StudyGuideExam#5-Chapters14-19ERTH101.pdf ERTH 101IN-001
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Date Created: 12/07/15
Study Guide Exam 5 ERTH 101 Chapters 14 19 Chapter 14 Questions 1 What are the essential characteristics of life 2 What is the difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells 3 What is evolution What is microevolution and macroevolution 4 How does natural selection work 5 What is a species 6 What is speciation 7 In what way have planets modified their reproductive cycle since moving on to the land 8 What evidence in the fossil record suggests that rapid extinctions have occurred many times in the past Describe two hypotheses for the extinctions 9 What are the four major eons of Earth history and what environments and life forms characterized each of them generally 10 What is the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs Give an example for each 11 Could life have started as a virus or bacterium 12 What is the Galactic Habitable Zone Important Info 0 Necessities for Life 0 set of chemical reactions by which an organism derives energy the action or process of making a copy of something the production of offspring by a sexual or asexual process I Genetic plan is encoded in DNA decoded and executed by RNA 0 the irreversible increase in the dry mass of an organism It is brought about by an increase in cell size or number 0 The change in genetic composition of a population over successive generations which may be caused by natural selection inbreeding hybridization or mutation 0 The Hierarchy of Life 0 is the basic structural functional and biological unit of all known living organisms Cells are the smallest unit of life that can replicate independently and are often called the quotbuilding blocks of lifequot The study of cells is called cell biology 0 a branching diagram or quottr quot showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities their phylogeny based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics 0 0 Hierarchical Structure of Life 0 the zone of air land and water where organisms eXist It is commonly known as the global sum of all ecosystems and consists of several layers including the atmosphere the lithosphere and the hydrosphere A large community of plants and animals that occupies a distinct region Interactions of a biological community with the non biological components of its environment 0 Populations of a species interacting with populations of other species 0 Group of members of a species that interbreed and share genetic information 0 Individual members of a 7 L 7 1 a VI l A D V q r u 1 7 l a L a r 27 i it c IEIIE EFE 7 v r l l 7 u g 7 7 77 4 777 77 7 77 L 7b l 7 7 r i L 5 I L r 7 I E V n u u E Li 1 7 4 Emanism 7 0 is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise O results from geographic isolation O results from segregation and reproductive isolation 0 Humans have accelerated the rate of extinction since the Industrial Revolution Chapter 15 Questions 1 What are the two fundamental requirements for any long term life supporting system Describe the characteristics of a minimum life supporting system What is biological productivity What is the difference between a food web and a food chain What is the role of decomposers in the ecosystem What are the main impacts of human activity on the global biogeochemical cycles 7 What is the fundamental difference between terrestrial and biomes 8 Describe one major terrestrial aquatic and marine biome 9 How does energy move through an ecosystem 10 Give examples for each trophic level 9959 11 What is the difference between a macronutrient and a micronutrient 12 Describe each global cycle Calcium Sulfur Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus Important Information Trophic Levels 7quot Vi V N flag5 4 5321511 3939T 51 riF 1 Eu quot lv 7 a39 7 V 1 WMIW l Pnlmiw Prodigal 7 7 L An organism whose ecological function involves the recycling of nutrients by performing the natural process of decomposition as it feeds on dead or decaying organisms Autotrophic organisms that synthesize organic materials from inorganic materials effectively introducing new organic material into the environment that the primary consumers can feed upon and so forth 0 Produce organic matter in body 0 Uses this matter as fuel in metabolism and respiration 0 Stores some matter for future use Any organism that consumes or feeds on autotrophs or decaying matter An organism that largely feeds on 211111812 COHSUIIICIS An organism that largely feeds on secondary and primary consumers 0 Organism takes in a substance faster than it can process and excrete it 0 the accumulation of substances such as pesticides or other chemicals in an organism This occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate faster than that at which the substance is lost 0 the concentration of toxins in an organism as a result of its ingesting other plants or animals in which the toxins are more Widely disbursed Bionmmmulai nn Fm ll T ma Einmagnl lea un 0 the movement of elements through organisms and the environment 0 2 The unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the Earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants 0 a compleX biotic community characterized by distinctive plant and animal species and maintained under the climatic conditions of the region especially such a community that has developed to climaX Tu dm thand grate Eh 39 l Enss la Tipiiiai HiEIEEIEI39I Ei K mm lemurs fairest rain fares urine l Engraallmre T EWE39EWE Desert Emma Emma J L J rialg a rdeelduuue Harvest seasonal flares1 Eimle EqualEur Tmplu of Eami mm 1 v i J 31 139 L 1 2 Intertidal zone World Biomes Above Nie39riitilc zone Oceanic zone Oceanic Zones Below I r w y 1 i r 7 Chapter 16 Questions 1 What is the difference between a population and a community 2 What is the equation for growth rate 3 Define carrying capacity 4 What is the difference between intraspecific competition and interspecific competition 5 Give an example of a herbivore an omnivore a carnivore and an insectivore 6 What the difference between a niche and a habitat 7 What is the difference between intrinsic factors and extrinsic factor in populations 8 What is a limiting factor Give four examples 9 What is the competitive exclusion principle 10 What is the difference between generalists and specialists species 11 What is habitat diversity 12 What is the difference between endangered and threatened species Important Information 0 One organism exploits another for its own gain a relationship that is decidedly beneficial to one and harmful to the other 0 One partner benefits parasite while the other is harmed host 0 One organism predator eats the other prey 0 a relationship