around it Popularized heliocentric ideas 0 Work Starting Messenger Pushes people to question the traditional model 0 Con ict with the Catholic church One of the key underlining ideas called a stellar parallax challenged the traditional heliocentric ideas 0 Any opposition to papal authority was viewed with great concern Galileo defends heliocentrism and that it was not defying biblical text His writings were sent to the Roman Inquisition to decide whether his works de ed the biblical ideals February 1616 Inquisition Committee deemed heliocentric ideas to be foolish and contradicts holy scripture Pope ordered Galileo to deny the ideas that heliocentrism was physically true could only discuss it as an idea 1632 Galileo wrote book laying out the two opposing views in the book her made an association between pope urban 8th and placed him on the side of the heliocentric viewpoint Galileo has to defend himself again a July 1633 concluded with him being tortured if he didn t tell the truth Galileo was found suspect of heresy because he believed that the sun lied motionless at the center of the universe 0 De ned scienti c method is starting to develop 0 Key gures 0 Francis Bacon 15611622 Empirical observation Inductive method Clearly and logical analyze evidence and base conclusion based off of that evidence 0 Ren e Descartes Deductive approach a Logical process of moving from one pure certainty to another a quotI think therefore I amquot As the scienti c revolution moved foreword the empirical observation became more prominent Emergence of state sponsored scienti c research societies 0 Governments recognition of sciences effect on improving mankind o Helps share ideas to drive scienti c innovation 0 Isaac Newton 16421727 0 0000000 Traditional eccentric genius First to build a practical telescope Color and prisms Study speed of sound Newtonian uid Coinventor of calculus Devoted unorthodox Christian Advocate of Deism there is some deity out there and important creator that started everything but then nature takes over Most important work in 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy Principia Revolutionizes science Three universal laws of motion a Describe relationship between any object and the forces acting upon it and the reaction it produces Universal gravitation Allows any calculations of physical movements in the natural world Classical mechanics 0 Absolute bedrock of physics and scienti c method that takes place with it all represented in mathematical form 0 Creation of science as we know it The Enlightenment 17001800 0 Attempt to extend Scienti c Revolution s insights on natural world to human society as a whole Supreme con dence in the powers of human reason Dedication to progress and perfectibility of humans and human society Rejection of dogmatism and inherited authority particularly that of the Church Highly critical of existing political and social order Salons were in the homes of wealthy families that were interested in science or social knowledge and host guests at their home and socialize with an educational edge discussing the most recent works Increase in levels of literacy 0 Learning and scholarship becomes more popular for a broader part of the populous Public coffee houses 0 Allows for freedom of socializing and thought More scienti c missions going out to various places of the world 0 Idea of a quotNoble Savagequot becomes key part of enlightenment 0 Thought experiment Provides atmosphere for intellectual discourse which is a key factor of the enlightenment Main characters quotPhilosophesquot o Thinker intellectual John Locke 16321704 0 Intellectual grandfather of the enlightenment o The human mind is a blank slate 0 State of nature where man is absolutely free idea that humans have liberty and certain rights on the basis of natural law but gather together in a society to form a government and protect property in return for losing some freedom David Hume 1700 s 0 Focused on creating a science of man 0 quotHuman nature is the only science of man and yet has been hitherto the most neglectedquot o Skeptic philosopher o Hostility towards organized religion Limits growth of all true knowledge 0 Voltaire 0 Celebrity gure during the enlightenment in France 0 Strong critic of organized religion Montesquieu 0 Comparative government and separation of powers 0 Man has liberty in accord with natural law 0 Best way to preserve liberty is to control government with a constitution as well as a separation of powers and system of checks and balances Absolutism was a form of despotism 0 Created an encyclopedia attempts to create a storage cite for all of human knowledge Encyclop die ou dictionnaire raisonne des sciences des arts et des m tiers Gotthold Lessing 0 German enlightenment thinker 0 Focus of intellectual principle of freedom 0 Less direct criticism of government 0 Religious tolerance 0 Living life isn t based on a static belief but on