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Date Created: 12/07/15
Ch 1 National Interests amp National Security 0 Threats facing US International Terrorism EX Isis Potential Adversaries EX N Korea Cyber Security Breaches EX Wiki leaks hacking International Disease Outbreaks EX Ebola Diverse threats makes development of a coherent National Security policy difficult P9P 0 National Security the ability of national institutions to prevent adversaries from using forces to harm us or national interests or confidence of citizens in this capacity 0 Physical Dimension strength military capacity to challenge adversaries 0 Psychological Dimension opinions attitudes on nations ability to remain secure important bc affects willingness of people to support gov t efforts to achieve national security goals 0 Foreign Policy all official relations w other countries gt Goal create envr favorable to US national interests gt Instruments diplomacy political pressure economic measures 0 National Security Policies narrower focused on security safety as well as potential adversaries often overlaps w foreign policy includes projection of American Values increasing linkages bw national security domestic police ex economic sanctions export embargoes difficult to isolate NS issues from DP issues 0 NS Policy formulation implementation of a national strategy involving threat to use force to create favorable envy for US national interests gt often disagreements about what national priorities are what resources strategy should be used 0 National Interests purpose is to create perpetuate a system favorable to the peaceful pursuit of American values gt What is in national interest A Promote American Values and Objectives B Belief is that American democracy is safer in an international system C interests categorized in order of priority 1 First Order Vital Interest protection of homeland issues directly affecting homeland terrorist attack cyber warfare 2 Second Order Serious Interest areas that don t directly affect survivalbut pose threat in long run EX economic competiveness energy crisis 3 Third Order serious interest don t directly affect 1st 2nd but casts shadow over them EX tensions bw N S Korea 0 American Values philosophical legal and moral basis for the continuation of the US system gt 6 Fundamental Values Right of SelfDetermination people have right to determine how who will rule Indv is inherently worthy moral and legal Rulers owe Power accountability to people policies changes should be based on Fund 13 and change by peaceful discourse not war Any system protecting these values must be protected US values grounded in JudeoChristian heritagesense of humanity sensitivity divine guidance QMPPP 0 How do we study National Security 3 Major Approaches 1 Concentric Circle president cener of national security policy process gt shows degree of importance gt problem oversimplifies national security policy process it pressures nationally in decision making process gt EliteVersus participatory policymaking NSP undertaken by elite win national security establishment gt policy is made by small circle of elites EX president key advisors 2 Participatory Model made by variety of elites representing segments of public interest groups and officials problem struggle to reconcile skill power of elite w demand of democracy 3 Systems Analysis Approach emphasizes dynamic interrelationships among variables of all stages of the security decision making process problem how to reconcile various competing interests impact of policy measured by feedback on policy effectiveness National Security Establishment those responsible for national security decision making actions and processes that actually produce security policy outcomes 4 Major Power Clusters within US command structure 1 licy Triad sec of state sec of defense national security advisor 2 Director of national intelligence chairman of joint chiefs of staff 3 Presidents closest Advisors white house chief of staff key counselors etc 4 Sec of Homeland Security Ch 2 The International System 0 Power of the US to affect internal system is limited bc it has to coexist w hundreds of other states 0 International System states and other actors who interact w one another in a regular and predictable ways 0 Limits on US Powers arises for various reasons gt gt gt gt other major powers EX Russia China UK have their own Nat Interests not all states share the view of the world held by US US has limited resources and must be judicious in its use other powers may pursue interests that may be contradictory to those of US 0 Being a democratic country the US primarily uses diplomacy negotiations and consensus building gt US shares power and responsibility w its allies EX NATO 0 States can be grouped into gt gt gt Allies friendly nations who share similar world view and often cooperate to achieve a common purpose EX NATO members Adversaries and Potential Adversaries states and regimes who adopt an explicit antiUS policies and have military means to pursue goals EX Taliban Islamic States All others 3rd world states who have potential to become allies or adversaries What shapes ideas of what s important in International System how to operate 1 Realism the world is dangerous place in which each state must ensure its own survival by obtaining and using power gt gt gt State is primary unit and can be analyzed as a unitary and rational actor world characterized by anarchylack of a single authority w sovereign power over states state has to pursue self help strategies in order to survive States seek to balance power of other states in order to stay safe EX building alliances arms buildup economic mobilization Alliances are useful but will only last as long as there is a common threat to allies disagreements about the motivations for balancing states respond not just to power but to threats as well your power vs my power 2 Liberalism Idealism states don t just compete or worry about powerthey try to build a more just world order gt gt gt argues there is a lot of cooperation in the world not just rivalry core values for liberals are ind liberty and moral autonomy primacy of democratic institutions liberal values 0 Democratic Peace Theory strong tendency for liberal democracies to avoid con ict w other democracies democracies require consensus encourage debate and preclude wars for unpopular purposes Dem norms emphasize peaceful con ict resolution compromise