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UCD / Textiles And Apparel / ATM 006 / It is a nonwoven fabric from a staple-fiber web or batt, where entangl

It is a nonwoven fabric from a staple-fiber web or batt, where entangl

It is a nonwoven fabric from a staple-fiber web or batt, where entangl

Description

School: University of California - Davis
Department: Textiles And Apparel
Course: Introduction to Textiles
Professor: Gang sun
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Gang Sun UC Davis Fall Quarter 2015 Introduction to Textiles TXC 006
Cost: 50
Name: Final Study Guide
Description: Hi Everyone! I've compiled the notes from after the second midterm, since the main emphasis will be on the new material. Good luck to everyone this finals week! Happy Studying~
Uploaded: 12/08/2015
18 Pages 58 Views 2 Unlocks
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TXC 006: IntroductiontoTextilesFinalStudyGuide


It is a nonwoven fabric from a staple-fiber web or batt, where entanglement by high-pressure water jets provided the bond, what is it?



➲NonwovenFabrics:​​Fabricsusually madefrom extrudedcontinuousfilaments​or from fiber webso​r battsthatarestrengthenedbybondingusingdifferent techniques,suchasadhesivebonding, mechanical interlockingbyneedling​or fluidjetentanglement​, thermalbonding​,andstitchbonding​. Nonwovenfabricsare considereddisposable​fabrics.Thegoal is makethem intoreusablefabrics, whereitssingleusecanbe turnedinto multipleuse.

➱NonwovenProperties:​Nonwovenfabricshavehighair​and waterpermeability.​However, theother properties widelyranges- it canbecompact/crisp/harshlikepaperorsupple/soft/easilydraped,highly resilientor limp.Tensilepropertiescanrangefrom barelyself-sustainingtoimpossibletotear.


What is realigning and extending fabrics to uniform width by using a tenter frame with a device that has a pair of endless chains on horizontal tracks?



➱Nonwoven Applications:​Wipes, towels, femininehygieneproducts,disposablegowns/drapes,and coverstockfordiapersandincontinencepads. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the enlightenment?

➱NonwovenTerminology: 

1. Oriented:​Fiberslyingprimarilyinthelengthwisedirectionof thefabric.

2. Cross-Laid:​Fibersareorientedlengthwiseandthencrosswiseinsuccessivelayers withinthe web. 3. Random:​Fiberslieinalldirections withinthe web.

4. Wet-Laid:​Staplefibersaresuspendedin waterduring wet-laying,andaredepositedrandomly whenthe water isremoved.


Antimicrobial can be classified as?



5. Dry-Laid:​Theprocessthatusesair to mix fibersanddeposit fibersrandomlyintoa web. 6. BondingTypes:​ThisincludesEntanglement​(needle-punchorhydroentanglement)andBonding (adhesiveor thermalbonding).

​➱StapleFiberWebs: 

1. Felts​:​Fabric inanentangledcondition where most (orall)of thefibersareentangledduetoan applicationofheat, moisture,andagitationtoafibrous web.Theyarecomposedof 100%woolor woolblends.​Thecarded wool websarehardenedthrough moisture,heat,andpressure. Properties includehighresiliency​,sound​andshockabsorption​, thermal insulation​,anditsabilityto mold​. Don't forget about the age old question of It is the ability to target specific groups of individuals with a minimum of waste coverage, what is it?

* Woolshrinksunder waterandheatduetoitsscalestructure. If thescalesareremoved, wool willnotshrinkasit wouldunder waterandheatapplication.

2. Needle-PunchedFabrics:​Alsoknownasneedledfelts, thesenonwovenstructuresareformedby mechanicalbondingofafiber webborbattbyneedling. Anyfiberscanbe mechanicallyentangledina needle-punchedfabric. A scrim (alightweight,open-weave, coarsefabric) isincorporatedintothe web’s

center toprovideadditionalstrength. Needle-punchedfabricsareusedasfilter media, coatedfabric backing,apparel interlining, roadunderlay,andautotrunkliners.

3. Spun-LacedFabrics:​Nonwovenfabricsfrom astaple-fiber weborbatt, whereentanglementby high-pressure water jetsprovidesthebond. Fabricsareusuallycomposedofpolyesterandolefin fibers (hydrophobic fibersarepurposelyused)andoftenhaveauniform andlace-likesurface.

A. Spun-LaceProperties​:Soft,drapery, limitedstrength/dimensionalstability,andis thinnerandlighter thanneedle-punchedfabrics. We also discuss several other topics like What is maslow's hierarchy of needs in order?
We also discuss several other topics like What are anxiety disorders?

B. Spun-Lace Applications​: It isusedindraperies,bedspreads,quiltbackings, mattress padticking, coatedfabricunder layers,andinterlinings.

4. Wet-Laid NonwovenFabrics​:Thesefabricsareproducedforspecificstructuresintextilefabrics (specificallyflexibilityandstrength)ataspeedassociated withpapermakingbyincorporatingshort textile fibers whenthe webisbeingformed. We also discuss several other topics like What is the role of glia in the cns?

A.Wet-Laid Applications:​Laminating/coatingbasefabrics, filters, interlining, insulation, androofing.

5. Dry-Laid NonwovenFabrics​: Nonwovenscontainingfiber layersthat containrandomlypositionedor parallel fibers,apositioningthat resultsfrom anairstream or carding.Bondinglayers withanadhesiveor heat isnecessary.

A.Dry-LaidProperties:​Soft,drapes well,andgreat lengthwisestrength. If you want to learn more check out What are the characteristics of sound exchange errors (garrett 1975)?

