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Exam 4 Study Guide

by: Iliana Elias

Exam 4 Study Guide BIO 106 - M001

Iliana Elias
GPA 3.75

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About this Document

This study guide is based off of the exam review session held on December 7th, 2015.
Ocean Life
S. Parks
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Iliana Elias on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by S. Parks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 258 views. For similar materials see Ocean Life in Biology at Syracuse University.

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Date Created: 12/07/15
Biodiversity  3 types of diversity: o genetic o species o ecosystem  richness – total number of species in the ecosystem  evenness – equal numbers of each different species  what is a biodiversity hotspot? o high species richness/biodiversity o area that is at risk from human activities How to Read a Food Web:  Anything that is a producer is photosynthetic (e.g. algae)  Arrows point to the consumer o For example: if an arrow is going from krill to a penguin, that means the penguin eats the krill Characteristics of Shallow waters  Where are they located? Close to the coasts, on the continental shelf o Kelp forests are located in the northern Pacific  Where does the energy come from? Sunlight  Where do the nutrients come from? The land  Tides do affect shallow waters  200m and above is considered shallow sea Salt marshes  Where are they located? mid-high latitudes, temperate waters  Producers: algae, grasses (i.e. Spartina)  Consumers: birds, crabs (i.e. mostly invertebrate consumers)  Features that determine species distribution: salinity level  Conservation threats: habitat destruction Rocky intertidal  Where are they located? Anywhere there are rocks, rocky areas  Producers: algae, lichen (symbiosis relationship between fungus and algae)  Consumers: sea birds, invertebrates (which are the dominant consumers)  Features that determine species distribution: water level, wave action, exposure to air  Conservation threats: o ocean acidification. A lot of the animals have calciumcarbonate shells o invasive species: can wipe out an entire tide pool Kelp Forests  Where are they located? Temperate waters  Producers: kelp (macroalgae)  Consumers: sea otters (which are keystone species), urchins  Conservation threats: o sea urchin barrens (caused by population of sea otters going down) o pollution run off (algae blooms blocks off sunlight and kelp can’t grow) o global warming Coral reefs  Where are they located? Tropics  Producers: algae known as zooxanthellae (lives inside the tissues of the coral) o Produces energy from the sun  Consumers: fish and pretty much everything else *deep water coral reefs corals are consumers mainly because they can’t get energy from the sun, but instead from particles that float down from the surface  conservation: o coral bleaching caused by global warming  corals expel the algae o ocean acidification *Atoll: volcanic island, reef around it, volcanic island subsides Deep sea habitats  how do scientists study the ocean? Unmanned and manned vehicles  We’ve only explored 5% of the ocean  ***No direct sun input how do they get their energy?? Chemosynthetic bacteria or indirect photosynthesis  Is the abyssal plain a biodiversity hotspot? No Polar ecosystems  Where are they located? Poles  Producers: phytoplankton (microalgae)  Consumers: seals, krill (mainly vertebrates)  Conservation threats: o climate change o Major issue in the ARCTIC NOT ANTARCTIC oil and gas exploration (companies looking for places to drill) Deep sea hydrothermal vents  Where are they located? Deep sea floor near cracks in the earth’s crust  Main producer: chemosynthetic bacteria (using chemicals that come from the earth’s crust to produce energy)  Consumers: few consumers, mostly invertebrates (e.g. crabs, fish)  Conservation threats: short-lived due to plates shifting and preventing chemicals from entering the ecosystem  How are cold seeps similar to hydrothermal vents? Get their energy from the sea floor  How are they different? Their chemosynthetic bacteria is methane Overharvesting  Population – the inhabitants of that area  Stocks – subdivided populations  Fisheries – catching of the stocks  Mariculture/aquaculture – raising fish for consumption o half of the sea food consumed in the U.S. is from aquaculture  wild caught – going out and catching fish in the wild  Bycatch – catching something that wasn’t intended on being caught  How do we determine if something Is overfished? Catching more than the system can naturally replenish  Maximum sustainable yield: tells you how much you can catch before reaching an amount that exceeds the natural replenishment rate Fisheries of the world  EEZ – each country has an Exclusive Economic Zones  Most important commercial fisheries in U.S? invertebrates: lobster, scallops, oysters, shrimp  Most famous fishery collapse? Cod fishery. Used to be an abundance in the north Atlantic  How are they regulated? Lobster fisheries. Most profitable Whaling  Subsistence whaling has existed for thousands of years o Refers to hunting whales for food  Commercial whaling since 1700s o Refers to hunting to sell  Whaling is still happening in Norway, Japan, Iceland Sequential Overharvest  Once bigger whales are few, hunt the smaller species  Started hunting Blue whales, then went to Fin whales, then went to Humpback whales, then Sei whales, then Minke whales The IWC  Moratorium (created in 1986) for commercial whaling o no enforcement, it’s voluntary  all countries have ended whaling practices except: Norway, Japan, and Iceland  loopholes: o voluntary o subsistence whaling o scientific research Fishing methods  longlines: line with miles of hooks  gill nets: wall of netting that hangs in the water column. Fish gills get caught in mesh as fish tries to escape  purse seines: surround a big group fish and catch everything in that area  Trawls: pick up fish off the bottom, scooping mechanism Aquaculture/Mariculture  3 types: o seeding aquaculture: rear baby fish and larvae until adults, then release back into the wild o intensive aquaculture: have the fish for its entire life o open aquaculture: basically are sea pens. You have fish in the open ocean but they are still enclosed  benefits of aquaculture: to get a higher yield  potential risks: disease, genetic differences, not sustainable if your fish are carnivorous and you have to continue to go to the ocean and catch the fish that they’re eating Pollution  Point source pollutant – when pollution can be drawn to a single point o Examples: sewage line, a ship  Main pollution types: plastics, runoff, sewage, heavy metals, radiation, oil spills Plastics  Mainly small pieces of plastics  Why are they harmful? Organisms can eat them, entanglement  What is the great Pacific Garbage Patch? Middle of the north pacific, ocean gyres create a large concentration of plastic pollution Runof  Where does it come from? Land  What are the effects of fertilizer runoff? Algae blooms, red tide  Conservation issue: o Dead zones - The giant bloom takes up all the oxygen and nutrients Heavy metals and radiation  Bioaccumulation: toxic metals are stored in fish and as they go up the food chain, the bigger consumers take in those toxins  What is the main chemical to worry about with seafood? Mercury  Animals most affected in Fukushima disaster: bottom dwelling fish. Radiation goes into sediment and fish eat it. Oil spills  Two major oil spills: Exxon Valdez, BP deepwater horizon o Deepwater horizon was larger  Oil can persist in the environment for several years  15% of oil pollution in the environment comes from point source spills Tools for ocean science  research vessels – when you’re only looking for a snapshot o pros: new high tech instruments including cameras, robots, and deep sea submersibles o cons: expensive (sometimes costs $50,000 for one day of work), and only get a small amount of data, can’t predict events (like earthquakes), short duration (days-weeks)  buoys, moorings, drifters o pros: not expensive o cons: only getting whatever trajectory the buoys decide to go on  satellites – good for survey of the whole globe at its surface o pros: long-term, continuous observation of the entire planet o cons: only observes events in shallow surface waters  UUVs (Underwater) and UAVs (Aerial) – for deep locations o Pros: collect data in all weather conditions, control path of travel, collect long-term data o Cons: high individual cost (around $10,000), limited data transmission, limited deployment life  Ocean observatories – for shallow locations o Pros: fiber optics cable for power and data, utilize any and all high tech devices, collect long-term real-time data o Cons: expensive, in a single geographic location for each observatory


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