increased trade economic interdependence among Dem promotes peace 3 Neoconservatism elements of Realism and Liberalism gt intl system dangerous and states must look out for their own interests gt power is important and it s the responsibility of US to manage would affairs and ensure peace and stability gt skeptical of intl consensus law and institutions such as the UN gt US power should be guided by moral principals and used to promote democracy free markets and liberty 4 Constructivism examines potential importance of nonmaterial and material factors in shaping situations and affecting outcomes gt relative material capabilities affect behavior of states only if there is enmity bw them EX US vs Canada doesn t foster same sense of insecurity as imbalance of power bw Pakistan India bc we share the same stuff gt shared knowledge values norms and culture are important in determining how states will behave in a situation gt state identity values norms and beliefs not only shapes but is also shaped by social interaction over time gt states have identities and those identities define behavior in the intl system EX US and Russia different foreign policy outlooks cold war is class of those identities gt constructivism helps our understanding of how states identity affects its behavior National Power 4 Key characteristics 1 Power is Dynamic instruments evolve over time and application changes 2 Power is Relative its utility depends on whatever we are comparing it to 3 Power is Situational what s considered powerful changes from 1 situation to the next 4 Power is subjective a reputation for being peaceful may be sufficient to receive results 0 Hard power use of military and economic means to in uence behavior of other states I EX placing economic sanctions on Iran I often used in aggressive way imposed by one state on another of lesser military or economic power 0 Soft Power ability to achieve desired outcomes in intl affairs thru attraction vs coercion I works by convincing others to follow or agree to norms and institutions producing desired behavior doesn39t rely on economic and military resources if used effectively I skeptics argue soft p has little affect when stakes are high Current Intl System has 3 key characteristics 1Focus on Globalization lessen significance of state borders change relative power and increase importance of nonstate actors 2 Concentration of political economical and military power in the US 3 Rise of Terrorism actions taken by US in response to Terrorism may have broad repercussions Ch 3 The Con ict Spectrum Con ict spectrum range nature and characteristics of intl con icts useful for accessing a nations capabilities effectiveness in countering threats from adversaries 4 Classes of Con ict 1 NonCombat operations encompassing use of military capabilitiesshort of war gt Military Assistance assist another country in defense efforts or maintaining control over territory gt Peacekeeping help create conditions for lasting peace in a country torn by con ict gt Other examples humanitarism assistance relief efforts bad storms gt Ex Afghanistan 2 Conventional Warfare 2 armies fighting using conventional weapons tactics and strategy forces on each state well defined gt weapons targeted opponents gt Ex WW 1amp2 or Iraq invasion of Kuwait 3 Unconventional Warfare war w unconventional weapons tactics and strategy gt forces or objectives covert or not well defined gt unconventional tactics used sabotage threats and intimidation gt purpose is to coerce enemy forces make people feel not safe gt Ex ethnic religious terrorism counter terrorism 4 Nuclear Warfare gt nuclear weapons more destructive in range and extent of damage gt US has never officially had one gt Longrange effects could lead to nuclear winter that would linger for decades Asymetric Con ict war where sides military power differes significantly or strategy or tactics gt US dominance in conventional warfare arena encompases adversaries to use asymetric means gt use of unconventional approaches used to undermine US strengths and exploit vulnerabilities gt Ex terrorism cyber attacks sabotage 2 Forms 1 Technological use of tech in ways to disrupt conventional military organizations or target vulnerabilities of the adversary 1 Ex Iraq s use of electronic jammers to disrupt US precision guided bombs 2 Organizational using unorthodox organizational structures and techniques to circumvent military power of every 1 EX multilayered structure of terrorist organizations like Al Queda don t know who leaders are 3 Advantages of Organizational Asymmetry 1 surprise by avoiding detection they can strike at any of locations and numerous targets w no warning 2 Escapability difficult to find track and punish those responsible for committing violent acts 3 Deniability prevents target from accurately identifying who organized and implemented the attack Terrorism premeditated politically motivated violence perpetuated against noncombatant targets by subnational or clandestine groups 4 Characteristics of Terrorism 1 violence or threat of violence is not random or arbitrary but planned and organized 2 politically motivated distinguishes it from other criminal activity 3 directed at noncombatants 4 conducted by subnational or clandestine groups Types of Terrorism 1 Revolutionary terror tactics and strategies used to further a revolutionary cause 2 State Sponsored gov t of sovereign states funding training or equipping terrorism 3 Hyperterrorism aim to maximize death and destruction 4 Cyber Terrorism against a states computer networks and info stored in them used to intimidate or coerce and to further political or social objectives Response to 911 new approach to safeguarding American National Security gt Preemption Bust Doctrine go after enemies before they go after usthreats identified and targeted gt Based on premise that waiting for an enemy to strike before responding is irresponsible and dangerous Arguments for Preemption 1 Terrorists cant be deterred bc they don t have valuable infrastructure to attack or a sense of political responsibility to a distinct population gt Operative share ideological commitment that values their cause over their own lives gt Moral costs of responding to terrorist attacks is high due to possible collateral civilian causalities 2 WMD s cant be contained no way to keep terrorists from transferring and moving gt Containment is hard when states can currently supply terrorists w WMD