B.Dry-Laid Applications​: ​Interlinings, coated-fabricbackings, carpets,diaper cover-stock, and wipes.

6. Melt-Blown NonwovenFabrics​: Nonwovenfabric contain microfibersofvaryinglengthsthatareall 2-4 micrometersindiameter.Thefibers,usuallyolefin(polypropylene),​areentangledandbondedat their crossoverpoints.Thenonwovenfabric, ispermeable​but containsverysmallpores. Fabricsareproducedby extrudingpolymersintohighvelocity,heatedairstream.Thefibersarebrokenintoshortpiecesand collectedina web.

A. Melt-Blown Applications​:Thisisusedfor face masks,or respirators, where N95 means that therespirator canfilter 95%of theparticles. However, thisfilter cannotkeepoutnanoparticles, which wouldrequirenanofibersto makeasuitable mask.

​7. Spun-BondedFabrics(Filaments)​: Fabricscomposedofarandomlydistributed webof filamentfibers​. It isaverystrong,nonwovenfabric madefrom extrusionof filamentsthatarelaiddownintheform ofa web andbonded.

A.Spun-Bonded Applications​: Apparel interlining, carpetbacking,bagging,packaging, filtration,andgeotextiles.

8. Stitch-BondedFabrics​:Thesefabricsare multicomponent​, whereonecomponent isaseriesof interloopedstitchesrunalongthefabric length.Theother components maybefiber web/batt,yarns,or pre-formedfabrics.

A. Stitch-BondedWebs​:

I. Maliwatt​: webfibersarebondedrowsof chainstitches made withasewingthreadoratricot stitch.Theyhavehightearingstrengthandhighbulk(whichprovidesgoodinsulation). II. Malivlies​:Threadlessstitch-bondedfiber webfabrics wherethestitchingloopsareformed from thefibersof the web.Thestitchingonlyappearsononesideof thefabric.

B. Stitch-BondedYarnSystems: 

I. Malimo:​Crosswiseyarns, with(or without) lengthwiseyarnslyingover them,arestitched withatricotstitchtoform astitch-bondedfabric. Ithasanopenstructurethat makesitsuitablefor table cloths,dishcloths,andvegetablebags.

II.Schusspol:​Anadditionalyarnisaddedintothechainstructuresofafabric.Thisprocessis usedincarpetingandupholstery.

C. ​PileStitch-BondedFabrics: 

​I. Malipol:​Single-/Double- facedpilefabrics wherepileyarnsareheldtoabasestructurebya chainor tricotstitch. Insingle-sidedpilefabric,stitchheadsareonthefabricbackandpileloopsonthe face. Usuallythereisanadhesivethatholdstheloopsonthefabricback.

II. Voltex:​Deep,voluminouspileformedfrom fiberslivers,anonwovenfor thebase,and chain-stitchheadsonthefabricback.Thesliver isstitchedthroughthebase web.

9.CompoundFabrics:​Twoor morelayersof fabricorafabricofanother componentheldtogetherby stitching, fusing,adhesivebonding,andother means.

A. QuiltedFabrics:​Thecenterorbottom layer is madeofabattofnatural fibers,asynthetic fiberfill, ordown.Thetwoor threelayersare witherstitchedtogether withasewingthread, fused,or joinedby adhesivesatpointsalongthesurface.

B.TuftedFabrics:​Fabrics withapileconsistingof tuftsor loopsformedbyinsertingayarnintoa previouslybackedfabric.

C. FlockedFabrics:​Fabrics withshort,pulverizedfabricsstandingvertically. It isoftenusedincar seats.

D.CoatedFabrics​:Twoor morelayers whereat leastonelayer isatextilefabricandat leastoneisa substantiallycontinuouspolymeric layer.Thelayersarebondedcloselytogetherbyanadhesiveorbythe adhesivepropertiesofoneor moreof thecomponent layers. Artificial leather isanexampleofacoated fabric.

E. LaminatedFabrics​: Fabrics withtwoor morelayers, whereat leastoneisatextilefabric,andthey arebondedcloselytogetherby meansofanadhesiveorbytheadhesivepropertiesofoneor moreof the component layers.Threedifferentkindsof laminatedfabricsincludeFilm Laminate, Foam Laminate,and BondedLaminate.

F. Fusion-BondedCarpets​:Thepileyarnissecuredtoabackingfabricbyalayerofadhesive. G. Foam-and-FiberFabrics​: Fabricscomprisedofalayerof foam andfiberoranentangledfiber web surroundedbyafoam matrix.Thishasaflockstructureuponthefoam as well.

➲ TextileFinishing 

​➱Finish​: Anythingdonetofiber,yarn,or fabriceitherbeforeorafter fabricationtochangethe appearance,hand,andperformanceof thefabric.

1. Finishedtextileshavebeenconvertedfrom greigestate​(unfinishedtextiles) into merchandisethat canbesoldtotheultimateconsumeror textileproduct fabricator. 2. Finishingscanbechemical​,​mechanical​,a​nd/orthermal​. It canalsobevisible,nonvisible, permanent (longlasting),durable(somewhat longlasting),semi-durable(lastingfora while), andtemporary(lastingforashort time).Thiscanbecomeimportant totextilesthat mustbe cleanedorbeexposedtofrictionandsunlight.

3. ​PreparatoryFinishes​: Finishesusedduringthe manufacturingprocessthatdoesnotcreatea final fabric; itoftensetsupfor theFinal Finishes.

4. ​FinalFinishes​: Final finishesarethefinal finishesfor thefinal fabric thatoftenchangesits appearance. It caninvolveironingthefabric.