between two species of organisms in which both benefit from the association 0 the two species in the relationship live together 0 One organism benefits without affecting the other 0 Ecosystems are open systems in which species interact in immeasurably compleX 0 is one whose impact on its community or ecosystem is disproportionately large relative to its abundance 0 a plant fungus or animal species that is not native to a specific location an introduced species species specialized to fill slightly different niches example below Cape May Telluwaumped Blank thwarted iBlaokbumian Baiwbrexastad warbler warbler green warbler warbler warbler 0 Speciation process whereby a new species arises O is speciation that occurs because populations live in different places 0 two populations might live in the same place but have some other reason why they can39t interbreed O the formation of new species through evolution vigilnail Fart pnpu tiun New upsElie list pepuatnn reprnuetluay r dietinghwen ilf 7 Simulated barrlisr a removed Alil patrie antler ferme Fan Earth New slightly itaren39t habitat is EmeritaEd SympatriIE Variation EEUFE as result of behavira di er entia on Elf genetic mutation Time IF 0 refers to both the vast numbers of different species as well as the diversity within a species 0 Number of species that live in specific ecosystems O the number of species in an ecosystem or community 0 The relative abundance of individuals within each species of a community 0 break up of large tracts of natural area into smaller patches by roads and other obstructions Chapter 17 Questions 1 What is a sustainable yield and to what kinds of resources does it apply 2 What is aquaculture 3 What is the difference between conservation and preservation of wilderness Why is it so challenging to evaluate the state of fisheries When did humans first develop agriculture What is arable soil and why is it such an important resource Compare modern and traditional agriculture and comment on their environment impacts Define sustainable development What are some of the difference between a natural forest and a managed forest plantation 10 Give example of renewable nonrenewable and ineXhaustible resources 99 090 Important Information HEEDUI CEE and raw matsriss Final 7 disp ss P r V Miningsultivsting EEDUTEE and harsssting 39 witll39 dzrswsl Waste residuals 7 SEE SPHERE and llluti n quot r Pmssssmg sf 7 raw mstris s Puts hsss and uss HWDHDE PHEHE s3 sun SUFHELI39quot Tm SFHEQE E i 313 PHE HIE Tran swan all materials i pmdu sits Trs nspsn sf prsd Lists 0 Human economy is an open system driven by resources and energy 0 Old growth forest Forest that has endured hundreds or thousands of years without human disturbance 0 Clear cutting most economically efficient way to harvest wood but is the most ecologically damaging 0 Deforestation loss of forest cover 0 Wilderness natural forests where people do not live 0 Conservation the conscientious management of natural heritage and resources 0 Preservation the maintenance of natural wilderness areas in near pristine condition Nature Seeking Balance 0 Habitat and forest products Precipitation is intercepted and returned to the atmosphere Via Wind eneed deereeees a beneath the quoteennny JL id 1 Semen ie reieeeerl end eertren ie etered HUH IJi iI ie high Funnier the eenepy Litierfell e de V A ergenie matter in the eeil Finite help stabilize the eniil Fannie drew nutrients and water item depth Soil is nutrientpoor Tropical rain forest Up to 75 of precipitation returns to atmosphere by Vegetation is the main biomass reservoir Soil is nutrientrich Temperate forest Humidity is high under the canopy Litter decays quickly Chapter 18 Questions 1 Describe five ways in which mineral deposits can form 2 How do hydrothermal solutions form and how do they lead to the formation of ore deposits 3 What causes acid mine drainage 4 How do residual mineral deposits from 5 What are the main phases of the mining process 6 Explain the main environmental impacts of mining on land air water and the biosphere including human health 7 What limitations are there on the development of geothermal power Wind power Wave power 8 Explain the steps that occur as organic matter becomes coal 9 What is peat 10 What alternative energy options do we have other than fossil fuels Important Information Earth s energy comes from three sources 0 Solar radiation 0 Geothermal energy 0 Tidal energy Fossil fuels Hydrocarbons 0 Coal 0 Oil 0 Natural gases Ancient forests cover much of Earth s Fl IrFHt A 0 Peat During burial and conversion to rock organic compounds are chemically transformed into petroleum O Derived from Earth s plant life Fuel wood Peat Animal dung Agricultural waste 0 Can be converted into liquid fuels ethanol and methanol Unconventional Hydrocarbons O deposits of dense think asphalt like oil called tar O a waX like compound called kerogen in fine grained sedimentary rocks 0 deposits of frozen methane in permafrost and sea oor sediments Time and The vegetation dies and is buried under anaerobic conditions fnrminn noni Suhbitumimus nthrtiie Lierlite After more pressure and time anthracite The peat is compressed between sediment layers to Further compression yields sub bituminous coal fnrm linniin fnrmc Chapter 19 Questions 1 In what way does human population growth place stress on the Earth system 2 How do population technology and resource use interact to determine the impact of human activities on Earth systems 3 What are cumulative effects 4 Summarize the major global impacts of human activity on the geosphere hydrosphere atmosphere and biosphere 5 What is geo engineering 6 What are the main human activities that disrupt the global carbon cycle what are the effects 7 What is the current rate of increase of the human population 8 What is the current human population 9 How has the Earth s atmosphere changed since the industrial revolution Important Information Our impact on the Earth system through population is related to standards of living and resource utilization 0 the impact of a person or community on the environment eXpressed as the amount of land required to sustain their use of natural resources 0 Scientific Consensus of Anthropogenic Role on Climate Change 1 Human actiVities have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations of C02 2 Global mean surface air temperature has increased by O8 C during the last 100 150 years 3 During the next century temperature will continue to increase H C i a l 4131 3 a Arraizii a39sljh as ssssjystsssis HEPirits s slams f pir tij 39FESPIFEH l E I sl r rg s rs i E m 39ij 39139 3935 Eases n u pass is s is Pt I um Fsrssils saris fsrssi hasIs
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