s 3 Consequences of Terrorism too greatcost of reactive defense policy too high to rely solely on selfdefense 4 Necessary and justifiable Arguments against preemption 1 Legal arguments need to separate preemptive strikes from preventative ones preemptive is legitimate preventative is not 2 Moral Arguments advantage of US over enemies is moral authority and legitimacy lost if US adopts aggressive policy based on preemptive military strikes 3 Practical Advantage requires highly accurate reliable and timely intelligence about a states WMD capabilities 4 Strategic preemptive strikes could cost us friends and allieslose strategic moral and diplomatic support Obama Doctrine emphasis on engagement and diplomacy gt Strategic engagement in pursuit of strategic objective is better than imposing sanctions to rogue states and isolating them gt Concentrated diplomacy makes US safer and in better position to protect gives moral advantage Nuclear Deterrence prevent opponent from starting a nuclear war 2 theories 1 Mutually Assured Destruction when both sides can respond to attack in kind an aggressor would be less likely to launch an attack 2 Countervalue Approach retaliation often aimed at civilian targets Counterforce Strategy gt Military forces must not just be able to retaliate but completely wipe out opponent gt Deters by denying attackers ability to prevail in nuclear attacks gt Requires ample weaponsmore than just retaliation gt Attacks aimed at nuclear or non nuclear targetssuch as random cities Counter value deterrence by threatening equally devastating punishment Counterforce deterrence by demonstrating capability to win a nuclear con ict Managing Nuclear Threats ways to counter threats posed by states and non state actors looking to acquire nuclear weapons gt Arms control agreement pact bw states to limit and range of nuclear weapons 3 categories 1 Confidence Building Measures direct communication bw leaders of nuclear weapon states on site inspections EX hotline agreement w us amp Russia 2 Testing Restrictions arguments to ban or limit the testing and testing facilities 3 Weapons limitations limit development deployment and use 4 Other Measures 0 Nuclear supplies group association of nuclear states to prevent sale of equipment technology and materials or transfer to nonnuclear 0 Proliferation Security disrupt intl shipments by interrupting during transit 0 Counter proliferation minimize impact of already proliferated weapons 0 Strengthen international atomic energy agency expand arms control and pressure on nuclear states 0 Development of sensors that can locate nuclear w and production facilities 0 Defense steps such as civil defense programs aimed at mitigating damage of attack 0 Missile Defense defense against nuclear weapons 0 Arguments Against Ballistic Missal Defense System 1 BMDS can t protect the US provides a false sense of security and is overly expensive 2 BMDS difficult to test and hard to know if they will work in practice 3 A successful BMDS could be destabilizing as either states may perceive invulnerability as conclusion to aggression 4 Opportunity Cost investments in BMDS come at expense of other defense or homeland security prioritiesother security measures such as inspections could be more effective 0 Nuclear Policy Post Cold War 2 Issues 1 Threats from proliferation what is most effective way to deal w threat created by proliferation of nuclear weapons and technology to adversaries and nonstate actors 2 Optimal Capabilities what is optimal level of nuclear capabilities necessary to ensure national security presently and in future 0 Threats From Proliferation 2 schools of thought on how to deal with 1 Spread of nuclear weapons is bad and should be countered gt All states trying to get them should be discouraged gt All states with them should be urged to roll them back 2 Selective opposition to nuclear wmd s proliferationwho is fit to hold them gt Based on willingness of state to adhere to acceptable norms of intel behavior gt US and allies don t attempt to discourage proliferations in states satisfied with international status quo gt Only states determined to disrupt status quo will be targeted gt Deploy measures to prevent rogue states from obtaining and using nuclear weapons 0 Current and Future Threats gt North Korea 0 Secretely developed and detonated a nuclear device in October 06 0 Likely targets would be S Korea Japan and US forces in the region 0 Could spark nuclear arms race in Asia gt India and Pakistan nuclear weapon state in 1998 0 Existing tensions bw states could escalate the nuclear war 0 Could become source of proliferation of nuclear technology to other states and terrorist groups 0 Domestic instability in both countries could lead to nuclear anarchy gt Iran became public in 2002 after years of secrecy 0 Claims the nuclear ambitions are peaceful but its difficult to verify 0 Likely targets include sunni states and middle east 0 Weapons could fall into hands of terrorist groups The US Political SystemCH 5 Def a representative federal democracy driven by elections in which citizens and special interest groups of diverse systems compete power is thwarted federal power divided bw state and federal 0 3 Branches gt Legislative house of reps and senate gt Executive presidents Cabinet and federal department and agencies gt Judicial supreme court and federal courts 0 Each state has 3 branch subsystem elects governor president and legislative consisting of state house and senate 0 Democracy political tolerance for different views and opinions so long as they support gt Political Equality equality of all political views gt Selfdetermination right of indv To express his political preferences gt Indv Self worth each indv is inherently self worthy gt Peaceful political change possibility of ppc is protected and enshrined 0 4 Fundamental Char Of US Democracy 1 Distribution of power political power diffused gt Creates competitive envr For power struggles among branches of gov t the bureaucracy and societal groups gt Creates need for compromise and prevents 1 branch from becoming predominant gt Separation of power leads to institutionalized confrontation gt Media plays key part in shaping public opinion 4th branch of gov t 2 Democratic Faith commitment to free market of ideas within body politic and various branches of gov t gt Belief in innate goodness of people and their sense of justice gt Belief that info and education lead