​➱FinishProcess​:

1. ​Singeing/Shearing​: Fiberendsareburnedto minimizepillingandgiveasmoother fabric surfacebypassingthem overaflameorheatedcopperplates​(singeing)orbyclipping​(shearing).Shearingis achievedbyremovinglongfibersandlooseyarns whilesingeingremovestheshort fibersandfibers betweenthefabric interstices.Cottonusessingeingbecauseitburnseasily, while woolusesshearing becauseitdoesnotburneasily.

2. ​Desizing​:Toremovesizing(starches,gelatins,oils, waxes,and manufacturedpolymers) that wasaddedtoyarnstoaidinfabric formation,youcantreatthem withanenzyme,diluted mineralacidor milk alkalinesolutions​.Thisprocessunfortunatelycreatesalotof wastewater, increasingpollution. *(For wovenfabrics,sizing/slashingistheprocessofapplyingsize material to warpyarnstoimprove strength, reducehairiness,andincrease manufacturingefficiency).

3. Scouring​: Forall cottonand wool, tocleanimpuritiesand machineoilsfrom fabriccontaining cellulosicfibers​byexposingthem toasodium hydroxidesolution​anddetergent​(alkalisbecausecottonis stableunderalkaliconditions).Synthetic fabricsarescoured withadetergentat 60 degreesCelsius. Scouringcleansthefabricandimprovesitsabsorbencyfordyeing/finishing.Woolsoapsolution mustbe usedfor wool​because wool isstableunderacidconditionsbutnotalkali.Woolalsousesacarbonizing process.

A. ​Carbonizing​(Wool):Toeliminateplantdebrisfrom wool​andspecialty wool fabricsby subjectingthem tosulfuricacidconditions​(wool,again, isstableunderacid)orhydrogenchloridegas followedbyheating.Whenthefabric isdry, thecarbonized,dust-like,debrisisremoved.

B.​Degumming​(Silk):Toremovesericin, thenaturalgum from silkfibersbyboilingsilkfabricin a mildalkalinesolution​.Thisallowsthesilktolose 20%of itsoriginal weight.

4. Bleaching​:Todecolorizeandremovedcolored matte​r from fabricsbyexposingthem tooxidizing andreducingchemicals​,suchasthecommonlyusedsodium hypochloriteandhydrogenperoxide.Thisallows thefabric tobringauniform backgroundinthecolorof white​.

5.Tentering​:Realigningandextendingfabricstouniform widthbyusingatenter frame witha devicethathasapairofendlesschainsonhorizontal tracks.Thefabric isheldfirmlyat theedgesonthe chainsbypinsor clipsthatdivergeastheygothroughaheatedchamber.

6.Calendering:​Tosmoothandincreasethelusterof fabricsurfaces, createa moresupplehand,or to makefabrics morecompactandopaquebyapplyingheavypressure whiletheypassbetweentwoor moreheavyrollersthataresometimesheated.

7.Decatizing:​Toimprovehandandremove wrinklesfrom fabricsbycirculatinghot waterorblowing steam throughfabricsthatare woundtightlyonperforatedrollers.Thisprocessisonlyappliedtofabrics containing wool​.

➱WetFinishing:​Passingfabrics(occasionallyyarns) throughanaqueousbathcontainingthefinish chemical(s). It consistsofapad-dry-curesequence​.WetPick-Up​increasesthefabric weightandisis expressedasapercentageof thedry weight.

➲FabricFinishing​:

➱Comfort/ProtectionFinishing

1. Alter MoistureProperties​:Chemical treatmentsto makefabrics more water-repellent​(blocking liquids,butallowing watervapor)and water-resistant,andcanincreaseabsorbencyand wickabilityof fabrics.

*Waterproof​:Thisisdifferent from water-repellentbecauseitblocks water inbothliquidandvaporous gasform.

A. Water-Repellent-FinishedFabrics:​Fabricsthathavereducedspreading, wetting,andpenetrationof waterdueto water repellents,or chemicalsthat increasetheinterfacial tensionbetweenafabric surfaceand water.Water-Repellent fabricsareonlyhydrophobiconthesurface​.Water repellents (WRs)arehydrophobic chemicalsthat form hydrophobic filmsonfibers without fillingthe interstices.

I.CommonExamples:​suchasWax-emulsion(nondurableandleastexpensive),silicon(used forall fibers withhighefficiencyanddurability),andfluorochemical (mostdurableandoil repellent). II. LessCommonExamples:​Other lessimportantWRsincludePyridinium-based(durable, fatty amideand wax resin mix)and Organic-Chromium (goodlaunderinglongevityandsuitableforsynthetic fiber fabrics).

B. Hydrophilic-FinishedFabrics​:Synthetic fiber fabricsonlyappliedtohydrophobic fibers.Thesefabrics are morehydrophilic, more waterabsorbent,andhavebetter wicking(e.g.,nylonandpolyester). Forpolyester,hydrolysisinalkalinesolutionto makeit moreporousandhydrophilicduetoincrease ofpolargroupsonthesurface.Chemical finishingsdecreaseabsorbencytohydrophilic fibers except the Mercerization​process, whichincreasesabsorbencyincotton(andincreaseslusterand colorantacceptance).

2. AlterThermalProperties:​Increasedthermal insulationinfabricsbyincreasingtheamountofdead-air spaceorbyaddingtemperature-sensitivepolymerstofabrics.

A. NappedFabrics:​Haveathicklayerof fiberendsprotrudingfrom theirsurfacesdueto wirebrushing onside(s)of thefabric containinglow twistspunyarn.Thefabricpassesoveraseriesof rollers

mountedonadrum.Single-actionnappingis wherethe wiredirectionisidenticalonall rollers,and Pileroller (ordouble-action) is whereeveryother roller isacounter-pileroller.