human actions 0 Adam Smith 0 British economist People are motivated by desire Founding gure of economy Invisible hand natural law of supply and demand The state must be hands off in the market due to the natural laws of the market 0 Competition will provide for the greatest public good 0 Limits of the Enlightenment 0 Not all were opposed to absolutism Reason and rationality would bring happiness to the society Very few considered rationality extended to women Believed men and women had very different social roles to ll Very few thought nonEuropeans were capable of enlightenment o Germans aren t as critical of an absolutist government 0 John Jacques Rousseau 0 General will man and nature is free but government is tool of those corrupted 0 Social contract required individuals subordinate their own interests to the public good 00000 0000 TAKE AWAY Scienti c revolution sees emergence of science as such and creates unparalleled insights into working of natural world 0 The Enlightenment seeks to extend Scienti c Revolution s insights on natural world to human society as a whole to create a quotscience of manquot 0 Scienti c Revolution and Enlightenment represent de ning moment in development of Western civilization and together mark start of modern era in intellectual and cultural life 0 Changes in intellectual and cultural life will in turn have huge impact on politics and massively contribute to dramatic socio economic change Week 11 11102015 European Politics and Society Transformed The French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution The French Revolution 17891815 Abolishes ancien r gime in France Four phases and dynamic of radicalizationmoderation Europewide impact challenges structures of ancien r gime across Europe Inaugurates era of modern politics as such Causes of the Revolution Louis 16th and Marie Antoinette Growth of liberal public opinion on enlightenment ideas Three estates clergy nobles commoners 0 Each have a different legal status and rights 0 There is already social tension between the estates French government goes into nancial crisis 0 O O 0 Louis 16th tries to increase revenues by taxing the nobility May 1789 Louis 16th calls in the estates general to tax rst and second estates Nobility and Clergy use estates general to maintain their rights Commoners call in estates general to make political change and gain more representation June 20 1789 Tennis Court Oath 0 National Assembly 0 3rd estate has meetings until they write a Constitution Middle class leaders take control of Paris July 14th 1789 0 Middle class storm the Bastille o Vivid symbol of what is happening in Paris The Great Fear 0 Peasant riots break out 0 Try to seize agricultural land and drive out nobility October 1789 0 Women upset about bread prices and National Assembly march to Versailles and force King to return to Paris National Assembly 0 Constitutional monarchy o Abolish remaining structures of feudalism o D claration des droits de l homme et du citoyen 1792 prospect of war becomes more of a possibility o Leopold brother of Marie Antoinette becomes more disturbed and with King of Prussia issue the declaration of pillnitz Austria would go to war if and only if all thee other major European powers went to war with France 0 Revolutionary France faces setbacks on the battle eld Summer 1792 rebels assault the palace where the King was staying demand that the assembly declares suffrage 2nol phase of revolution most radical 0 New legislature to replace national assembly is elected NannalConvenUon Jacobins are dominant gure Introduce radical reforms Introduce law of the maximum a Fixed prices for food and other necessities n Intervene directly in economy no longer laissez faire Engage in persecution on anyone who showed dissent of the revolution 0 Major internal rebellions Jacobins tried Louis 16th for treason and execute him and Marie Antoinette later on 0 Committee of public safety Radical revolutionary cultural trends here as well Reject organized religion Create civic cult of virtue Public celebrations of virtues of the revolution Change months of the calendar Political repression reaches apex Suspicion of all society 30000 people killed during this period Period of Terror 0 2ncl phase comes to end in July 1794 National Convention turns on Committee of Public Safety arrests them and executes them 0 3rd Phase of the Revolution 17941799 0 want to moderate the revolution O 0 end the emergency measures law of maximum etc enact a new constitution 1795 places limits on voting rights reaffirmed rights from declaration of rights and human citizens put government in hands of middle class executive body Directory French government is willing to use violence to suppress lower class radical movements War continues with other European powers Napoleon Bonaparte becomes general Win very important battles and territory Gain power Internally the French government is weak Directory