to enlightened public who acts wisely and justly gt Belief in pragmatismsearch for practical consequences and solutions based on common sense 3 Multiculturalism and Cultural Diversity US is an immigrant society gt Lends uniqueness richness and strength to the notion of Americanism gt Some fear multiculturalism will erode concept of Americanism gt Others fear cultural diversity will bring confrontation and the continuation of ageold animosities 4 The messianic Spirit notion that Americans and the political system are ordained to be the light for other nationsour duty to save everyone gt Leads moral weight to the notion of the democratic faith gt Some view US as moral and political military leader in the world gt Moral principles must guide behavior of gov t officials and military gt Cause foreign states and people to view the US as selfrighteous and arrogant 0 Public Opinion what role should PO play in the national security policy process 2 main schools of thought 1 Realist Perspective foreign policy making should be reserved for elites gt They are most capable of making decisions secretly effectively and coherently gt Elites should lead public to support positions or ignore public preferences all together gt Elites most knowledgeable and capable of making rational decisions gt PO is too slow to crystallize and shifts frequently 2 Liberal Perspective PO essential to democracy and improves policy formulation and sustainability Policy should re ect views and values of people Public plays an important role in constraining policy matters PO is more stable and rational than realist perspective allows Public involvement creates harmony bw PO and govt policyenhancing legitimacy 0 War amp Peace gt Traditional American view war and peace viewed as polar opposites 0 Peace is the responsibility of civilian policy makers while conduct of war is the preserve of the military 0 Military shouldn t have peacetime function in policy making process 0 Civilian policy makers shouldn t be involved in the execution of military operations gt US should only participate in a just war war fought either in selfdefense or in defense against an armed attack 0 Rules out preventative wars striking adversary who may become future threat 0 Rules out preemptive wars striking opponent who is clearly making preparations to attack you O Denies legitimacy of violent revolution against sitting gov t s gt Traditionally not much importance has been accorded to military except in War time 0 Distrust of large standing military forces within US 0 Burn out of the fear of militarism manifested in displacement of civilian gov t gt Unbridled militarism could become a threat to freedom and democracy gt American approach to National Security has undergone transformation 0 Rise of international terrorism and engagement of US forces abroad 0 Higher levels of trust for military 0 Increased involvement of military in NS policy making process 0 Expansion of the circumstances under which Americans are willing to use force abroad VVVV President and Presidency CH 6 Presidential Power concerned w how president exercises his powers in pursuit of US national security and national interests 0 Character of personality critical in shaping moral authority and power of the office I 3 Important components of presidents role in National Security 1 Leadership style determines how the presidents office functions with respect to national security policy and process gt How president exercises authority and power to create trust loyalty and commitment within the administration gt Crucial for successful policy making and implementation gt personality psychological and social behaviors shaping presidents perceptions and world view gt character presidents orientation towards life gt determines political behavior world views and relation to subordinates the public and national governing institutions 393 Forms of Leadership I Magisterial president places himself as the authoritative head of gov t I Bureaucratic prez lends as chief bureaucrat w mindsets and perceptions of typical bureaucrat I Managerial CEO strives for efficiency through close supervision advocated by managerial I Corporate president governs like chairman of large business 2 Perceptions of Office how president views powers and limitations of the office and his role in furthering prestige and power 4 types A Constitutionalist prez views power of office as strictly bound by constitution any action must be sanctioned by constitutionEx Buchanon B Stewardship prez Acts as agent of nation supervising operations of the state machinery prez Stands aloof from party politics and political battles Ex Eisenhower C Prerogative prez views power as executive rights resting in special trust to the benefit of nation Ex Lincoln D Public Opinoin Prez concerned w electoral success for himself and party preoccupied w maintaining political power and fcused on public opinion poles Ex almost all prez in first term 3 Mindset and External Threats mindset regarding US national interests and international securiry envr gt Hardline Hawkish conservative take forceful approach to national security and foreign policy making Ex Bush gt Softline Dovish favor more diplomatic approach emphasizes dialogue and compromise Ex Obama 0 Role of President gt Chief of state represents US in dealing w world appoints and receives ambassadors and the chief diplomat for the US gt Commander in Chief head of national security leaders of armed forces and chief strategist 0 Changing Role of prez trends have increased prez s prerogative in national security issues gt gt gt World Affairs increased involvement of US in world affairs in atmosphere of global danger Contingency systems development of National contingency system around prez to enale effective response to threats Weapons technology enhancements in weapons an communication technology that have increased the states in crisis management 0 National Security Functions of President 3 major function in NS policy making process 1 Resource Allocation outlines NS priorities through the budget 0 Office of management and budget manage the process 2 Policy Planning development of short and long range plans to advance US interests and cope with engaging problems 3 Coordination and monitoring of Operations prez through appointed aids oversees day to day foreign and defense policy actions of gov t officials and organizations 0 Key Tasks prez s ability to in uence NS