B. BrushedFabrics:​Withasurfacesimilar toanappedsurface,brushedfabricshavelowersurfacefiber density.Thefillingyarn​areaverage-twist​yarnspunyarns.

C. Temperature-AdaptiveFabrics:​Havetheabilitytoalternativelystoreandreleaseheatdependingon theenvironmental temperatureduetotemperature-sensitivepolymerscalledPEGS(polyethylene glycols)​onthefibersurface.Polytherm​claimstokeepthebodycool inthesummerand warm inthe winter.

3. Flame-RetardantFabrics:​Havereducedburningbehaviorduetotheuseof flame-retardant chemicals, establishingstandardsforeaseof ignition,burningrate,andheatgeneration.Todayflameresistanceis alsocreated withflame-resistance/manufacturedfibers withaddedflameretardantsduringfiberspinning (likeflameresistant rayon,acrylic,andolefin).

A. TopicalFinishing:​Theonly wayto makecottonfabricsflameresistant. However, itadds 10-30%of thefabric weight,affectingother fabricperformances(likeabrasionresistance).

B. WoolFabrics:​Wool meetstheflame-resistant requirement withloweradd-onof flameretardant in comparisontocottonfabrics.

➲Antistatic-FinishedFabrics​: Fabrics withincreasedelectrical conductivityordecreasedstatic​buildup duetothepresenceofantistatsonthefibersurface.Softeners​canbeusedtoreducestaticbuildup.

➱S-Finishing:​Often Acetate/Triacetatefabricsareimmersedinsodium hydroxidesolutionto hydrolyzesurfacepolymerstocellulose.

➲Antimicrobial-FinishedFabrics​: Alsoknownasantibacterialorantiseptic finishedfabrics, theyshow reduced microbialgrowthduetothepresenceofantimicrobial chemicalsinthefabrics.Thesefabricsare madeintoconsumerhygieneproducts​orpersonalprotection/protectiveclothing​.

➱Antimicrobial includesReleaseda​ndBound Antimicrobials​:

1. Released Antimicrobials​:​Theseareeffectiveasapoison whenconsumedbythe microorganism and whenit isdiffusedfrom thefinishedfabric. It cannotbebondedtoasurfacetofunction.Diffusion dilutestheconcentrationandcanallow the microorganismstobuildatoleranceagainst the antimicrobial. It iseffectiveagainstbroad microorganismsandineffectiveagainst fungi,yeasts,or algae.

2. Bound Antimicrobials​:​Thesearechemicallyattachedtotheappliedsurface. Ithasanunlimited capacitytokill (likeasword)byinterruptingthe microorganisms’ cell membranes. Nodiffusionor tolerancedevelopslike withReleased Antimicrobials. It iseffectiveagainstabroadspectrum of microorganismslike mold,bacteria, fungi, mildew,algae,andyeast.

➱Antimicrobial canbeclassifiedas:

1. Biostatic​: Inhibits microbialgrowth,suchasreducingodor, molds,and mildew 2. Biocidal:​Kills microbes

* Antimicrobialbiostatic fabricsarealsousedtopreservetextilesin museumsor inthearts, whichis knownasConservation​.

➲Aesthetic AppealFinishing​:​Finishesappliedtogarments/fabricstoenhanceitsappearance​and feel​.Thecategoriesinclude:

➱Finishingto AlterLuster

1. Calendering​:​Twoor moresmooth,vertical rollersthatarehydraulicallycompressedagainsteach other.Therollershavefacesofsteelandcompressedpaper.Calendersareexpensiveduetothe minimum toleranceoferror inthe manufacturingof therollers.

2. AlteredLuster Fabricsinclude:

A. ​CiredFabrics​:​Hasadeep,glossy,patent-leather-likesurface madeby wax applicationand usingahighlypolished/heatedsteel frictioncalender that rotatesatahighersurfacespeed. It isusually taffeta​andsatin​fabric madebythermoplastic fibers.

B. ​Glazed/PolishedFabrics​:​Theprocessisidentical tociredfabricexcept it isfinishedoncotton plain wovenfabric withtemporarystarch/wax or moredurableresin.

C. ​SchreinerizedFabrics​:​Fabrics withenhancedlusterduetoashcreiner calender that flattens theyarnstocreateasmoothersurface. Ithasonerollerengraved with 150-350 diagonal lines/inchata twentydegreeangleandheatedto 300 degreesFahrenheit,andonesoft/fiberbottom roller.

D. BeetledFabrics​:​Linenandcottonfabricsthatarelustrous, flat, closed,andfirm dueto pounding with woodenhammers.Theyarnsarevisiblyflatterand wovenstructure muchcloser.

➱Finishingto AlterTexture

1. EmbossedFabrics​:​Theyhavearaiseddesignor motifs​resultingfrom pressingfabricbetween engravedrollers​onanembossingcalender.Thefabric isusuallyplain-wovenorsatin,andthe

design maybecrinkled, jacquard motifs,orsimilar toacomplex dobby.Longevityisdeterminedby fiber content,structure,anddesigncomplexity.

2. MoireFabrics​:​Fabricsthathasa wavy​or watermarkdesign​thathashighlustrousareasurrounded bylesslustrousareasthatareseparatedbyarandom​and wavyboundary​. Unbalancedplain woven fabrics withfilamentyarnsofsilk,acetateandtriacetatearegivena moirefinish.

