Exam 4/Final Exam Study Guide
Exam 4/Final Exam Study Guide 3004
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kirby Suarez Zea on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 3004 at Florida International University taught by Steve Charman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 337 views.
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Date Created: 12/07/15
Exam 4 Study Guide What does it mean to say that ‘averaged’ and ‘symmetrical’ faces are attractive? Why do people tend to find them attractive? o The theory goes something like this: When choosing a partner to have children with, our natural instincts are to choose a healthy person – A fit and healthy partner is more likely to have ‘good genes’ and so will probably parent a healthy, beautiful and virtuous child. o On some primitive and subconscious level, when we see an unusual face we are programmed to see the person as ‘unhealthy’. This inbuilt prejudice seems to be common to all of us – regardless of culture or creed. We will always tend to prefer a ‘healthier’, more symmetrical and ‘average’ face. How does evolutionary theory relate to attractiveness? o Men “prefer” women who can reproduce Youthfulness Attractiveness o Women “prefer” men who have resources Older men Money and status o Cross-cultural Some characteristics are attractive across culture. What is social exchange theory? What is a comparison level? What is a comparison level for alternatives? How do these concepts relate to satisfaction and commitment in a relationship? o Economic view of relationships Maximize benefits Minimize costs o Benefits = love, companionship, sex o Costs = effort, conflict, sacrifice o Comparison levels (CL): expected outcome Low CL = High satisfaction o Comparison levels for alternatives (CLalt): expected outcome from a different relationship High CLalt = less commitment Low CLalt = more commitment What is a stereotype? o A belief that associates a group of people with certain traits. Not necessarily negative and can be accurate. What are some examples of positive stereotypes? o A positive stereotype is a positive assumption made about someone based on their looks, race, social group, economic stability or gender. For example, the common belief that women are more nurturing than men is a positive stereotype. More examples include: that all Italians are great cooks and lovers, Asians are good at academics, and African-American people are good basketball players. What is a problem with stereotypes? What does it mean to say that stereotypes are heuristics? o The problem with stereotypes is when they overgeneralize. A representativeness heuristic, a mental shortcut that helps us make a decision by comparing information to our mental prototypes. For example, if someone was to describe an older woman as warm and caring with a great love of children, most of us would assume that the older woman is a grandmother. She fits our mental representation of a grandmother, so we automatically classify her into that category. o This heuristic, like others, saves us time and energy. We make a snap decision and assumption without thinking very much. Unfortunately, many examples of heuristics involves succumbing to stereotypes. Why do stereotypes form? What is social categorization? What are ingroups and outgroups? o Social categorization: We like to sort people into groups. Makes the world easier to think about (remember, we don’t like to think!) o Ingroups vs. outgroups: We carve the world into groups that we belong to (ingroups) and groups that we do not belong to (outgroups). E.g., your country, religion, sports team What is the ingroup bias? What is the outgroup homogeneity effect? Why does the outgroup homogeneity effect exist? o Ingroup bias: the tendency to favor our own groups o The outgroup homogeneity effect: The tendency to assume that there is greater similarity among members of outgroups than among members of ingroups. “Asians/Blacks/Jews/Hispanics/Whites/_______ are all alike” o Why does it exist? Greater contact with our ingroups More intimate contact with our ingroups How do stereotypes distort our perceptions? o We tend to remember stereotype-consistent information better than stereotype-inconsistent information. What are illusory correlations and how do they relate to the maintenance of stereotypes? Why do we only tend to remember when minorities perform “bad” behavior? o Illusory correlations Minorities are distinctive. Bad behavior is distinctive. We only tend to remember distinctive events E.g., Homosexuality and child abuse What is subtyping? o Stereotype-inconsistent information is often dismissed as an exception. “Exception to the rule.” How does the confirmation bias and self-fulfilling prophecies maintain stereotypes? o We tend to seek out information that is consistent with our stereotypes. o Our expectations about others can lead us to act in ways toward them that causes them to behave in ways consistent with our stereotypes. o Interviewing White vs. Black job applicants When interviewing Black applicants, interviewers sat farther away, ended the interview sooner, and made more speech errors. This can make the interviewee more nervous and less effective, and rate the interviewer as less friendly and less adequate. What is stereotype threat? Could stereotype threat occur for stereotypes that are completely false? How? o A self-confirming apprehension