Midterm Exam CPO3204
Popular in African Politics
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cellena Chavis on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CPO3204 at Florida International University taught by Erin Damman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see African Politics in Political Science at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 12/07/15
Cellena Chavis 4016813 Midterm The slave trade existed for centuries before the Europeans because many African peoples utilized slaves before Europeans in their own cultures through lineage This domestic slavery was driven by under population and was use for agriculture household care mining and also showed status The transatlantic slave trade was highly dependent on the cooperation of the Africans The 1st slaving was in 1441 when one man and one woman were taken back to Portugal to show off to the monarchy Following in 1445 the Portuguese built a fort in Mauritania for purchasing slaves and gold The major trading partners for the Portuguese were the Akan and Kongo and would trade 20003000 slaves annuallyBy 1600 about 80 of slaves were exported to America to work on the sugar plantations because the slaves from Africa were cheaper and more resilient than the native people Slaves were created from several sources prisoners of war slave raids from neighboring tribes kidnapping judicial process to repay debts incumbent slaves and vulnerable members of the community All of the slave trade were either ran by kings or merchants because the humans are a fragile commodity and were extremely expensive to ship There were two types of slave trade there was factory trade which was used by charter companies and was more expensive and then there was ship trade which was less expensive and would ship a few slaves at a time in comparison With the slave trade there came major consequences to African society First and foremost there was a serious depopulation there were over 20 million people lost to the slave trade Furthermore the slave trade shaped the character of these states mercantilism ourished and three major states collapsed during the time of the slave trade Also the slave trade reduced the impetus for industrialization and damaged local manufacturing because all the raw materials Cellena Chavis 4O 1 68 1 3 Midterm were being sent out of the country Some of the social consequences were that slavery slavery became ingrained into African culture female slavery rose which also led to the depopulation and slavery changed over into the labor system They were basically the same however the people made a slight wage The abolition of slavery didn t offer much either because there was still slavery within the factories that were in Africa Cellena Chavis 4016813 Midterm In place of the legalrational institutionalization the types of authority that were being utilized were traditional and charismatic rule and through this created a system of personal rule and patronage politics In African states most of the power was in the executive branch and there were limited opportunities for organized opposition In the case of Uganda which was the no party state and was used to unify the state However this led to more problems than a solution because this reduced the checks and balances on the executive branch created a wider gap between the government and the people and no parties mean no competition which led to corruption and power abuse Personal rule is an elitist political system and most of the civil population is unorganized and immobilized against the government There is a system of favors rulers allies and his clients which is informal and unstable system This creates an asocial system which bargains are not between government and civil society but through a system of patronage Patronage is when people are put in power through kinship and connections The problems that arise from personal rule and patronage is corruption within the government factional politics clientelism conspiracy this leads to purges and rehabilitations in the government for instance the coups and revolutions The only way for a change of power is through coup d etats or revolutions the military being the primary mechanism for this transference For a coup the party eventually atrophies to equate with the current executive or ruling elite and everything become subordinate to the executive In Cellena Chavis 4O 1 68 1 3 Midterm the case of a revolution a power vacuum can be created and authoritarian rulers can come to power The effects of colonialism were widespread across the continent and each regions was affected in different ways however there are few economic social and political consequences that rang true all across the continent Two of the economic consequences are the exploitation of labor and underdevelopment of African states Even though the slave trade had ended and there was a complete abolition of slavery a new form of slavery arrived from the imperial countries Once the imperial countries realized that there was not the many riches that they sought after the colonies were put to work exploiting the resources that were on the continent The agricultural landscape changed from subsistence farming to cash crops mining and commercial plantations through the new colonial laws and tax systems This new form of working for the African people was just basically continued slavery because the people were paid signi cantly less than European workers If the African workers had been paid a decent wage the economic system may have fair better Furthermore colonial rule left the African states underdeveloped because most if any roads and railways were only built for the transportation of goods Also since the African colonies were massively Cellena Chavis 4016813 Midterm export colonies this left the African people very dependent on their imperial leaders First of the political consequences is that the institutions in place were highly authoritarian There were democratic institutions set up and every ruling government after that have been either set up through coups or all out revolution The African states were never left with a proper government transitional system Also the boundaries set up were aberrant and had not historical groundings which creating many problems because there were many rivalry tribes put into the same territory today This left lasting con icts between many ethnic groups even still seen today for example the Hutus and Tutsi of Rwanda The social consequences from colonial are that violence became endemic the divide and rule strategies deepened or created hostilities between groups and there was a systematic lack of education and literacy As independence spread across the states some were gained through all out violence also most of the times the regimes that were left in place after colonial rule were not popular and were eventually over thrown This has led to the chronic cycle of violence in some African states As stated before the boundaries of the states were drawn arbitrarily and this led to hostility between ethnic groups Lastly because of the authoritarian rule of the colonial leaders there was a lack of education across the states because the colonial leaders did see educating the masses as important This lack of education can be said to cause part of the government instability because Cellena Chavis 4016813 Midterm the people were not educated on how a government is suppose to look and operate Somalia after colonial rule was left pretty divided because and the different colonial leaders the Italians French and British at some point all own land in quotSomalilandquotquot After colonial rule military general Said Barre took power and soon Somalia went from a liberal democratic state to a communist state Barre placed largescale public works which were successful at rst Then Barre tried to take back the Ogaden region however Ethiopia pushed Somalia back out and this led to coup against Barre After the coup against Barre the leader became paranoid and there was also mass retaliation As the regime begins to weaken the IMF granted a loan based on their structural adjustment programs which devaluated Somali currency and Cellena Chavis 4016813 Midterm there was a cut in social spending In 1986 the Somali National Movement invades Somalia and Barre arms his kin groups makes all of the military his clansmen Soon after an all out civil between clan groups begin in 1991 The United Nations tries stepping in however the United Nations operation does not pan out and from 1995 to 2012 Somalia is left without leadership In 2012 a new president is elected however there is a great sense of corruption The colonial legacy military despotism and the division of nomadic vs sedentary groups can all be seen as factors that led to Somalia becoming a failed state Botswana after colonial differed dramatically because for one the colony was almost all together left alone because the Botswana territory is mostly desert and there were not any resources that the British at the time could bene t from economically Also the borders were less unnatural and there is ethnic homogony which has led to quite a peaceful state because there has not been and divide and rule tactics that were normally seen by the British Lastly the Botswana society was originally built on a theme of equality in Kgolta kingdom because the King would split the wealth among the people Equality was seen as extremely important in the Kgolta kingdom An after effect of this equality is that the current government of Botswana has a functioning state government that utilizes social spending for the health education and infrastructure of the country By 1966 there was a multiparty system in place with an open market capitalistic democracy on the backing Cellena Chavis 4016813 Midterm of an egalitarian system And this has only been aided by the discovery of diamonds in 1967 All these factors have led to the success of Botswana
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