3. Sanded,Sueded,andEmerizedFabrics​:Sueded​fabricshaveachamois-likeappearance​orasuede-like texture​dueto raisedsurfacefibersfrom abrasionaction.Sanding​isabradingthefabricsurface withsandpaper. Emerized​fabricsarelightweight,soft,and madethroughalessvigorousprocess thansandingorsueding.

4. PleatedFabrics​:​Fabrics with manyfoldscreatedduringpassagethroughpleating machinery. Polyesterandnylonrequiresheatsettingafter mechanical folding.

5. ShearedFabrics​:​Pileandnappedfabricsthathaveevensurfacesduetocuttingthesurfacefibers.

➱Finishingto AlterColor Alteration &Whiteness

1. MercerizedFabricsandYarns​:​Fabricsthatdyetobrighteranddarkershadesandare morestrong, lustrous,andabsorbentbutstifferduetoimmersioninacoldbathof concentratedsodium hydroxide​solution whileunder tension. It isthenneutralized withanacid. Mercerizedfibershavea rounder crosssection, cylindricalshape, lesscrystalline,andhavestronger internalbonds.These fabricsareusually madeof cotton​.

2. Liquid-Ammonia-FinishedFabricsandYarns​:​Fabricsdyed moredeeplyand morelustrous,absorbent andsoftduetoliquidammoniatreatment. However, ithaslessluster,brightness,and moisture absorptionthan mercerizedfabrics. Italsodecreasesstiffness, while Mercerizationincreases stiffness.

3. Pre-washedGarments​:​Withsizingremovedandlaunderedprior tosale, thesedenim garmentsare softer, lessrelaxationshrinkage,andlookslightly worn.

4. StonewashedGarments​:​Usuallydoneondenim fabricstochangecoloration, thesegarmentshavea distressedappearance(fuzzytexture,puckeredseams,andslightly wornfrom tumbling with stonesinacylindrical washer).

5. Acid-washedGarments​:​Stonewashedgarmentsthathavebeen tumbled withstonescontainingan oxidizingagent todecreasetheamountofphysicaldamageduetothereducedtumblingtime.

6. Stoneless-Washed(EnzymeWashed)Garments​:​Garments withadistressedappearanceandsoft feel from usingenzymes,oracellulase-based​solutionthatdegradesthecottonfibersurfacebut causeslessdamagethanstoneandacid-washedfabrics.

7. OpticallyBrightenedFabrics​: Fabricsappearingbrighter/whiter whenplacedunder UV lightdueto optical whiteners(dye moleculesthatabsorb UV lightsoutsidethevisibleregionandre-emit it visiblyasblue).LecturePoints:Blue + yellow canproduce white. Therangesof light include- UV light: 200-400 nm, Visible: 400-750 nm,andPurple/Blue: 400-450 nm.

​➱FinishingtoalterHandandBody

1. SoftenedFabrics​:​Fabricsthathaveaslicker,smoother,softer feelduetothepresenceofsoftening compoundsonthefibersurfaces.Thisreducesthestaticeffect.

2. ​StiffenedorSizedFabrics:​Fabricsthatarestiffer/crisperduetostiffeningcompounds(usually starch).Thesefabricsare moredifficult tobendandlessdrapable.

3. WeightedFabrics:​Silkfabricsthatareheavierand moredrapableduetotreatment with metallic salts(iron, tin,oraluminum) toreplacethegum that wasboiledoffand makesthefabric flimsy. Body, cover,anddyeabsorptionof thefabricsincreases whilelightandoxygenresistance decreases. It mustbedrycleanedbecausethefinishisremovedduringlaundering.

➱FulledFabrics:​Theseare woolen​and worsted​fabrics(wool) thatare moredense, compact,soft,and bulkytoduetheprocessof moisture,heat, chemicals, friction,andpressurethat creates mattingand shrinkage.

1. Silk-likeFinishedFabrics:​Fabrics(usuallypolyester)​that issubjectedtosodium hydroxidet​o decreasethefiberdiameter.

2. ParchmentizedFabrics:​Fabricsthatarecharacteristicallytranslucentandcrispylikeparchment paperduetostrongsulfuricacidsolutionfor 5-6 secondsandcalenderedafterneutralization. 3. Anti-odor/Odor-ControlledFabrics:​Fabricsthathavereducedrateofodorbuildupduetoreduced rateofbacterialgrowthfrom antimicrobials.

➲Finishing & Dyeing 

​➱ShrinkageinFabrics:​ShrinkageoccursinfabricduetoTension​,S​welling​,​andFelting​. 1. RelaxationShrinkage​isshrinkageduetotensionreliefduringprocessing.Somefabricsalsoshrink duringlaunderingbecausetheir fibersabsorb water moleculesandswell (increaseindiameter).

➱CompressivelyStabilized(Sanforized)Fabrics:​Thefabric tensionisdecreasedbya mechanically finishingprocesscalledcompressivestabilization​.Thisisusuallyappliedtocotton, HWM-rayon, flax,and cellulosic​-blendfabricsthatarestabilized.

1. Liquid-Ammonia-Treated & CompressivelyStabilizedFabrics​: Cotton​fabricsthathavereduced relaxationshrinkage,aresmoothdrying,andsofterduetotreatment withliquidammoniaand mechanical manipulationinacompressiveshrinkagecontrolunit.

2. HeatSetFabrics:​Thermoplastic​fiber fabricsthathavereducedrelaxationshrinkageandincreased wrinkleresistanceduetoheatapplication. Inheat-setting, fabricsareheatedtotemperatures higher thanglasstransitiontemperaturebut lessthan meltingtemperature whenunder tension.

