Part 1 study guide for final
Part 1 study guide for final CJC 241
Popular in Corrections
Popular in Criminal Justice
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hailey on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CJC 241 at Ball State University taught by Staton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Corrections in Criminal Justice at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 12/07/15
C ORRECTIONS FINAL E XAM STUDY G UIDE • Growth in staff & clients/inmates o Number of employees has grown in the last 20 years despite any setbacks o Expenditures increased by 660% o Staff working in corrections stretched thin o Organizational problems develop when hiring and retaining the best employees • Pay o For most professions pay commensurate with job requirements and skills § Clear indication of value o Number of correctional institutions and programs making much progress o Continuum of professionalization in corrections o Police officers make more than both probation & parole & corrections officers o Push toward privatization since the 80s has not amounted to better pay • Stanford Prison Experiment o Phillip Zimbardos experiment at Stanford University in 1971 o Volunteer students in 2 different groups § Officers § Inmates o Neither were told any rules or policies to guide or restrict behavior o Experiment stopped after a few days because officers became abusive toward inmates o Lessons learned about power • Abu Ghraib Scandal of 2004 o Prisoners tortured by mostly untrained correctional officers in American operated military prison in Iraq o Blame for abuses extended up chain of command • Correctional Work is little understood o Few people on the outside know how institutions and community supervision work o Media portrays correctional institutions in a violent light o Mass media not alone in misleading public and students • Bureaucracies o Max Weber distilled them down to 3 elements § Hierarchy § Specialization § Rule of law o Working in a bureaucracy has effects of making work routine and predictable • Closed Institutions o Corrections thought to be partially closed institutions o Closed nature of corrections o Extent to which an organization is open or closed affecting work of employees • Total institutions o Erving goffman (1961) o Correction institutions as total institutions • Race/Ethnicity and Gender o Hiring of women and minorities in corrections did not occur in most criminal justice agencies to any extent until after the passage of civil rights act of 1974 o Corrections is not fully integrated o Perceptions of job opportunities by different racial and ethnic groups o Sexual harassment research o Matter not settled as to whether service better prepares individual for work in corrections • The role defined o Role is determined by what work I done everyday for the organization o Determined by a number of factors § Job description § Assigned duties § Type of organization § Type of clientele § Various other factors • Hack v. Human service o Hack à a violent cynical & alienated keeper of inmates in a no-hope warehouse prison o Human Service à research has found most correctional officers regularly engage in a positive role of helping inmates • Subculture and Socialization o Staff subculture varies by facility and type of organization § Subculture is norms, value, beliefs, history, tradition, and language shared by a group of people § Distinct prison subculture was evident in past • Subcultural Values o Likely to have effect on what staff do in correctional setting o Shared intense experiences likely to bind staff together in “us vs. them” mentality o Some values are “positive” § Facilitate ability of officers to do work well o Some values are negative § Sound exactly like those of the inmate subculture § Serve to isolate the work and the workers reinforce negative attitudes • The defects of total power o Gresham Sykes describes relationship between staff and inmates in maximum security prison § Staff need inmates to comply with orders as much as inmates need staff assistance § Gaining compliance isn’t always easy § Realities cause staff and inmates to engage in corrupted relationships § Not complying with orders can force staff to adjust their behavior • Elderly o Elderly inmates are the fastest growing segment of the inmate population § Particularly in the south where sentences are longer and more elderly reside o The growth in elderly population is not about and elderly crime wave o Many elderly arrests are related to alcoholism § The drug war has also contributed to elderly arrests o In Florida the second most common offense of incarcerated elderly is illicit sexual conduct o Research on how many elderly are incarcerated for violent crimes is mixed • Health Care & Housing Accommodations for the Elderly & Dying o The establishment of separate facilities for elderly inmates has not been standard policy § Separate facilities may exist for health conditions rather than age o Standard practice is to integrate elderly inmates within the general population o Compassionate release programs apply to inmates who have six months or less to live § 43 states had such policies as of 2004 but they are rarely used § One major reason is many nursing homes will not accept individuals with prior records § Hospice care in prison has been the growing trend • Mentally Ill o In the 60s & 70s the closing of most state hospitals for the mentally ill occurred as community mental health centers were established § But local jurisdictions failed to develop adequate CMHCs § Many persons with severe mental illness were left untreated and ended up in the criminal justice system o Penrose in late 1930s noted in Europe that if a society has large prisons then there are few fewer mental hospitals while the reverse is also true o Trans institutionalization is the term for this process § the interdependent relationship between prisons and mental hospitals • The effects of decarceration & getting tough o From 1965-1985 state mental hospital populations decreased from 451,000 to 177,000 o During the same 20 years state and federal prison populations increase from 210,000 to 420,000 o Mental hospitals have remained open are reserved for the most dangerous of the criminally insane o Jails have also had a major increase in proportion of inmates who are mentally ill § Many of these are dangerous offenders who don’t qualify for civil commitment to state hospitals § The growth of the mentally ill in jails has been in part due to get-tough policies supported by broken windows theory o Mentally ill arrestees often spend three to four months in jail before trial § The crimes they commit tend to be minor crimes of survival (i.e. trespassing) or of their mental disorder (i.e. disorderly conduct) § Mentally ill rarely post bail or obtain other release so they remain in jail at least twice as long as the average inmate o Percentage of inmates having on of four major mental disorders (i.e. schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bi-polar disorder, major depression) according to 2007 study § 10-19% in jails § 18-27% in state prisons § 16-21% in federal prisons • The care and custody of mentally ill o Incarcerated mentally ill persons may at times become suicidal or unruly and destructive of property § This can lead to harsh discipline by correctional officers o Mentally ill inmates also may be targeted due to their vulnerability by other inmates o Most institutions now provide services that focus on prevention and the relief of pint and suffering § Chemical Strait-jackets à tranquilizers, barbiturates, and sedative-hypnotic drugs used to control bad behavior § Federal guidelines have established patient to staff ratios for overseeing use of psychotic medications o Despite guidelines the authors note major problems found in florida and california prison systems regarding monitoring and treating mentally ill inmates o Many states focus on mental health services on high-risk facilities § Mentally ill inmates may be over-classified in terms of security risk o Newer programs designed to deal with the issue of mentally ill persons in criminal justice systems include mental health courts and police diversion programs § Mental health courts at first heard misdemeanor cases, but now many hear felonies and a few even work with violent felony cases § Mental health courts use a team approach of criminal justice and mental health professionals including non- adversarial approach to adjudication (prosecutors and defense attorneys work together) • Women in historic prisons o Newgate New York prison § Separate wing for women inmates § Washed and sewed for prison § Upon closing of Newgate the Auburn and Sing-Sing prisons did not want to take women o Female inmates were moved to Bellevue Penitentiary § Conditions were poor § Silent requirement could not be enforced in congregate system due to no matron • Mount Pleasant o Constructed in 1839 o First womens prison in US o Built behind Sing-Sing and partly administered by it o Had own buildings, staff, & administrator o Matrons quarters in the prison • Race in early prisons o Maryland § First prison in Baltimore in 1811 § House women in similar but separate congregate as men until 1921 o Border state with slavery to the south and non slavery to the north o Study of Maryland state penitentiary § Found that 72% of incarcerated females were black and this proportion grew as the civil war ended § Both black and white women tended to be incarcerated for violent crimes § White women incarcerated more for crimes against morality than black women § Black female inmates required to serve a greater proportion of their sentences and tended to be pardoned les and died more often in prison • Discipline in womens prisons o In the 1800s methods of discipline moved from severe to soft depending on supervision, facilities, number incarcerated, & inclination of keepers o In mount pleasant gag was used all the time and lashing was rare o In Ohio State prison discipline was quite severe § Women were beaten or placed in solitary confinement • Hiring Female Matrons o Lack of matrons to protect and supervise women in many of first prisons was a serious problem o Dorothea Dix § Noted during her first visit to primarily male facilities that female matrons had been hired in several prisons but not many in county jails or prison overall • Female correctional clients o In recent decades the number of women and girls as inmates has risen but it is still a much smaller proportion than men § 2009 à12.1% women in jail § 2009 à 6.9% women in prison § 2003 à girls were 15.1% of those in juvenile facilities o largest growth has come in probation § by 2009 women are 24% of those on probation with 12% of those on parole • Female Staff o Women employment as correctional staff has not grown as sharply as growth of women under supervision o Women were only sometimes employed as matrons in early jails and prisons o Women did not make significant inroads into the corrections profession until the civil rights act of 1964 was amended in 1972 o This allowed women to sue over not being employed in correctional facilities o According to bureau of statistics women are § 28% of correctional officers in jails § 26% of correctional officers in prisons § 13% of cps in federal prisons § 48% of cps in private prisons • Needs & Programming o Focus on men has led to desperate treatment that has disadvantaged women and girls from beginning and resulted in little concern for needs o There is some recognition by federal government of need to develop programming that fits the needs of women and girls but most needs are far from being met o Parenting programs à many states have had mother-child programs for infants and very young children but most facilities do not have such programs
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