that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. E.g., verbal test between White students and African-American students. African-Americans did worse on verbal tests high on stereotype threat. o Yes; it can occur for false stereotypes. When women were told men tend to do better on a type of exam; women did worse. When told there was no difference, they did just as well as the men. What is the two-step process of stereotyping? How do the two steps differ from one another in terms of our ability to control the process? o 2-step process of stereotyping: 1. Perceiving a member of a group automatically activates stereotypes about that group Unconscious process Out of our control 2. People can then engage in deliberative processes and choose to disregard or ignore the automatically-activated stereotype Conscious, effortful process Within our control If activation of a stereotype is automatic, how can we reduce people’s reliance on stereotypes? o Deliberative processing How can we increase deliberative processing? o Personal information The more personal information we have about someone, the more likely we are to reject the activated stereotype o The greater our ability to think about the stereotype, the more likely we are to reject it. o Stereotyping increases when: Under time pressure Tired Drunk Distracted o Motivation The more motivated we are to form an accurate impression about someone, the less likely we are to stereotype What is prejudism? What is modern racism? If modern racism is so subtle, how can we detect it experimentally? o Prejudice: Negative feelings toward persons based on their membership in certain groups o Modern racism: A form of prejudice that surfaces in subtle ways when it’s safe, socially acceptable, and easy to rationalize. o People perceive themselves as fair, but still harbor negative feelings towards members of other racial groups o How can we detect it? Bogus pipeline: Jones and Sigall use what they call the bogus pipeline, which is a fake lie detector machine. More racial prejudice was present when the bogus pipeline was used. (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 2001) This shows that people were hiding their racial prejudice, until they felt this would be discovered. Implicit Association Test: Faster reaction times for two things that are implicitly associated. I.e, “Black” and “unpleasant” or “White” and “pleasant”. Helping study: Participants led to believe that a white person and a black person did not work hard were more likely to help the white person. What did the Robbers Cave study demonstrate? o Two groups of kids – the “Rattlers” and the “Eagles” o The two groups competed against each other for prizes in various activities. o Result – fierce and vicious hostility between the groups. Ingroup bias Outgroup homogeneity “They’re all a bunch of cheaters” What are superordinate goals? o A goal that could only be achieved through cooperation between the groups. How does Realistic Conflict Theory explain prejudice? How does Social Identity Theory explain prejudice? o Realistic Conflict Theory: Groups often directly compete for limited resources (land, money, jobs, power) o This competition leads to hostility against the other group(s). o This competition may be imagined E.g., “immigrants are taking our jobs” o Social Identity Theory: People favor ingroups over outgroups in order to enhance their self-esteem o BIRGing (Basking In Reflected Glory) o Derogating outgroups makes us feel better about ourselves o Minimal group paradigms What are minimal group paradigms? o Tajfel demonstrated that the minimal condition needed for group favoritism is simply categorization into a group, no matter how arbitrary the criteria for categorization. What is Belief in a Just World? How does it relate to prejudice? o The tendency to believe that people get what they deserve, and deserve what they get. “Good” people are rewarded “Bad” people are punished o People don’t want to think that their fate is dependent on chance factors. o Thus, we often blame the victim. Shock victims Rape victims, battered spouses, homeless What are the 4 key components to a social psychologist’s definition of “aggression?” Make sure you know what does and what does not qualify as aggression. o Any form of behavior directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment What is the difference between hostile aggression and instrumental aggression? Between physical and relational aggression? o Hostile aggression: Aggression performed as an end in itself “hot” aggression o Instrumental aggression: Aggression that is a means to some other end “cool” aggression o Physical aggression E.g., punching, pushing, kicking, etc. o Relational aggression Damaging someone’s relationship with peers E.g., gossiping, rumors, silent treatment, etc. What are some theories that claim that aggressive behavior is biological? What are some theories that claim that aggressive behavior is learned? o Evolutionary theory of aggression: Aggression evolved because it helped us survive. Sex differences Less aggression toward genetic relatives Children living with a stepparent are 70 to 100 times more likely to be fatally abused than children living with both biological parents o Learned theories of aggression: Rewards and punishments Getting rewarded for acting aggressively increases aggression Why we do not negotiate with terrorists Social learning What