3. London-ShrunkorSpongedFabrics:​Worsted​fabric thathavebeensubjectedto moisturetoremove stress.Thisprocesscreatesabuildupofalternatelayersof wetblanketsand worstedfabricsunder pressureonalongtabletogainLondonshrinking.

​➱WashableWoolFabrics:​Woolenorhigh wool content fabricsthatarepronetoshrinkingexcessively when washinginhot water. Feltingoccursduetothedirectional frictionaleffectof wool’sscales.Wool fabricsbecome machine-washablebecausefeltingshrinkageiscontrolledbychlorinatingfiberstodestroy thescales, coatingthefibers withpolymers(to maskthescales),orspot weldingthefibers(toprevent fiber migration).

1. Other washablefabricsinclude:

A. Machine-WashableRegular-RayonFabrics​: Rayonfabrics withreducedswellingshrinkage duetointra-fiber cross-linkingbyaresin.

B. WashableSilkFabrics​:Silkfabricsthatare machine-washableduetoachemicalprocess (because mostof thetraditional weightingagentsforsilkare watersoluble).

​➱Durable-PressGarmentsCellulosicBlends:G​armentsthathavegoodshaperetentionin wearand laundry(includingsmoothdrying whenlaundered, flatseams,sharppleats,andintentional creases).They are wrinkle-freeduring wearandafterhomelaundering/dryingduetodurable-pressresins. Mostof these garmentsare madeof fabrics withblendsof cottonor rayon withasynthetic fiber (usuallypolyester​).The creationof covalentcross-links​betweenpolymersanddurable-pressresinspreventscreases, increases prematuregreyingrateandstiffness,anddecreasessoil releaseandabsorbency.

1. Pre-CuredDurablePress:​Thedurable-pressresiniscuredbeforethegarment is made.

(Fabric) + (Resin) + (Dry) + (Cure​) -> (Cut) + (Sew) + (Hot HeadPress)

2. Post-CuredDurablePress:​Theresiniscuredafter thegarment is made.

(Fabric) + (Resin) + (Dry) -> (Cut) + (Sew) + (Press) + (Curein Oven)​

* PerformanceTrade-Off:C​ross-linkingimprovesresilienceincottonfibersbut it reduceselongation, tenacity,abrasionresistance, flexibility,andincreasesstiffness.Theyarealsosoilscavengers, wherethe soil makesthefabricprematuregreyandreducesitsabsorbency. Itshouldalsobelaunderedbeforeuseto removeformaldehyde.

1. Permanent-setWoolFabrics:​Wool fabricsthathassharppleatsandcreasesduring wear, laundering,anddry-cleaningbecausetheyhavebeenrelaxedandchemicallytreated.This treatmentallowsthebondedproteinchainsto moveinrelationtoeachotherandinvolvesbreaking H-bondinganddisulfidebondstoreform inanew position.

2. Durable-PressWoolGarments:​Woolgarmentsthathassharppleatsandcreasesandhaveasmooth appearancefrom specialpolymers. Toachievethisperformance, it mustbeshrinkresistant to prevent feltingandbeset to maintainitsshape,

3. Anti-pillingFabrics: ​Highlynappedfabricsthat reducespill formationduetoproprietarybonding agents.

4. Soil-Repellent-FinishedFabrics: ​Fabrics withreducedratesofsoiling; waterandoilbeadupontheir surfacesallowingtimefor theseliquidstoberemoved.Thisisduetothepresenceofsiliconeor fluorocarbon​compounds.

5. Soil-ReleaseFinishedFabrics​:Fabrics whereoilysoil iseasilyremovedduetosoil-releaseagents. 6. Soil-Repellent-and-Release-FinishedFabrics:​Fabricsthathavereducedratesofsoilingandareeasily cleaned whenoilysoilpenetratesduetouniqueblockpolymeronthefibersurface.

*Fluorochemicals​: most water/soil resistant,but mostexpensive

Resinbase:​Usedthe most for wrinkleresistance

7. ​Stain-Resistant-FinishedFabrics:​Carpetingfabricsthathavehigher resistancetostainingbyanionic compounds(foundinartificiallycoloredfood/drinks)duetostain-resistantagents. 8. Moth-Resistant-FinishedFabrics​:Wool fabricsthathave moreresistanceto mothlarvaedueto mothproofingagents.

9. Mold-and Mildew-Resistant-FinishedFabrics:​Cellulosic fabricsthathavereducedgrowthratesof mildew and moldsduetochemicals.

10. Light-StabilizedFabrics:​Fabrics withreducedrateofdisintegrationfrom UV lightdueto light-stabilizingchemicals. Modacrylic isthe moststableunder UV light.

➱Dyeing​:

1. Goal​: Produceappealing, level, fast coloronproductat reasonableprice withgoodperformanceand minimalenvironmental impact.

2. Complex Area​: It isdifficult toget coloronfabric inuniform appearance(level) that willnot fade, bleed,oralterappearance.

3. ComplexPhenomenon​:Physicsof light, chemistryof coloredobjects,biologyof theeye,behavioral sciences,andaestheticsallplayintodyeing.

1. DyedTextiles​:Textiles withacolorant that isuniformlydistributed withinoronthefibersurface throughoutayarn/fabric.

2. Dyes​: Organic chemicalsthatareabletoselectivelyabsorbandreflect light wavelengths withinthe visiblerangeof theelectromagneticspectrum.While UV Light is 200-400 nm, it issplit intothree UVA is 320-400 nm, UVBis 280-320 nm,and UVCis 200-280 nm.Dyesincludetwogroups:

A. Chromophore​: A conjugatedsystem of looselyheldelectronsthatprovidescolor. B. Auxochrome:​Thisintensifiedanddeepenedcolors,allowsdyetobesoluble,andenablesforcesof attractionbetweendyeandfiberpolymers.