members willing to put Napoleon into power Scattered revolts by radical workers groups when Napoleon is put into power however he uses military forces to stop them 0 4th Phase of Revolution 0 Napoleon s actions Crowns himself emperor in 1804 Undisputed ruler of France Comes to settlement with nobility and clergy Makes promises to peasants urban workers middle class One gure who can do something for all groups Able to forge national consensus Liberal reformer n lssues civil code of civil and criminal law a Reorganizes state of administration based on hierarchy of talent I Reforms tax codes and educational system Authoritarian leader a Creates police state in France a Censored press a Restrictions on freedom of speech and assembly a Personalized power under his control n Pretense of constitutional rule Military conquests n Continues trend of war with other countries a Defeats Austria in 1805 Prussia in 1806 reaches agreement with Russia in 1807 n Enacts continental system Cuts of trade with Great Britain a Classic case of overextension n Peninsular war 1808 British and Spain Guerilla forces battle against Napoleon n 1812 he attempts to invade Russia takes down Moscow 0 Huge blow for Napoleon must ght for defensive position n Russia Austria Prussia Polish British all battle against Napoleon largest battle in European history prior to WWI The Battle of Nations 0 Napoleon is banished to Mediterranean island but returns to France 0 Battle of Waterloo 1815 o Napoleon s nal defeat o Banished to St Helena French Revolution comes to an end but the ideas will remain in Europe French Revolution won t be worked out in Europe until the end of the Cold War The Industrial Revolution 17601870 Fed by advances of Scienti c Revolution Central characteristic technical innovation fostering mechanization of manufacturing process Mechanization generates unparalleled productivity and continual innovann Begins in Britain then spreads gradually across Europe and North America Economic transformation in turn engenders transformation of European society Origins First takes off in Britain Conditions in Britain large commercialized agricultural enterprise large supply of capitol pursuit of wealth wasn t viewed as a negative thing entrepreneurial spirit encouraged laissezfaire economic system capitalist small land mass for effective transportation well integrated domestic market 0 Favorable for industrialization Technical Innovations Process of spinning and weaving Series of inventions increase productivity of spinning and weaving Cotton gin 1793 ef ciently removes bers to create greater supply of cotton ber Steam engine turns steam energy into mechanical force to power factories All of these inventions work together to create power looms in factories which make the process an industrial process and no longer small scale 0 Textile production is revolutionized Coal starts to take on central role as the industrial revolution grows and grows lron becomes key element Emergence of railroad system Spread and Growth The railroad spreads rst through Great Britain and then to Continental Europe Other countries in Europe catch up with Great Britain s advances More based on state promotion of industrialization in other countries and not so much on entrepreneurialism Large parts of Eastern Europe fall behind Changes to Society Big rise in GDP however had to deal with brutal conditions while working in the factories Wealthy middle class entrepreneurs bene t but the workers including children and women are worked to death Luddism traditional artisans luddites see emergence of factories as a threat to their business and they go destroy the machines in the factories Emergence of slums Unprecedented level of urbanism Social ills exasperated by industrialization o Prostitution o Alcoholism Now see society divided into classes based on socioeconomic position TAKE AWAY 0 French Revolution marks beginning of the very gradual end for ancien r gime in France and throughout Europe rede nes terms of politics Industrialization revolutionizes production and the economy transforming society in the process 0 The French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution following the Scienti c Revolution and the Enlightenment represent two de ning moments in the development of Western civilization and together mark start of modern era in political and socioeconomic life Week 12 notes 11172015 The Resiliency of the Old Order and Rise of the quotismsquot Restoration Revolution and Nationalism in NineteenthCentury Europe quotThe Long 19th Centuryquot 17891914 European politics fundamentally changed by French Revolution but conservative reaction seeks to stem the tide Competition between varying ideologies quotismsquot on backdrop of ongoing economic and social modernization Industrial Revolution The rise of nationalisms and its variable impact Congress of Vienna 18141815 Meet to reestablish European order