policy is enhanced by his ability to gt gt gt Develop and articulate a policy framework and strategy that give coherence to his actions Choose able subordinates and weld them into an effective team Establish pattern of successful leadership in important matters encourages neutrals to cooperate 0 Constraints and Limitations on ability of president to in uence national security policymaking gt gt gt Behavior and words must be in keeping with the goals and expectations of people Distinction bc NS and DP is blurred opens the process to a lot of outside in uences Freedom of action limited bc prez inherits predecessors budget structures commitments and bureaucracy Difficult to deal w NS establishment particularly the military Bureaucracies in NS policy process often resists any change that threatens their authority and budget Congress is more assertive in NS policy issues through its in uence on the budget process Must have support of public if many of his policies are to be effective Prez must shape media narrative and framing of public issues to ensure a favorable public reception Powerful interests and lobby groups place enormous demands on direction of NS policies Prez must take views of allies and other nations into account The Policy Triad CH 7 Composed of 1 Department of state headed by secretary of state John Kerry 2 Department of Defense headed by secretary of defense Ash Carter 3 National Security Advisor appointed by president Susan Rice Department of State gt Opeatonal arm of US gov t in conduct of foreign affairs represent our interests over seas 2 Functions 1 Representation represents and oversees US interests and citizens abroad 2 Advisement serves as principal source of advice to president on foreign affairs gt Secretary of state is a cabinet level appointment and traditionally serves as principal foreign policy advisor to the president role is determined by 0 His or her own talents experience skills and abilities the secretary brings to office affects how he sees and conducts himself 0 Personal relationship With the presidentaffects amount of in uence he has and access to the president 0 Presidents propensity for involvement more involved the president is in foreign policy the more difficult it is for the secretary to take initiative and conduct at office gt Dept of state is organized under 2 levels 1 GeographicRegional Structure 0 organized around regional bureaus headed by a regional assistant secretary 0 country desks Within each bureau monitor events and advise on specific countries 2 Functional Structure 0 Present analysis that cuts across strictly geographic lines gt Dept of state responsible for 0 Daily conduct of American Policy in Foreign Affairs I Ambassador in charge of all American programs except military operations Within assigned country I Country Teams represents attempt to unify the conduct and implementation of foreign policy under the authority of the ambassador gt Dept of State criticized for 0 Quality of staff work in terms of analysis Slow response to requests and problems Resistance to change and new approaches Inadequacy in carrying out presidential decisions Failure to lead in foreign affairs Feeling that leadership doesn t have control of the department 00000 Department of Defense presidential arm in execution of national defense policy gt Composed of O 3 military departments army navy and air force 0 joint chiefs of staff and associated staff 0 10 regional and functional commands O numerous agencies gt Sec of Defense has 2 main functions 1 Advisor primary advisor to prez on defense policy including composition of forces weapons acquisition and training 2 Operational Head heads operational demands of department gt Key Tasks 0000000 0 Defeat Al Queda and Allies Support National response to attacks on US Assist in coordination of natural disaster relief Defeat aggression by adversary states Locate secure or neutralize WMD s key materials and related facilities Support and stabilize fragile states Protect US citizens in harms way overseas Conduct offensive operations in cyberspace National Security Advisor close confidant of president appointed to advise on NS issues gt In uential bc O O O 0 President has complete control in appointing Advisor has direct access to president Advisor not tied to any agency so highly exible Advisor has no operational responsibilities gt Functions 0 O O O Exercising quality control and filtering info for the president Spokesman for president on security issues when authorized to do so Monitoring implementation of presidential decisions and policies Advocate for specific policies that may be beneficial Involved in policy design communication and diplomacy Department of Homeland security created in 2002 to prevent terrorist attacks within US reduce America s vulnerability to Terrorism and minimize damage from attacks gt Challenges 0 O O Tension bw limited resources and a potential unlimited list of potential threats Not always clear what ought to be protected Difficult to determine the most efficient and effective way to protect vulnerable targets gt Challenges of Maintaining O O O Vulnerabilities always exceed capabilities of HS especially in a free society Risk Management processes are hard to apply in making Homeland Security choices Political leaders often favor their constituencies rather than the national interest HS requires coordinated effort from several organizations each w its own organizational interests A section of the public is uneasy about the involvement of military in HS 1ssues 0 Difficult to strike balance bw securing homeland and safeguarding civil liberties The Military Establishment Chapter 8 A state maintains a strong military to secure the states national security and to attain its political purposes A strong military establishment is a sign of sovereignty and is used as a status symbol by rules it is also instrumental in maintaining internal political order and fostering economic development 0 Military Force has 6 Major Functions 1 Defense military power can be developed to ward off an attack or minimize damage from an attack Deterrence can be used to prevent an adversary from launching an attack Compulsion compel an adversary to do or stop doing something Acquisitive important tool for states seeking to seize territory or resources of others Swag confer pride and prestige to a nation and its leaders Order help create a secure environment a basic precondition