​➱DyeClasses​:

1. Direct​: UsedonCellulose(cotton​);oftenthedyecomesoff

2. Reactive​: UsedonCelluloseandProtein(mostlycotton​,but wool​too),usedfor tie-dying 3. Sulfur​: UsedforCotton​;specificallyfordarkcolors

4. Vat​(Indigo): UsedforCotton​,specificallyfor jeans​,andisbleachable-​makingit fit for institutional textiles

5. Acid​: UsedforProtein(wool​andsilk​)and Nylon

6. Basic​: Usedon Acrylics

7. Disperse​: UsedonPolyester, Nylon, Acetate,Triacetate,andPolypropylene(hydrophobic​fibers). It hasthespecialabilitytosublime,​whereit turnsfrom solidtogas.

● Pigments​:Water insoluble, microscopic-sizedcolorparticlesthatareheldonthefibersurfacebya resin.Deepcolorscannotbeachieved; it is morelikeastainingprocess.Designersusethisfora fadedcoloreffect.

* Video:Theperceivedcolordependson 1. Theillumination(or light) , 2.Theobject,and 3.The observer.

​➱Coloration/ColorEffect 

1. Solid:​Havingonecolor throughout, wherethefibershavethesamecolor (hue)andshade(value). 2. Heather:​Havingfibersofdifferent colorsorshadesof thesamecolorblended withintheyarnsofa fabric.

3. Tweed:​Havingsmallspotsof color randomlydistributedoverafabricduetocoloredfibersthatare incorporatedinarandom fashionintoyarns

4. Mottled​: Havingaspottedorblotchedappearancefrom yarnsthathavedifferent colorsalongtheir length.

5. Variegated/Mixed​: Having manycolorsthatblendtogether.

6. Muted:​Havingasoftened,subdued,ordeadenedcolorbyusingstrandsofdifferent colorsinyarns, orusingyarnsofdifferent colorsinthe warpandfillingdirectionsin wovenfabrics. 7. Iridescent​: ​Havingasparklingeffect createdbytheappearanceofdifferent colorsat thepeaksand valleysof folds whenfabric isdraped

8. Design:​​Having motifsandpatterns, includingstripes, checks,plaids, color-and-weavedesigns, color-and-knitdesigns, computerinjectiondesigns,andbatik,shaped-resist,andikatdesigns. Notethat withComputer InjectedDesign,printerscanbecategorizedintoLaserjetand Inkjet Printers, whereLaserjet reliesonpowdered pigmentsandInkjet relieson liquidcartridgefilled dyes.

➱DyeingProcess​:

1. ProducerDyeing​: Addingcolorant topolymer​spinningsolutionsduringtheprocessingof manufacturingfibers.

2. GelDyeing​: Addingcolorant to wet-spunfibers​whiletheyareinthegelstate(notyet fully crystallized/oriented).

3. StockDyeing​: Addingdyetofibersi​nlooseform​.Cottondoesnotusethisprocessbecauseit would bedifficult toseparate when wet,however wool​doesusethisprocess.

4. TopDyeing & Tow Dyeing​: Addingadyetotop​(astrandofstraightened/paralleled/separated wool fibers)or tow​(filamentsthatareintheform ofarobethat willbecut toform staplefiber). 5. YarnDyeing​: Addingdyetoyarnbefore​fabric formation.Thisprocessislesscostlythanstock, top or tow dyeingbecause moresubstratecanbedyedatonetime. It canbedyedon: ​A. Skein​(forsoft, loftyyarns)

​B. Package​(the most common method)

​C. Beam​(largeversionofpackagedyeingspecificallyfor warpyarns​)

6. ​SpaceDyeing​:​Addingdyetoyarnsothat ithasdifferent colorsat irregular intervalsalongits length.Thisisachievedby:

A. Printingaknit fabricandunravelingit.

B. Squirtingdyefrom aneedleintoayarnpackage.

C. Sprayingcolorant intoyarnskeins.

7. ​PieceDying​: Addingacolorant tofabric​“inthepiece”.Piece-dyedfabricscostslessthan stock/yarn-dyedfabricsbecause morefabric canbydyedatonetime.

​A. Jig-PieceDying​: Open width​of fabric ispulledthroughanopendyevatuntildesiredshadeis achieved.Suitablefor fairlyclose weavefabrics.

​B. ​Pad-PieceDying​:​A continuousdyeingsystem thatusesadyesolutionthat isappliedbya padderor mangle.

​C. Winch-PieceDyeing​:​Littletensionisintroducedonfabric that isprocessedinropeform.​This issuitablefor lightweightandloosely wovenandknit fabrics.

​D. Jet-PieceDying​:​Usesthe mostadvance machineryandissuitablefor fabricspronetofelting whensubjectedtolengthydyecycle. Ituseshighspeedincomparisontotheotherprocesses,andcanonly beusedontoughfabrics.

➱ColorEffectinBlendedFabric 

1. UnionDyeing​:​Addingdyetofabricsthathavetwofibers withdifferentdyeingcharacteristicsto achieveasolid-coloredfabric​byusingadyebaththat containsseveraldyescapableofdyeingall thefiberstothesamehue.

2. CrossDyeing:​​Addingdyetoblendand mixturefabricstoachieve multicoloredfabric​likeheathers, stripes, checks,andplaidsbyusingadyeformulationthathasdifferent coloreddyes,andeachhas anaffinityforadifferent fiber.

3. Tone-on-Tone​:​Addingdyetoblend/mixturefabricstoachievetwoor moreshadesofthesamehue​. Thisisachievedfor fabrics withsamegenericgroupfibersbutdifferentaffinity.