is Freud’s death instinct? o Freud’s instinct theory of aggression: People have a death instinct – an unconscious desire to be dead Aggression is the deflection of the death instinct toward others How might aggression have helped us to survive? o Evolutionary theory of aggression: Aggression evolved because it helped us survive. Sex differences Less aggression toward genetic relatives Children living with a stepparent are 70 to 100 times more likely to be fatally abused than children living with both biological parents How does evolutionary theory explain differences in physical aggression between men and women? o Women try to look for a single mate with suitable economic resources who can both protect and help to raise children in the most favorable environment. o Men are trying to maximize the chance of trying to pass along their genes and value fertility and youth over wisdom and stability, so they are more aggressive in order to fight off the competition. What are ‘cultures of honor?’ How do they relate to aggression? How have studies examined this? o “Cultures of honor” Southern states of the U.S. have higher violent crime rates than the rest of the country. Southern men may be more willing to stand up for themselves using physical aggression - particularly if they have been insulted, or believe their homes are threatened. This phenomenon is referred to as a "culture of honor." If punishment generally decreases aggression, how is it possible that spanking a child often leads that child to become more aggressive? o Through social learning; violence begets violence. What was the purpose of the ‘bobo doll’ study? What methods were used in this study? o To study social learning. Children observed an adult beat up a bobo doll and were thus later more aggressive towards the doll; they copied what they had watched. What is social learning theory? o Social learning theory: Social behavior is learned through observing others as well as rewards and punishments. Bobo doll study o We learn aggressive behavior from aggressive models (television, parents, etc.) How is the concept of misattribution of arousal related to aggression? o Arousal from violent movies, exercise, etc. can be misattributed to anger How might heat increase aggression? o Heat increases arousal o Most people think heat lowers arousal o Therefore, arousal caused by heat can be easily misattributed to anger. o Therefore, heat can lead to aggression What are three ways that alcohol might increase aggression? o Alcohol increases aggression Weakened inhibitions (letting your true feelings out) Narrowing of focus, leading to an inability to use cognitive functioning to override aggression Placebo effects (expectations) The frustration-aggression hypothesis makes two main claims. What are they? Have these claims been found to be correct or incorrect? o 1. Frustration always leads to aggression motivation o 2. Aggression is always the result of frustration o Frustration does NOT always lead to aggression o Aggression does NOT always result from frustration What is displacement? How is it related to the concept of catharsis? o Displacement – Aggressing against a substitute target o Catharsis – A reduction in aggression resulting from displacement “Venting your anger” What has research found concerning the effects of cathartic acts? Why might it be that catharsis does not reduce aggressive tendencies? o Catharsis does NOT work – displacement can actually increase aggression! o Watching media violence “teaches” us how to aggress o (social learning theory) o Observing/participating in aggression increases arousal, which can lead to aggression o (misattribution of arousal) o If aggressing is rewarding, we will be more likely to aggress in the future o (operant conditioning) Different types of studies have examined the effects of violent media on aggressive behavior. What are the three main types of studies that have been used to examine this relationship? o Correlational studies More violent TV watching = more aggressiveness Even when we account for other variables o Longitudinal studies Kids who watch violent TV are more likely to commit a serious criminal offense later in life. o Experimental studies Participants either watch violent TV or non-violent TV. Watching violent TV increases aggression in the lab, the classroom, the lunchroom, the playground, and the athletic field. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each of these types of studies? o Correlational Studies Advantages: Investigates naturally occurring variables that maybe unethical or impractical to test experimentally. For example, it would be unethical to conduct an experiment on whether smoking causes lung cancer. Large group of subjects taken at once. Shows clear relationship; this can then be displayed in a graphical form. Disadvantages: Cannot imply causation. Could be that the cause is a third (extraneous) variable. Direction of causality issue; which variable causes which? It also does not allow us to go beyond the data that is given. For example suppose it was found that there was an association between time spent on homework (1/2 hour to 3 hours) and number of G.C.S.E. passes (1 to 6). It would not be legitimate to infer from this that spending 6 hours on homework would be likely to generate 12 G.C.S.E. passes. o Longitudinal Studies Advantages: Looks at changes over time. Disadvantages: Time and money. Small