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UA / Foreign Language / FLL 209 / What is the enlightenment?

What is the enlightenment?

What is the enlightenment?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Foreign Language
Course: American Literature
Professor: Cassander smith
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: EN 209-005 Final Exam Study Guide
Description: Here is the final exam study guide for EN 209-005. It is in the same format as the study guide Dr. Smith provided for us and has answers to everything from that study guide.
Uploaded: 12/08/2015
10 Pages 53 Views 6 Unlocks
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EN 209-005 Final Exam Study Guide


What is the enlightenment?



The final exam will be the same format as the midterm exam. There will be three sections:  1. Passage Recognition (15 points total; 3 points for author and 2 points for title) 2. Short Answer (60 points; 10 questions total)

3. Author Significance (25 points)

Enlightenment:

• What is the Enlightenment?

o Cultural movement that emphasizes science and learning (logic and  observation and experimentation) rather than superstition and occult beliefs in the realms of the invisible. In other words, religion is no longer ultimately  authority 

▪ Science and Logic 

▪ Aka “Age of Reason”

▪ Begins in Europe


Who are the three writers who wrote in the transcendentalist movement?



• Emphasized observations and the ordering of things

• In America, movement fueled American Revolution  

Romanticism:

• A style of art, literature, etc., during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that  emphasized the imagination and emotions

o 3 features:

▪ Imagination

▪ Nature

▪ Feelings/intuition

▪ Nathaniel Hawthorne

Transcendentalism:

• Philosophical, political, literary movement Don't forget about the age old question of It is the ability to target specific groups of individuals with a minimum of waste coverage, what is it?

o No blind conformity

o Unique relationship to the world


How does transcendentalism respond to the enlightenment movement?



• God is in and around us; a unifying force

• Access god in solitude (nature) 

• Response to Calvinist, Enlightenment and Romanticism Don't forget about the age old question of Who studied eyewitness testimony in a classroom setting?

• Ultimate goal to become more like God

• All have innate wisdom

• Rise above everyday social constraints of society 

Three writers who wrote in the Transcendentalist Movement: If you want to learn more check out It is a disorder that enjoys dressing as opposite sex, what is it?

1. Walt Whitman

2. Emily Dickinson

3. Ralph Waldo Emerson

4. Henry David Thoreau  

How does Transcendentalism respond to the Enlightenment Movement?

• It’s not about blind conformity

• Relationship to the world

• God is in everything

• Undying force

• Becoming more like god

• Innate wisdom

Puritan Theology- TULIP:

• Total Depravity:

o Original Sin

o Inherent self-interest versus obedience  Don't forget about the age old question of It is a center for learning, emotion, memory, and perception, what is it?

• Unconditional Election:

o The saved versus the dammed

o God has already decided

• Limited atonement: Don't forget about the age old question of What is the sapir whorf hypothesis?

o Christ and the elect

o Only applied to certain people (the people who were the elect- saved) • Irresistible Grace:

o Unavoidable acceptance  

• Perseverance of the Saints:

o Eternal salvation- will be forever saved

Compare and contrast the slave narrative and the Indian captivity narrative: • Slave Narrative:

o Slave Narrative (biographical narrative documenting account of slavery) ▪ Descendant of the Captivity Narrative

• Captivity = Slavery

• Protagonist shifts to black African slavery/Antagonist becomes  

the slave master

• Setting changes from wilderness to the plantation

• Plot structure changes from a circle to an inverted checkmark  

• Civilization/Wilderness binary remains the same

• Rhetorical purpose shifts to become more social/political

• Indian Captivity Narrative: Don't forget about the age old question of What is syn-dihydroxylation?

o Indian Captivity Narrative

▪ Chronicles contact

▪ Conventions of genre

• Protagonist- good or bad, always at the center of the story (ex.  

CdV (Europeans/americans))

• Antagonist- prevents the protagonist from achieving his/her  

goal (ex. Native Americans)

• Setting- always begins in some civilized space. Eventually  

moves into “wilderness”  

▪ Full circle- protagonist starts in civilized space, progressively gets  taken away into wilderness- where eventually a turning point is  

reached and the protagonist gets taken back to civilization somehow o Texts show subject fundamentally changed by captivity/ American  Landscape  

o American Themes: cultural contact, wilderness/landscape, self-regeneration  (self-made man), wealth, religion

Slave Narrative genre- Rhetorical purpose:

• To critique slavery

• To secure equal rights

• Illustrate harsh treatment of slavery  

Four parts of the Puritan Sermon:

• Text – section of the Bible that will be discussed

• Doctrine – divine law; here is the law that God is trying to convey to you • Explication – explanation of text

• Uses – application; how the doctrine should look in your everyday life

Structured, plain style of the Puritan Sermon:

• Winthrop and the Puritan Sermon  

o Texts published as way of controlling social order

o Very structured  

▪ Plain-style prose- write in the language of the day 

• Puritan’s intended their sermons to be easy to understand and relatable.  • Strict formatting and structure helped to ensure deep understanding among those  listening

Slave Narrative structure:

• Captivity = Slavery

• Protagonist shifts to black African slavery/Antagonist becomes the slave master • Setting changes from wilderness to the plantation

• Plot structure changes from a circle to an inverted checkmark

• Civilization/Wilderness binary remains the same

• Rhetorical purpose shifts to become more social/political

Separating vs. Nonseparating Puritans:

Separating Puritans:

• William Bradford

o New “Godly” territory

▪ Plymouth Colony (1620)

o No turning back 

▪ Separatists vs. non-separatists  

o American Cultural Mythology  

▪ Mayflower compact

• Democracy

▪ First thanksgiving

• Cultural Salad Bowl  

▪ Religious freedom

Non-Separating Puritans:

• John Winthrop

o Puritan Minister

o City Upon a Hill

▪ Massachusetts Bay Colony (1629)

o Temporary settlement 

Why did Bradford and the Pilgrims travel to Plymouth Colony? What was their goal? Puritan Discontent:

• Radical reformation

o Church of England = Roman Catholic Church

o No images, elaborate garbs ad relics, no show

• Religious sovereignty 

o The Americas

• Separating Puritans wanted to completely separate from the Church of England so  that they may create a new “Godly” territory

Myths of Plymouth Colony:

• American Cultural Mythology  

o Mayflower compact

▪ Democracy

• First thanksgiving

o Cultural Salad Bowl  

• Religious freedom

Myths of John Winthrop and MBC:

• American Myths

o US Exceptionalism - the idea that the US is unique/exceptional in terms of  time and place- no other place like it  

o Democracy  

o Hard work

o Christian brotherhood and charity  

Spiritual Diary Genre:

• Bradford

o Accounts quotidian (daily routine)  

▪ No set structure but includes minutia and dates  

o Purpose: 

▪ Reflect and see God’s design 

▪ How do the events that happen in your daily life mirror the events  that happened to the subjects of the Bible  

▪ Puritans always saw themselves as being connected to the larger  

community

▪ History book  

▪ Prove spiritual fervor and favor  

o Audience

▪ Self 

▪ Body of Saints (community at large) 

▪ Meant to be shared  

Cain and Abel: Slavery justification in the Americas

• Cain kills Abel

• God curses Cain by marking him so that others would know that if any harm were to  come to Cain, God would have vengeance on them

• People interpreted the mark on Cain to mean dark skin pigmentation and used this  argument to justify slavery as just being a feature of the curse God had placed on  Cain

The Curse of Ham and its relation to slavery:

• Ham was one of the sons of Noah

• Noah curses Ham’s son Canaan and the descendants of Canaan to be slaves • People justified slavery in saying that African Americans were the descendants of  Canaan

Aristotle and the slave/master theory:

Slavery and the Moral Dilemma

• Aristotle  

o Politics (Books III-VII)

▪ Natural slaves vs. natural masters

• Physical but no intellectual capacity

• Masters maintain order out of chaos  

Frederick Douglass:

• Purpose of publishing his narrative

o To critique slavery

o To secure equal rights

o Illustrate harsh treatment of slavery  

Three features of Hawthorne’s writing:

• Most popular early American Novelist

o The Scarlet Letter, House of Seven Gables

• Noted for use of Romanticism in American Landscape

o Intuition over observable experience

• Common Themes he ponders in his work

o The inherent evil and sin of humanity

o Moral allegories (Young Goodman Brown)

Transcendentalism in Whitman’s poetry:

• Transitional figure that transforms Transcendentalism through an emphasis on  humanity and seeing that humanity in positive, optimistic terms

Dickinson: Why is she a literary Maverick? + key features of poetry

• Literary maverick

o Poems lacked titles, had slant rhyme and funny punctuation (dashes,  capitalization…)

o Poems had short lines

o Rhyme schemes used slant and true rhyme (occasionally)

The “Father of Free Verse”?