following Napoleonic wars and French revolution Austrian diplomat conservative reaction to French revolution Set the contours for European politics Outcomes o Bourbon monarchs who had ruled France are restored to the French thrown Constitutional monarchy is established Number of German states reduced from 300 to about 30 Set up German confederation 1834 establish German customs union to limit tax barriers within the German states Poland still doesn t really exist Balance of power reestablished GB Russia Austria Prussia and France are leading powers Fast growth of population and urbanization OOOO Different Ideologies in the 19th century 0 Liberalism Classical Liberalism O O O O O Belief in individualism and that all men are born equal in rights end to privileges and powers of traditional aristocracy Protect natural rights and liberty Ensure rule of law by creating constitutional form of government Not everyone has the right to be elected or vote Democrats or radical republicans argue that all men should have voting rights while others say you have to have a certain amount of property to be able to vote Functions of govt should be limited to protect rights Conservatism O O 0 Most traditional the prerevolutionary order or absolutist monarch is the god given order Opposed to French revolution and liberalism Importance of gradual reform and preservation of traditional elements Socialism O 0 00000 Men and society can be improved Rejected idea that private property was the basis of liberty it is the cause of inequality and injustice Must have social equality Political rights alone can t ensure social equality Industrial revolution re ected this inequality Capitalism is irrational Utopian socialists Everyone is joint owners of productive property 0 Revolutionary Socialists Capitalism has to be overthrown by rebellion 0 Karl Marx dominant socialist thinker Nationalism Societies and social epochs are de ned by how labor and property are organized and controlled Each social system creates social classes Competition between social classes leads to historical change Capitalism was about to become useless after it s success Human progress required working class to overthrow the state and establish socialist form of government with public control over all productivity Social rights and social equality Social classes and con ict will disappear all together as would governmentCommunism Historically determined process 0 Not single political program feeling of belonging to a larger political community 0 Central role but variable role in European politics 0 Most often associated with the people and linked with liberal ideas 0 Patriotism Romanticism 0 Cultural phenomenon not political 0 Generally tied to nationalism o Predominate trend in cultural and intellectual life 0 Reaction to enlightenment 0 Focus on emotion subjectivity nature individuality and supernatural o Neogothic architecture 0 Folklore France 1848 series of revolutions signal for other revolutions in other countnes o referred to the springtime of nations 0 combo of liberal political philosophy and national orientations 1830 Louis Phillip the citizen king is put into power but by 1848 he was not well liked anymore Liberals used banquets to push for constitutional change 1848 Liberal and socialist forces ban together and force Louis Phillip to advocate coalition of liberals and socialists commission to study unemployment in France 0 creation of public workspaces for unemployed Disputes among socialists and liberals 0 Costs and implications of programs 0 Liberty for all men and a system of private property Growing class tension in Paris and around France June 1848 Working groups and rebel workers rise up against government 0 New constitution to ensure order over rights Louis Napoleon Bonaparte becomes president of second republic o Engages in a coup d tat and declares himself emperor 1851 and onward Second Empire sparks other European countries German lands Prussia and Austria 0 Liberals and socialist come together and demand assembly to establish constitutional order and German national uni cation Liberals and socialist are initially successful in getting the king to take control of the situation 0 Assembly in Frankfurt discuss greater Germany vs lesser Germany 0 Hard to create both national state and constitutional state Russia 0 No real uprisings Czar sends in troops to put down rebels in other European cities and capitals No successful establishment of constitutional order anywhere Nationalism takes on a different political orientation and used more by conservative forces England the exception Reform gradually and avoid dramatic events associated with French Revolution 0 Series of reform bills 3 passed by Parliament 0 1832 1867 1884 o recognized large cities and growth took seats away from rotten boroughs 0 increase number of individuals who could vote Uni cation of Italy Failed revolutions take place More