for political stability and economic development QMPPP 0 2 ways to analyze military threat posed by adversary 1 Analyzing its intentions favored by those who believe that 0 Potential adversaries have no hostile intentions 0 Have strong reasons to cut defense budgets and forces 2 Analyzing capabilities focuses on what adversary is potentially capable of doing limited use because factors are 0 Dynamic susceptible to constant and dramatic changes 0 Situational vary with time particulars of the situation and geography 0 Relative to other states capabilities 0 Factors important in determining military capability 1 Force size structure how large how man in active service and reserve and how they are structured and equipped 2 Weapons systems number of weapons what types and what is potential range and lethality 3 Alliances and coalitions what is quality of alliances and coalition commitments 4 National Leadership what are levels of resolve and skill of the nations leaders 0 Professionalization of the Military gt Military professional accepts the doctrine of ultimate liabilityone must be prepared to give their life for the state gt Primary purpose for military is to win a nations wars gt In combat military professionals expect to use most efficient and effective resources to bring a swift end to the combat gt Military professionals expect to be provided clear policy goals and precise tasks tailored to support an identifiable strategy 0 Elements that shape the character of military officers p x 5 6 Competence profession has a defined area of competence based on expert knowledge Continuing education system of continuing education designed to maintain professional competence Societal obligation profession has obligation to society and must sere it without concern for remuneration Values system of values that perpetuate the professional character and establish and maintain legitimate relationship with society Institutional framework there is one within which the profession can function Internal Rewards control over the system of internal rewards and punishment 0 The Weisenberg Doctrine spells out conditions under which ground combat troops should be committed gt gt gt gt Deployment no overseas deployment unless a vital national interest or that of an ally is threatened Resources if forces are committed there should be total support in terms of resources and man power to complete the mission Objectives forces must be given clear political and military objectives and forces large enough to do so Assessment objections commitments and force capability must be continually assessed and adjusted if necessary Support must be reasonable assurance that Americans and their representatives support combat operations Last Resort command of US forces to combat must be the last resort 0 Constraints on the Military gt gt Military aggression is outlawed under international law only use of military for for defense is just Advances in technology changes in distribution of power within international system meaning military action never guaranteed Unilateral use of military force may adversely affect diplomatic efforts that may be necessary to secure a states national interest Domestic Public Opinion may turn against military combat and reducing resources available and making the use of force untenable High costs associated with military combat operations may make the use of military forces difficult and unpopular Military can t publically or formally engage in political partisanship to secure better wage conditions of service or operation commitments Intelligence Chapter 9 Def information relevant to the formulation and implementation of national security policy an to deal with threats from actual or potential adversaries 0 2 Categories Strategic examines issues with longterm implications EX political and economic trends 1 2 Tactical responds to immediate pressing concerns and is intended to inform near term decisions 0 Intelligence community collection of agencies that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities necessary for foreign relations and protection of national security 0 National Security Council through national security strategy and intelligence objectives and priorities reviews proposals for all operations makes recommendations to the president and evaluate quality of intelligence reports 0 Leadership of Intelligence community gt Director of Central Intel DCI prior to 911 was the head of CIA and a major player in providing leadership to the intel community in responding to threats gt Director of National Intelligence DNI post 911 is principal intel advisor to presidentdetermines annual budgets for national agencies and directs how funds are spent 0 Major members of intel community gt CIA collects info abroad manages human sources and conducts covert operations gt NSA conducts intel gathering and provides secure mean to communicate sensitive government info gt DHS coordination of state and national government intel operations gt FBI primarily a domestic intel and law establishment agencyresponsible for domestic counterterrorism and counter intelligence operations gt DEA responsible for providing drug related info to other members of intel community 0 The Intel Cycle is divided into 5 parts 1 Planning and Direction 0 Intel needs of policy makers determined 0 Agencies w requisite capabilities are tasked with gather intel 0 Problems to planning strategies I NSP may not be clear on content guidelines or priorities I Intel agencies may work at cross purposes getting in each others way 2 Collection 6 Methods a Open source intel derived from freely available opensource media EX news b Human Intel collect from human source via overt or cover means EX informants c Signals Intel interception of signal electronic and other forms of communication d Imagery Intel gathering optical infrared radar and other forms of imagery via space based satellites or aircrafts e Measurement and signature gathered by noise of passing vehicles or chemical composition of air and water samples f Geospatial analytical and visual representation of security related activities 3 Processing and exploitation raw data is synthesized into a form usable by intel analysts and policy makers 4 Analysis and prediction spot and highlight trends assign probabilities to various outcomes and illustrate choices available to policy makers 5 Dissemination and feedback intel reports disseminated to policy