• Whitman’s poetry style was different from traditional styles that used meter and  rhyme

Indian Praying Towns:

• 14 towns, 1646-1675

o Communities of converted Indians

o Mostly self-governing –English overseer for important things, Indians in  charge of day to day things  

o Assimilation  

▪ If any man shall be idle a week, or at most a fortnight, he shall be fined  five shillings

▪ If any unmarried man shall lie with a young woman unmarried, he  shall be fined five shillings

▪ If any women shall go with naked breasts, she shall pay two shillings ▪ All men that shall wear long locks, shall pay five shillings

▪ If any shall crack lice between their teeth, they shall pay five shillings o “A Good Indian is a sealed Indian”

• Relevant to Samson Occom in the fact that he himself was a descendant of early  conversion efforts by the puritans  

Indian Autobiography, Conventions:

• Narratives detailing life of Indians  

o Starts with birth

o Details the customs of Indian cultures

o Narratives display communities’ efforts to adjust to increasing European  encroachment

o Texts usually religious in nature, outline assimilation  

o Also a critique of that Euro-American culture  

William Apess: “An Indians Looking Glass…”

• Rhetorical Purpose

o Prove that American Indians have not vanished

o Advocate for the civil rights of dispossessed groups, mainly American Indians  but other groups, too

o Highlight racist American politics toward American Indians

▪ Indian Removal Act

“The Selling of Joseph” (1700)

• Rhetorical purpose

o Condemn slavery

“A Brief and Candid Answer to a Late Printed Sheet Entitled the ‘Selling of Joseph’” • Rhetorical purpose

o Defend the colony’s practice of slavery

How does Benjamin Franklin represent/epitomize the American myth of the self-made man? • Formalizes the myth of the self made-man rhetoric as a feature of American identity

When we way that Franklin was an exemplary figure, not a representative figure, what do we  mean?

• He can’t be replicated  

• Wrote own autobiography as a representative figure but due to extraordinary  circumstances in his life/career he became exemplary  

Why does Franklin write his Autobiography?

• For his son

We say that Benjamin Franklin changed the genre of the Autobiography. What do we mean? • He begins at birth

• Highlights key events that shaped who he became

• Similar to diary/journal self explanation

Apess vs. Occom and Literary Significance:

• Apess

o Literary significance

▪ First major writer of Indian descent in U.S. 

• First Indian to publish a full autobiography 

o Son of the Forrest

• Early writings especially were critical of “White” politics

• Occom

o Literary Significance:

▪ First Native American to publish life writing 

▪ Initiates a new genre: Indian Autobiography 

Literary Significance:

• Nathaniel Hawthorne

o Most popular early American Novelist

▪ The Scarlet Letter, House of Seven Gables

o Noted for use of Romanticism in American Landscape

▪ Intuition over observable experience

o Common Themes he ponders in his work

▪ The inherent evil and sin of humanity

o Moral allegories (Young Goodman Brown)

▪ A short story about a Christian who goes on a spiritual journey  

• Maria Stewart?

o Black feminist intellectual abolitionist born free in Connecticut  

o First female American to speak to mixed audience

o Most noted for Essay Religion and Pure Principle

• Benjamin Franklin?

o Formalizes myth of the self made man rhetoric as a feature of American  Identity

o Changes the genre of autobiography

▪ Begins from birth

▪ Highlights key events that shaped who he became

▪ Similar to diary/journal self-examination

• Samson Occom?

o Literary Significance:

▪ First Native American to publish life writing

▪ Initiates a new genre: Indian Autobiography

• William Apess?

o Literary significance

▪ First major writer of Indian descent in U.S.

• First Indian to publish a full autobiography

o Son of the Forrest

• Early writings especially were critical of “White” politics

• Frederick Douglass?

o Literary Significance

▪ Founds a newspaper (The North Star)

▪ Writes one of the most influential slave narratives (Publishes three  versions of it)

• William Bradford?

o Initiated new genre

▪ Spiritual Diary

• Accounts quotidian (daily routine)

• Walt Whitman?

o Literary Significance

▪ “Father of Free-Verse”

▪ “Father of American poetry”

• His goal was to write the Great American epic in the tradition  

of Virgil and Homer.

• Transitional figure that transforms Transcendentalism through  an emphasis on humanity and seeing that humanity in positive,  

optimistic terms

• Emily Dickinson?

o Literary Significance

▪ Literary maverick

• Poems lacked titles, had slant rhyme and funny punctuation  

(dashes, capitalization…)

• Poems had short lines

• Rhyme schemes used slant and true rhyme (occasionally)

• Emerson?

o Father of American literature

o Rejects enlightenment notion that truth is material, concerete and scientifical o Rejects puritan notions of innate/inherent depravity  

o Mentors later writers like thureao and whitman

• Thoreau?

o Nature best location for self actualization where god is

o Mans virtue in simple living

o Material possessions block access to divine spirit

o Most noted for book Walden  

• John Winthrop?

o Initiates the Puritan Sermon

▪ Texts published as way of controlling social order

▪ Very structured  

• Samuel Sewall?

o Literary significance

▪ Writes one of the first public critiques of slavery

• Joseph Saffin?

o Literary significance

▪ Participated in Massachusetts first public debate about slavery- proslavery

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