EN 209-005 Final Exam Study Guide
EN 209-005 Final Exam Study Guide EN 209
Popular in American Literature to 1865
Popular in Foreign Language
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Gintovt on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EN 209 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Cassander Lavon Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see American Literature to 1865 in Foreign Language at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 12/07/15
EN 209-005 Final Exam Study Guide The final exam will be the same format as the midterm exam. There will be three sections: 1. Passage Recognition (15 points total; 3 points for author and 2 points for title) 2. Short Answer (60 points; 10 questions total) 3. Author Significance (25 points) Enlightenment: • What is the Enlightenment? o Cultural movement that emphasizes science and learning (logic and observation and experimentation) rather than superstition and occult beliefs in the realms of the invisible. In other words, religion is no longer ultimately authority § Science and Logic § Aka “Age of Reason” § Begins in Europe • Emphasized observations and the ordering of things • In America, movement fueled American Revolution Romanticism: • A style of art, literature, etc., during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that emphasized the imagination and emotions o 3 features: § Imagination § Nature § Feelings/intuition § Nathaniel Hawthorne Transcendentalism: • Philosophical, political, literary movement o No blind conformity o Unique relationship to the world • God is in and around us; a unifying force • Access god in solitude (nature) • Response to Calvinist, Enlightenment and Romanticism • Ultimate goal to become more like God • All have innate wisdom • Rise above everyday social constraints of society Three writers who wrote in the Transcendentalist Movement: 1. Walt Whitman 2. Emily Dickinson 3. Ralph Waldo Emerson 4. Henry David Thoreau How does Transcendentalism respond to the Enlightenment Movement? • It’s not about blind conformity • Relationship to the world • God is in everything • Undying force • Becoming more like god • Innate wisdom Puritan Theology- TULIP: • Total Depravity: o Original Sin o Inherent self-interest versus obedience • Unconditional Election: o The saved versus the dammed o God has already decided • Limited atonement: o Christ and the elect o Only applied to certain people (the people who were the elect- saved) • Irresistible Grace: o Unavoidable acceptance • Perseverance of the Saints: o Eternal salvation- will be forever saved Compare and contrast the slave narrative and the Indian captivity narrative: • Slave Narrative: o Slave Narrative (biographical narrative documenting account of slavery) § Descendant of the Captivity Narrative • Captivity = Slavery • Protagonist shifts to black African slavery/Antagonist becomes the slave master • Setting changes from wilderness to the plantation • Plot structure changes from a circle to an inverted checkmark • Civilization/Wilderness binary remains the same • Rhetorical purpose shifts to become more social/political • Indian Captivity Narrative: o Indian Captivity Narrative § Chronicles contact § Conventions of genre • Protagonist- good or bad, always at the center of the story (ex. CdV (Europeans/americans)) • Antagonist- prevents the protagonist from achieving his/her goal (ex. Native Americans) • Setting- always begins in some civilized space. Eventually moves into “wilderness” § Full circle- protagonist starts in civilized space, progressively gets taken away into wilderness- where eventually a turning point is reached and the protagonist gets taken back to civilization somehow o Texts show subject fundamentally changed by captivity/ American Landscape o American Themes: cultural contact, wilderness/landscape, self-regeneration (self-made man), wealth, religion Slave Narrative genre- Rhetorical purpose: • To critique slavery • To secure equal rights • Illustrate harsh treatment of slavery Four parts of the Puritan Sermon: • Text – section of the Bible that will be discussed • Doctrine – divine law; here is the law that God is trying to convey to you • Explication – explanation of text • Uses – application; how the doctrine should look in your everyday life Structured, plain style of the Puritan Sermon: • Winthrop and the Puritan Sermon o Texts published as way of controlling social order o Very structured § Plain-style prose- write in the language of the day • Puritan’s intended their sermons to be easy to understand and relatable. • Strict formatting and structure helped to ensure deep understanding among those listening