conservative drive by PiedmontSardinia for uni cation in Italy 0 Initiates war with Austria 1859 drive for uni cation continues Garibaldi and Red Shirts initiate conquest of the Kingdom of the Two Sicily s Victor Manuel 2nOI meets with Garibaldi and wants him to take a more conservative stance on uni cation Uni cation fully complete by 1866 in the north and by 1870 in all of Italy Vittoriano Uni cation of Germany Liberal forces switch to conservative forces Conservative leaders see nationalism as an opportunity to bolster their own standings Keiser Wilhelm I Nationalism as a tool for conservative uni cation 1864 Bismarck goes to war with Denmark 0 Bismarck rally all German states including Austria and Prussia and leads to national uni cation 1866 Bismarck goes to war with Austria 0 Prussia and Austria go to war 1870 FrancoPrussian War The German Reich uni ed Germany Austria is not included o Ottoman Empire is struggling to keep up TAKE AWAY Clash of ideologies during the quotlong nineteenth centuryquot represent the new shape of politics in a Europe transformed by the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution 0 The various quotismsquot offer differing answers to the pressing political and social issues of the day Nationalism becomes a key factor playing a central though variable role in European politics Failure of liberal quotSpringtime of Peoplesquot gives way to more conservative forms of nationalist Week 13 12012015 European Power at It s Peak 18711914 0 The Second Industrial Revolution fosters continual transformation of European society 0 Art and culture characterized by skepticism toward inherited beliefs and methods 0 Imperialism of second half of nineteenth century sees new quality and reach of European colonialism creates massive tensions between European powers 0 WW1 will mark end of quotlong nineteenth centuryquot and usher in quotshort twentieth centuryquot Second Industrial Revolution 18701914 0 Mass production of steel Bessemer conversion process 0 Railroad expansion 0 Chemicals and synthesized chemicals being used on an industrial scale 0 Affects consumer goods 0 Raises awareness of using chemicals for war purposes 0 WW1 rst sees usage of chemical weapons in war 0 New techniques for labor and factories 0 Scienti c management system 0 Assembly lines 0 Increased productivity 0 Electricity 0 Electric streetlamps o Radios o Telegraphs Petroleum 0 First internal combustion engines 0 Widespread oil elds Uneven levels of growth around the world 0 United Kingdom leads as most industrialized followed by Germany and France United States and Japan are least industrialized Advancement of weaponry Emergence of a quotmass societyquot 0 Growth of consumer society 0 O O O O 0 Politics Consumerization Middle class becomes larger and larger and wealthier Option of purchasing on credit Huge increase of supply Department stores Rise in advertising to consumers Literacy increases Emergence of the quotyellow pressquot scandalstabloids How will the working class be fully integrated into society Marxist approach to politics divides 0 Edward Bernstein SPD Associated with revisionism in the Social Democratic Party of Germany Doesn t support Marxist idea that the working class would become so large and take over Bourgeoisie Takes path of evolutionary socialism a Work through existing political system to continues to improve the lives of workers from socialist perspective still with democratic ideas SPD becomes largest and most in uential Marxist party in Germany 0 Lenin Russian Communism Bolsheviks Revolutionary Marxism Rejected Bernstein s ideas Strive for absolute revolution Vanguard party a Representative of working class D Establish dictatorship of the proletariat to control means of production Bakunin Russian Anarchist o Rejected idea of any dictatorship of proletariat 0 Revolution should do away with government all together 0 Organic development of a society and govt o Propaganda by the deed Syndicalism 0 Form of socialism that replaces capitalism o Called for industries to be organized into confederations where industries owned and managed by workers 0 State would wither away in these contexts AntiSemitism o AntiJudaism vs AntiSemitism 0 Not on the basis of religion alone 0 Racial and cultural hostility o The Dreyfus Affair 18941906 0 O O O O 0 French Jew who was a captain in the army was convicted of treason Evidence was found that he was innocent during his sentence 1898 letter is written that declares this an act against Jews and wants government to reopen the case 1899 government reopens trial and becomes the center of attention in France Dreyfus is convicted again but later exonerated and reinstated as a major in French army Deeply divided French society around Jews in society 0 Vienna mayor Lueger is openly antiSemitist O O O O 0 Women New form of appealing to the masses Because he was so openly antiSemitist he was elected mayor Hitler