makers and others who can act on them 0 Counterintelligence efforts aimed at denying real or potential adversaries the ability to collect info that can be used against the state gt gt gt Often involves frustration of foreign efforts to acquire sensitive info Investigation and surveillance to detect and neutralize foreign intel presences Involves operatives to deceive and manipulate intel to the states advantage 0 Policy makers and intel process gt gt gt gt Intel community exists to secure needs of policymakers so an effective relationship is essential Policymakers can increase the quality and relevance of intel by clearly stating priorities and in ating requests Downward proliferation policymakers incentivize designed analytical conclusions Upward Proliferation analysts shaping info to please a surperior or fit a designed outcome The Policy Process CH 10 Def traces how national security policy is made and highlights the roles of the major players and agencies 0 Approaches to studying policy process gt gt gt Elitist policy in hands of identifiable elite high level bureaucrats business interests and the military that is selfcentered and doesn t re ect public interest Pluralist elites are powerful but there are constraints on the exercise of their powertherefore policy emerges as a result of compromise Statist sees state as primary actor in national security process with its own characteristics objectives and goals Bureaucratic based on the assumption that policy is driven mainly by the bureaucracies in government which creates networks of likeminded interests Rationalist presumes that major policy alternatives are developed at the highest levels of government based on the best possible information Instrumentalist policy is made incrementally occurs at various levels with multiple actors and responds to specific situations 0 Policy Phases 1 Policy issue shaping of policy in response to a problem important element is how policy is shaped and source of infiltration 2 Policy Approval process by which policy passes through formal executive and legislative procedures often requires either direct or indirect congress approval 3 Policy Implementation how policies are carried out bureaucracy has special role in interpreting congressional and executive intent in this phase 4 Policy Feedback effect on policy process of perceptions of success or failure of the policy policies may be revised supported or completely altered due to evaluation 0 National Security Policy and process nature of national security issues shape policy process gt gt gt O NSP gt Secrecy may be needed in order to respond to initiatives planned by adversary Speed in crisis or nearcrisis situations there is a need for speed External actors most national security policies must deal with external groups or actors outside the rage of us law Shortcomings of Policy Process problems associated w developing and implementing Interdependence national security policy and domestic policy can affect one another the best national security policy can have a negative impact on domestic policy Domestic Opposition NSP and strategy can trigger domestic opposition Structural Problems bureaucracy congress and its structure of NS establishment complicated the development and implementation of NSP Differing interests the environment and constituencies of NSP differ from those of DP Challenges and threats new challenges and threats are not usually apparent makes it difficult to design policies that can be understood by potential adversaries allies and the public The People and National SecurityCH 12 In uences on NS public opinion the media political parties and interest groups all play major roles in the formulation and implementation of NS 0 gt gt gt Public Opinion Volatile can be slow to crystalize and too mercurial diminishing its usefulness Uniformed often uniformed and based on emotion Legitimacy public involvement creates harmony bw popular opinion and government policy enhancing legitimacy Clarity public debate can help to clarify major issues Sustained support public involvement can help sustain support and interest in security policies Constructive policy should re ect views and values of publicpeople can play active and constructive role in constraining policy makers Information media informs the public about what is going on in government the country and the world Education used by political leaders and government officials to educate public signal policy intentions and test reactions Awareness raises awareness of national and transnational security issues Action media coverage can spur debate and encourage action in support or against policy Agenda setting by selectively covering certain issues media can be important player in setting national security agenda Oversimplification media often biased and tends to oversimplify issues gt Inherent Tensions some policies must be formulated and implemented in secret putting it in direct con ict w medias need to report on these issues 0 Interest groups gt Function advocate for particular groups in society or particular issues gt NotRepresentative represent only a specific segment of society and thus focus on parochial needs of their constituents gt In uence attempt to in uence policymaking by putting pressure on congressman the president and other elected officials gt Agenda setting by backing particular candidates and contributing to campaign funds interest groups can determine NS objectives and priorities gt Think Tanks by funding academic research and special research institutes they can shape the ideas and frameworks that inform NSP 0 Political Parties parties are vital connection bw elected officials and government gt Election parties aim to get elected into office so as to enact legislation and policies consistent w their views gt Median Voter due to electoral rules parties have to appeal to the median voter promote issues that appeal to the middle of the electorate gt Agenda setting majority party in congress can control the legislative agenda and select leadership positions gt Opposition parties out of power are supposed to counterbalance the party in power essential to a properly functioning democracy gt Provide Alternatives parties expected to offer viable alternatives when out of power and develop political resolve and strategic vision when in power gt Support in times of crisis or national emergency parties are supposed to put aside their differences