Slave Narrative structure: • Captivity = Slavery • Protagonist shifts to black African slavery/Antagonist becomes the slave master • Setting changes from wilderness to the plantation • Plot structure changes from a circle to an inverted checkmark • Civilization/Wilderness binary remains the same • Rhetorical purpose shifts to become more social/political Separating vs. Nonseparating Puritans: Separating Puritans: • William Bradford o New “Godly” territory § Plymouth Colony (1620) o No turning back § Separatists vs. non-separatists o American Cultural Mythology § Mayflower compact • Democracy § First thanksgiving • Cultural Salad Bowl § Religious freedom Non-Separating Puritans: • John Winthrop o Puritan Minister o City Upon a Hill § Massachusetts Bay Colony (1629) o Temporary settlement Why did Bradford and the Pilgrims travel to Plymouth Colony? What was their goal? Puritan Discontent: • Radical reformation o Church of England = Roman Catholic Church o No images, elaborate garbs ad relics, no show • Religious sovereignty o The Americas • Separating Puritans wanted to completely separate from the Church of England so that they may create a new “Godly” territory Myths of Plymouth Colony: • American Cultural Mythology o Mayflower compact § Democracy • First thanksgiving o Cultural Salad Bowl • Religious freedom Myths of John Winthrop and MBC: • American Myths o US Exceptionalism - the idea that the US is unique/exceptional in terms of time and place- no other place like it o Democracy o Hard work o Christian brotherhood and charity Spiritual Diary Genre: • Bradford o Accounts quotidian (daily routine) § No set structure but includes minutia and dates o Purpose: § Reflect and see God’s design § How do the events that happen in your daily life mirror the events that happened to the subjects of the Bible § Puritans always saw themselves as being connected to the larger community § History book § Prove spiritual fervor and favor o Audience § Self § Body of Saints (community at large) § Meant to be shared Cain and Abel: Slavery justification in the Americas • Cain kills Abel • God curses Cain by marking him so that others would know that if any harm were to come to Cain, God would have vengeance on them • People interpreted the mark on Cain to mean dark skin pigmentation and used this argument to justify slavery as just being a feature of the curse God had placed on Cain The Curse of Ham and its relation to slavery: • Ham was one of the sons of Noah • Noah curses Ham’s son Canaan and the descendants of Canaan to be slaves • People justified slavery in saying that African Americans were the descendants of Canaan Aristotle and the slave/master theory: Slavery and the Moral Dilemma • Aristotle o Politics (Books III-VII) § Natural slaves vs. natural masters • Physical but no intellectual capacity • Masters maintain order out of chaos Frederick Douglass: • Purpose of publishing his narrative o To critique slavery o To secure equal rights o Illustrate harsh treatment of slavery Three features of Hawthorne’s writing: • Most popular early American Novelist o The Scarlet Letter, House of Seven Gables • Noted for use of Romanticism in American Landscape o Intuition over observable experience • Common Themes he ponders in his work o The inherent evil and sin of humanity o Moral allegories (Young Goodman Brown) Transcendentalism in Whitman’s poetry: • Transitional figure that transforms Transcendentalism through an emphasis on humanity and seeing that humanity in positive, optimistic terms Dickinson: Why is she a literary Maverick? + key features of poetry • Literary maverick o Poems lacked titles, had slant rhyme and funny punctuation (dashes, capitalization…) o Poems had short lines o Rhyme schemes used slant and true rhyme (occasionally) The “Father of Free Verse”? • Whitman’s poetry style was different from traditional styles that used meter and rhyme Indian Praying Towns: • 14 towns, 1646-1675 o Communities of converted Indians o Mostly self-governing –English overseer for important things, Indians in charge of day to day things o Assimilation § If any man shall be idle a week, or at most a fortnight, he shall be fined five shillings § If any unmarried man shall lie with a young woman unmarried, he shall be fined five shillings § If any women shall go with naked breasts, she shall pay two shillings § All men that shall wear long locks, shall pay five shillings § If any shall crack lice between their teeth, they shall pay five shillings o “A Good Indian is a sealed Indian” • Relevant to Samson Occom in the fact that he himself was a descendant of early conversion efforts by the puritans Indian Autobiography, Conventions: • Narratives detailing life of Indians o Starts with birth o Details the customs of Indian cultures o Narratives display communities’ efforts to adjust to increasing European encroachment o Texts usually religious in nature, outline assimilation o Also a critique of that Euro-American culture William Apess: “An Indians Looking Glass…” • Rhetorical Purpose o Prove that American Indians have not vanished o Advocate for the civil rights of dispossessed groups, mainly American Indians but other groups, too o Highlight racist American politics toward American Indians § Indian Removal Act “The Selling of Joseph” (1700) • Rhetorical purpose o Condemn slavery “A Brief and Candid Answer to a Late Printed Sheet Entitled the ‘Selling of Joseph’” • Rhetorical purpose o Defend the colony’s practice of slavery How does Benjamin Franklin represent/epitomize the American myth of the self-made man? • Formalizes the myth of the self made-man rhetoric as a feature of American identity When we way that Franklin was an exemplary figure, not a representative figure, what do we mean? • He can’t be replicated • Wrote own autobiography as a representative figure but due to extraordinary circumstances in his life/career he became exemplary Why does Franklin write his Autobiography? • For his son We say that Benjamin Franklin changed the genre of the Autobiography. What do we mean? • He begins at birth • Highlights key events that shaped who he became • Similar to diary/journal self explanation Apess vs. Occom and Literary Significance: • Apess o Literary significance § First major writer of Indian descent in U.S. • First Indian to publish a full autobiography o Son of the Forrest • Early writings especially were critical of “White” politics • Occom o Literary Significance: § First Native American to publish life writing § Initiates a new genre: Indian Autobiography Literary Significance: • Nathaniel Hawthorne o Most popular early American Novelist § The Scarlet Letter, House of Seven Gables o Noted for use of Romanticism in American Landscape § Intuition over observable experience o Common Themes he ponders in his work § The inherent evil and sin of humanity o Moral allegories (Young Goodman Brown) § A short story about a Christian who goes on a spiritual journey • Maria Stewart? o Black feminist intellectual abolitionist born free in Connecticut o First female American to speak to mixed audience o Most noted for Essay Religion and Pure Principle • Benjamin Franklin? o Formalizes myth of the self made man rhetoric as a feature of American Identity o Changes the genre of autobiography § Begins from birth § Highlights key events that shaped who he became § Similar to diary/journal self-examination • Samson Occom? o Literary Significance: § First Native American to publish life writing § Initiates a new genre: Indian Autobiography • William Apess? o Literary significance § First major writer of Indian descent in U.S. • First Indian to publish a full autobiography o Son of the Forrest • Early writings especially were critical of “White” politics • Frederick Douglass? o Literary Significance § Founds a newspaper (The North Star) § Writes one of the most influential slave narratives (Publishes three versions of it) • William Bradford? o Initiated new genre § Spiritual Diary • Accounts quotidian (daily routine) • Walt Whitman? o Literary Significance § “Father of Free-Verse” § “Father of American poetry” • His goal was to write the Great American epic in the tradition of Virgil and Homer. • Transitional figure that transforms Transcendentalism through an emphasis on humanity and seeing that humanity in positive, optimistic terms • Emily Dickinson? o Literary Significance § Literary maverick • Poems lacked titles, had slant rhyme and funny punctuation (dashes, capitalization…) • Poems had short lines • Rhyme schemes used slant and true rhyme (occasionally) • Emerson? o Father of American literature o Rejects enlightenment notion that truth is material, concerete and scientifical o Rejects puritan notions of innate/inherent depravity o Mentors later writers like thureao and whitman • Thoreau? o Nature best location for self actualization where god is o Mans virtue in simple living o Material possessions block access to divine spirit o Most noted for book Walden • John Winthrop? o Initiates the Puritan Sermon § Texts published as way of controlling social order § Very structured • Samuel Sewall? o Literary significance § Writes one of the first public critiques of slavery • Joseph Saffin? o Literary significance § Participated in Massachusetts first public debate about slavery- proslavery
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