Exam 4 Study Guide
Exam 4 Study Guide BIO 106 - M001
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Iliana Elias on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by S. Parks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 258 views. For similar materials see Ocean Life in Biology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 12/07/15
Biodiversity 3 types of diversity: o genetic o species o ecosystem richness – total number of species in the ecosystem evenness – equal numbers of each different species what is a biodiversity hotspot? o high species richness/biodiversity o area that is at risk from human activities How to Read a Food Web: Anything that is a producer is photosynthetic (e.g. algae) Arrows point to the consumer o For example: if an arrow is going from krill to a penguin, that means the penguin eats the krill Characteristics of Shallow waters Where are they located? Close to the coasts, on the continental shelf o Kelp forests are located in the northern Pacific Where does the energy come from? Sunlight Where do the nutrients come from? The land Tides do affect shallow waters 200m and above is considered shallow sea Salt marshes Where are they located? mid-high latitudes, temperate waters Producers: algae, grasses (i.e. Spartina) Consumers: birds, crabs (i.e. mostly invertebrate consumers) Features that determine species distribution: salinity level Conservation threats: habitat destruction Rocky intertidal Where are they located? Anywhere there are rocks, rocky areas Producers: algae, lichen (symbiosis relationship between fungus and algae) Consumers: sea birds, invertebrates (which are the dominant consumers) Features that determine species distribution: water level, wave action, exposure to air Conservation threats: o ocean acidification. A lot of the animals have calciumcarbonate shells o invasive species: can wipe out an entire tide pool Kelp Forests Where are they located? Temperate waters Producers: kelp (macroalgae) Consumers: sea otters (which are keystone species), urchins Conservation threats: o sea urchin barrens (caused by population of sea otters going down) o pollution run off (algae blooms blocks off sunlight and kelp can’t grow) o global warming Coral reefs Where are they located? Tropics Producers: algae known as zooxanthellae (lives inside the tissues of the coral) o Produces energy from the sun Consumers: fish and pretty much everything else *deep water coral reefs corals are consumers mainly because they can’t get energy from the sun, but instead from particles that float down from the surface conservation: o coral bleaching caused by global warming corals expel the algae o ocean acidification *Atoll: volcanic island, reef around it, volcanic island subsides Deep sea habitats how do scientists study the ocean? Unmanned and manned vehicles We’ve only explored 5% of the ocean ***No direct sun input how do they get their energy?? Chemosynthetic bacteria or indirect photosynthesis Is the abyssal plain a biodiversity hotspot? No Polar ecosystems Where are they located? Poles Producers: phytoplankton (microalgae) Consumers: seals, krill (mainly vertebrates) Conservation threats: o climate change o Major issue in the ARCTIC NOT ANTARCTIC oil and gas exploration (companies looking for places to drill) Deep sea hydrothermal vents Where are they located? Deep sea floor near cracks in the earth’s crust Main producer: chemosynthetic bacteria (using chemicals that come from the earth’s crust to produce energy) Consumers: few consumers, mostly invertebrates (e.g. crabs, fish) Conservation threats: short-lived due to plates shifting and preventing chemicals from entering the ecosystem How are cold seeps similar to hydrothermal vents? Get their energy from the sea floor How are they different? Their chemosynthetic bacteria is methane Overharvesting Population – the inhabitants of that area Stocks – subdivided populations Fisheries – catching of the stocks Mariculture/aquaculture – raising fish for consumption o half of the sea food consumed in the U.S. is from aquaculture wild caught – going out and catching fish in the wild Bycatch – catching something that wasn’t intended on being caught How do we determine if something Is overfished? Catching more than the system can naturally replenish Maximum sustainable yield: tells you how much you can catch before reaching an amount that exceeds the natural replenishment rate Fisheries of the world EEZ – each country has an Exclusive Economic Zones Most important commercial fisheries in U.S? invertebrates: lobster, scallops, oysters, shrimp Most famous fishery collapse? Cod fishery. Used to be an abundance in the north Atlantic How are they regulated? Lobster fisheries. Most profitable Whaling Subsistence whaling has existed for thousands of years o Refers to hunting whales for food Commercial whaling since 1700s o Refers to hunting to sell Whaling is still happening in Norway, Japan, Iceland Sequential Overharvest Once bigger whales are few, hunt the smaller species Started hunting Blue whales, then went to Fin whales, then went to Humpback whales, then Sei whales, then Minke whales The IWC Moratorium (created in 1986) for commercial whaling o no enforcement, it’s voluntary all countries have ended whaling practices except: Norway, Japan, and Iceland loopholes: o voluntary o subsistence whaling o scientific research Fishing methods longlines: line with miles of hooks gill nets: wall of netting that hangs in the water column. Fish gills get caught in mesh as fish tries to escape purse seines: surround a big group fish and catch everything in that area Trawls: pick up fish off the bottom, scooping mechanism Aquaculture/Mariculture 3 types: o seeding aquaculture: rear baby fish and larvae until adults, then release back into the wild o intensive aquaculture: have the fish for its entire life o open aquaculture: basically are sea pens. You have fish in the open ocean but they are still enclosed benefits of aquaculture: to get a higher yield potential risks: disease, genetic differences, not sustainable if your fish are carnivorous and you have to continue to go to the ocean and catch the fish that they’re eating Pollution Point source pollutant – when pollution can be drawn to a single point o Examples: sewage line, a ship Main pollution types: plastics, runoff, sewage, heavy metals, radiation, oil spills Plastics Mainly small pieces of plastics Why are they harmful? Organisms can eat them, entanglement What is the great Pacific Garbage Patch? Middle of the north pacific, ocean gyres create a large concentration of plastic pollution Runof Where does it come from? Land What are the effects of fertilizer runoff? Algae blooms, red tide Conservation issue: o Dead zones - The giant bloom takes up all the oxygen and nutrients Heavy metals and radiation Bioaccumulation: toxic metals are stored in fish and as they go up the food chain, the bigger consumers take in those toxins What is the main chemical to worry about with seafood? Mercury Animals most affected in Fukushima disaster: bottom dwelling fish. Radiation goes into sediment and fish eat it. Oil spills Two major oil spills: Exxon Valdez, BP deepwater horizon o Deepwater horizon was larger Oil can persist in the environment for several years 15% of oil pollution in the environment comes from point source spills Tools for ocean science research vessels – when you’re only looking for a snapshot o pros: new high tech instruments including cameras, robots, and deep sea submersibles o cons: expensive (sometimes costs $50,000 for one day of work), and only get a small amount of data, can’t predict events (like earthquakes), short duration (days-weeks) buoys, moorings, drifters o pros: not expensive o cons: only getting whatever trajectory the buoys decide to go on satellites – good for survey of the whole globe at its surface o pros: long-term, continuous observation of the entire planet o cons: only observes events in shallow surface waters UUVs (Underwater) and UAVs (Aerial) – for deep locations o Pros: collect data in all weather conditions, control path of travel, collect long-term data o Cons: high individual cost (around $10,000), limited data transmission, limited deployment life Ocean observatories – for shallow locations o Pros: fiber optics cable for power and data, utilize any and all high tech devices, collect long-term real-time data o Cons: expensive, in a single geographic location for each observatory
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