and rally around the leadership of the president Civil Military Relations CH 13 Def refers to the nature of the relationship bw the vivilian leaders of a state it s military leaders and the civilian society 0 Primary Concerns gt How can society ensure that healthy relations between military authorities and elected officials gt Does the gap bw civilian and military society pose problems for CMR civilian control and military effectiveness 0 The Central Paradox amilitary is authorized to use violent means to protect the state but there is a fear of the military bc of its capacity to use force to achieve objectives gt Involves difficult problems of balancing the 2 vital and potential con icting social desires 0 Military must be strong to protect state from external aggression and to prevail in war 0 Military can use coercive power to impose its will on society 0 Theories of CMR 1 Professionalization or objective civilian control theory civilian control achieved through military professionalization gt Military insolated from everyday political and economic issues affecting the state gt Military should not participate in politics bc civilian control decreases as military becomes more involved in politics gt Theory proposed by Samuel F Huntington 2 Pragmatic Professionalization Theory civilian control achieved thru military professionalization and socialization of military to the norms and values of this society gt Military trained professionally but should also be inculcated with values of society gt This ensures military is obedient to the elected civilian leaders of the state gt Theory proposed by Morris J anowitz 3 Concordance Theory state cultural and historical conditions are the primary determinants of the relationship bw military elected politicians and citizens 4 Delegated Civilian Control civilian elite delegates to the military and gives them autonomous control of military affairs 5 Assertive Civilian Control military affairs delegated to the military but under strict supervision of elected civilian leaders of the state 0 The Optimal Scenario pattern of civilmilitary relations that would ensure democratic political control while facilitating around strategic decision making and the creation of effective military institutions 2 schools of thought 1 Purist Approach military should offer objective honest advice on military aspects of security policy that are in the nations best interest gt Officers not competent nor should they be asked to provide economic or political judgments gt If military broadened its view these realties it would be distracted from military aspects of security policy that are in the nations best interest gt State best served by politically neutral professional institution that is ready to carry out the wishes of the civilian democratically elected reps of state 2 Fusionist Approach purely military considerations do not existtherefore in giving their advise professional officers should incorporate political and economic considerations along the military factors gt Officers are competent and should be encouraged to provide economic or political advise in addition to militarystrategic control gt Unrealistic to expect military to be apolitical and detached from economic and political issues of national concern 0 Enduring Issues gt Changing role of military what is balance bw civilian and military control when military is increasingly involved in noncombat operations gt Widening gap bw military and society how should gab be bridged gt A more politicalized military what s appropriate nature of civilmilitary relations given modern military is more politicized more savy and more civilly aware Long Range Issues CH 14 US Relations with China gt They ve achieved impressive economic growth challenging US in economic dominance gt They may seek to enhance its military states and options w respect to Taiwan gt Chinas growing in uence in Africa and South Americca threatens US relationships and interests gt Due to interconnectedness it would be difficult and costly for US to restrain their growth gt US and China should build on common interests and avoid needless confrontation Nuclear Proliferation gt Proliferation of WMD s is immediate and serious threat to US national security gt US vulnerable to accidental launch of NW from nucleararmed states gt NW materials and technology could be transferred from rogue states to terrorist groups like Al Qaeda and ISIS gt US should promote efforts to help other countries seure nuclear materials and technology gt US should strengthen counter measures Energy Security gt Growing dependence on foreign oil increases US strategic vulnerability and constrains its ability to pursue a broad range of policy options gt Over the longterm US should reduce its dependence on foreign oil gt US must protect ow of oil from major sources of import Primarily Persian gulf gt Challenge is to develop a military posture that safeguards the ow while minimizing negative side effects Islamist Terrorism and Al Qaeda gt Al Qaeda continues to plan and conduct terrorist attacks against the US and allies gt US actions in the region continue to fuel radical Islamism gt US needs to develop policies that are capable of protecting interests wo alienating allies gt Address the source of Islamic grievances gt seek ways to encourage political and educational reform in Muslim states Unilateralism and Multilateralism gt Enduring tension bw going in alone or proceeding multilaterally gt Multilateralism useful for organizing interstate relations and fostering stability gt M allows for sharing of burdens of meeting common goals by allies gt M generates international legitimacy for US foreign policy National Security Restructuring gt Enduring challenge to restructure NSP process gt Restructure will reduce bureaucracy and improve efficiency and effectiveness gt Complicated by the fact that bureaucracies are notoriously resilient gt Reform attempts constrained by nature of US political system National Security vs Civil Liberty Protecting and promoting American National Security often con icts With the protection of civil liberties Challenge involves how to safeguard NS While protecting indv civil rights Could be temporary expansion of executive power and curtailment of civil liberties but this is a slippery slope Diligence is required to ensure that NS policies don t destroy civil liberties
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