was in uence by Lueger Populous racial politics Caught up in nationalist politics 0 Men and women were in two separate spheres of life 0 At this point in the 19th century this view starts to change 0 Women become engaged in various causes outside the house o Temperance societies 0 O Orphanage charities Nursing care 0 Women become more involved in the workforce as a necessity Changing images and cultural expectations of women 0 0 quotGibson Girlquot advertising directly to women paired with women becoming more prominent outside the house and more involved in society 0 Women s Social and Political Union in the UK 0 O O OO O 0 Most wellknown activist groups for women issues Lead by Emily Pankhurst 1903 waged a militant campaign for women s suffrage in the UK known for radical tactics quotsuffragettesquot Had the positive effect of attractive enormous publicity although negative Forced moderate movements to better themselves Outbreak of WWI leads to a suspension of these efforts to focus on the war and have domestic peace Given right to vote in 1930 Plenty of opposition to women s suffrage Religious reasons Moral and cultural reasons Sign of national weakness Charles Darwin 18091882 quotIt is not the strongest of the species that survives not the most intelligent that survives It is the one that is most adaptable to changequot British naturalist with theory of evolution Natural selection quotMan is descended from a hairy tailed quadruped probably arboreal in its habitsquot stirs major controversy 0 science vs religion removes human kind from its traditional privileged position in nature Sigmund Freud 18561939 quotIt is impossible to overlook the extent to which civilization is built upon a renunciation of instinctquot Id ego superego Id driven by pleasure principle impulses Superego internalized societal expectations morals values social norms Ego mediator between the id and superego conscious mind Mans behavior is subject to subconscious Friedrich Nietzsche 18441900 Deep critique of western civilization 0 Leads to suppressing primal urges which leads to psychological problems 0 Built upon Christian morality but saw this in a negative light Slave morality People would subordinate their own interests and place themselves as second to those around them Relativism o No absolute moral standards 0 quotGod is dead God remains dead And we have killed himquot 0 quotAll things are subject to interpretation whichever interpretation prevails at a given time is a function off power and not truthquot Raises the question of whether there is no more absolute truth All ideas challenge the enlightenment ideals Modernism in the Arts Break with representation and the elevation of expression Impressionism Vangoh Monet Picasso Edward Monks Usually have more profound meanings not as literal Spread of European Colonialism Imperialism lndustrial revolution gives Europe the edge in military and industrial power 0 Advanced maritime technology 1900 European power s formal and informal powers reaches peak China Opium trades with British are illegal and Chinese Imperial Court tries to stop it because they see it as European powers taking over Chinese 0 British react by waging wars against Chinese known as the Opium Wars 0 British compel china to sign treaties for further opium trade and seeding territories of China xed Chinese tariffs at a low rate granted extra territorial rights to foreigners in China Very favorable to British 0 Inaugurates era of unequal treaties 0 France Britain Germany Japan and Russia are in the Sphere of In uence in China Africa 1880s Africa is fairly lightly colonized but as a result of all of the developments and rivalries it starts scramble for Africa 0 All European powers recognize Africa as one of the last place for colonization Two leading powers are British and French Other European countries involved as well By 1900 the entire continent of Africa is fully colonized Occupation can be extremely brutal towards Africans 0000 Great power alliancemaking and road to war Creation of German Empire in 1871 upsets European balance of power Bismarck s skillful diplomacy strikes delicate balance until 1890 Dual Alliance between Germany and AustriaHungary Italy joins to form Triple Alliance Entente Cordiale between France and UK turns into Triple entente with addition of Russia Wild car the Ottoman Empire as the quotsick man of Europequot and the Balkan powder keg Military alliances in 1914 Central allies triple entente TAKE AWAY Second Industrial Revolution carries forward dramatic transformation of economy and society begun by First Industrial Revolution New political movements socialism anarchism women s suffrage take shape in new quotmass societyquot Period of imperialism sees European global dominance and escalation o rivalries Industrialization mass politics nationalism and industrialism set the stage for WWI
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'