4. ReserveDyeing​:​Leavingfibersoryarnsundyed whiledyeingtheothersinblend/mixturefabricsby usingdyesthathaveanaffinityfor thefiberstobecoloredbutnot for thefiberstobeleft white. 5. Computer-InjectionDyeing:​​Applyingaqueousdyesolution​thesurfaceof carpetor tuftedfabric throughaseriesof micro-jetarrangedtransverselyacrossandabovethetextiletobedyed. 6. GarmentDyeing​:​Addingcolorant togarmentsorproducts,usuallytoobtainasolidcolor. 7. BatikDyeing​:​Applying wax byhandto whitefabricsothat thefabric will resistdyesinthe waxed areas whenimmersedinadyebath.

8. Shaped-ResistDyeing​:​Dyeingfabric thathavefolded, crumpled,stitched,plaited,plucked,or twistedandsecuredinanumberof ways,suchasbindingandknotting.

9. Ikat​:​Applyingaresist (like wax or clay) toyarnsanddyeingthem sothedyecannotpenetratethe areastheresist isapplied.

➲PrintedTextiles

➱PrintedTextiles:​​Havedesignsresultingfrom colorant​application(usuallypigmentsrather than dyes)andothersubstancestolocalizedareasonfabric/yarnsurfaces.Printedfabric includesPrintPattern​, thePrintType​,andthePrintProcess.W​hileithasno wasteproductionissues, ithaslow efficiency. 1. PrintDesigns​canbegroupedintoFourCategories:

​A. Realistic/ NaturalisticDesigns:​Depictingrealobjects(animals,humans,plants,etc.) ​B. StylizedDesigns:​Exaggeratedorsimplifiedobjectsusingunnatural colorandproportions C. GeometricDesigns:​Createdthroughgeometric forms

D. AbstractDesigns:​Havinglittleornoreferencetorealobjects;oftengeometric inform but notasrigid.

2. PrintedTypes​:​Indicates whether thefabricoryarns wereprinted,how manysidesof thefabric were printed, whatsubstance wasapplied,and whether thetextileshasbothdyedandprinted,also clarity/vibrancyof colorandpatternedge/darknessofbackground.

A. ApplicationPrints:​Designhasbeenprintedovera whitefabricsoithasa whitebackground withcolored motifs.

B. Overprints:​Designhasbeenprintedoverapreviouslydyedfabricsocoloredbackgroundis thesamedepthofshadeonthefabric faceandtheback.

C. BlotchPrints:​Backgroundand motifhavebeenprintedontoafabric.Thebackgroundand motif colorsaredeeper inshadeonthefacethanontheback.

D. DischargePrints: ​Thesehaveadarkbackgroundinthesamedepthofshadeonthefaceand theback with widelyspaced motifs.Withtheapplicationofdischargepaste, it canhavea white discharge​(the white motifappearsonthefaceandback)oracoloreddischarge​(wherethe motif is usuallyfilled withvibrant colorsandthe motifareaonthefabricbackisnearly white).Theprocess isdye,thenprint,then wash​.

E. ResistPrints:​Characterizedby whitedesignsandadyedbackgroundorbyacoloreddesign andadyedbackground. A raw white material isapplied withareservationagent (often with wax, whichishydrophobic)andthendyed.Theprocessisprint,dye, then wash.

F. WarpPrints:​Hazy-edged motifs wherethefillingyarnsareofsolidcolorbut the warpyarns varyincoloralongitslength.

G. Duplex/RegisterPrints:​Fabricsthat canbeprintedonbothsides.

H. FlockPrints:​A compoundfabric​wherethe motif iscomposedofshort lengthsof whiteor coloredfiberstandinguprightonthefibersurface. It isonlyappliedtolocalizeda​reasonthefabric. I. Burn-Out/EtchedPrints:​Transparentandopaqueareasarepresentonthefabric, forming the motifandbackground.Thiscanbeachievedbycreatingblends​(the most common, cottonand polyester)-and morespecificallyintimateblends​(thetwofibersare mixedhomogeneously). If the

blendiscotton/polyester, H2SO4 (Sulfuric​Acid​) couldbeappliedtoremovethecottonandretain thepolyester.

3. PrintingProcess:​Methodsusingcolorantpaste,adhesive, resist,orothersubstancesonto yarn/fabricsurfaces. Itdeterminesthesizeof thedesignrepeat, thefinenessofdetail,andthenumberof colors.

A. RollerPrinting:​A methodofapplyingprintpastetoyarnor fabricbytransferringit from theengravedareasof metal rollerstothetextile.

B. FlatbedScreenPrinting:​A methodofapplyingprintpastetoyarnor fabricbyforcingit throughopen(untreated)portionsofaflatscreentothetextile.

C. RotaryScreenPrinting:​Methodofapplyingprintpastetoyarn/fabricbyforcingit from the interiorofacylindricalscreentothetextile.

D. Heat-TransferPrinting​: Methodof transferringdyefrom preprintedpaper tofabric composedofpolyester (or thermoplastic fibers)byplacingthepaperonfabricsurfaceandheating it toallow thedyestosublime.Thisprintingis mostapplicabletoknits.Thesefabricsshouldnotbe ironedatahightemperaturebecausethedyecanturntogas.

E. Digital Ink-JetPrinting​: The most recentprintingdevelopmentsthat facilitatetheprinting ofextremelydelicatefabricsandpilefabricsbecausethereisnocontactbetweenthefabricand theprinter, thepatternscanbe madeandtransmittedaselectronicdata.

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