group of subjects, which makes it difficult to apply the results to a larger population. Participant dropout. o Experimental Studies Advantages: Control over variables Clear cause and effect relationship More reliable results Disadvantages: Some cannot be done due to ethical concerns Creates artificial situations; may not apply to real-world Subject to human error What does it mean when it is said that a correlation between aggressive media and aggressive behavior still exists after controlling for extraneous variables? o Even after controlling for other variables that could affect the results of the relationship between aggressive media and aggressive behavior, such as lack of parenting for example, there is still a correlation that exists between the two variables. Do results from all three types of studies tend to be consistent? o Yes. How might violent TV increase aggression? (4 explanations) o 1) Weakened inhibitions -Legitimizes violent behavior o 2) Increased arousal -Misattribute annoyance as anger o 3) Imitation -Ideas about aggression (e.g., post-Columbine) o 4) Desensitization -After a while, violence no longer arouses us -E.g., Karate Kid study What are some criticisms of research examining the effects of violent media on aggression? Are these criticisms valid or not? Why or why not? o Effects are small and short-lived o Clips from movies used in lab studies are given without context o Many people watch violent TV and do not commit violent crimes o Lab studies are artificial, and do not reflect what goes on in the real world o Correlational and field studies do not prove causality What is the effect of pornography on aggression? o Nonviolent pornography: Lowered aggressiveness Attitude change o Violent pornography: Greater male-to-female aggressiveness Greater acceptance of violence against women Greater acceptance of rape myths Why is it important to differentiate between nonviolent and violent pornography? o Each has different and possibly detrimental effects on society. What was the purpose of the Stanford prison experiment? o The purpose was to understand the development of norms and the effects of roles, labels, and social expectations in a simulated prison environment. How was the Stanford prison experiment conducted? o In 1971, Philip Zimbardo’s subjects were randomly assigned to play the role of "prisoner" or "guard". Those assigned to play the role of guard were given sticks and sunglasses; those assigned to play the prisoner role were arrested by the Palo Alto police department, deloused, forced to wear chains and prison garments, and transported to the basement of the Stanford psychology department, which had been converted into a makeshift jail. Several of the guards became progressively more sadistic - particularly at night when they thought the cameras were off, despite being picked by chance out of the same pool as the prisoners. The experiment very quickly got out of hand. A riot broke out on day two. One prisoner developed a psychosomatic rash all over his body upon finding out that his "parole" had been turned down. After only 6 days (of a planned two weeks), the experiment was shut down, for fear that one of the prisoners would be seriously hurt. What were the results of this study? o People will readily conform to the social roles they are expected to play, especially if the roles are as strongly stereotyped as those of the prison guards. The “prison” environment was an important factor in creating the guards’ brutal behavior (none of the participants who acted as guards showed sadistic tendencies before the study). Therefore, the findings support the situational explanation of behavior rather than the dispositional one. What is the difference between social exchange theory and the empathy- altruism hypothesis? How do supporters of the empathy-altruism hypothesis incorporate social exchange theory into their model of helping behavior? o Social Exchange Theory: Maximize rewards; minimize costs We help when rewards > costs Rewards: Feeling good, social approval, enhance job prospects, etc. Costs: Potential harm/embarrassment, time-consuming, guilt, etc. People help for egoistic reasons. o Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis: Is all helping self-serving? Truly altruistic helping will occur when we experience empathy If you DO NOT feel empathy: You will help only if rewards outweigh the costs. If you DO feel empathy: You will help regardless of rewards and costs. According to the empathy-altruism hypothesis, what are the motives of people who help others? o You want to alleviate the suffering of the other person. How has the empathy-altruism hypothesis been tested? o Participants observed a woman getting shocked. o High and low empathy o Allowed to leave or not allowed to leave o Would the participants help the woman by switching places with her? o Participants high in empathy were more likely to switch places with her, even if it was easier to escape (allowed to leave). However, those who were low in empathy were less likely to switch places, and some would only do so if it was difficult to escape (not allowed to leave). What is the relationship between helping behavior and the number of bystanders? o More bystanders= person is less likely to help. What is the bystander effect? o The finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders What are the 5 steps to helping? What is the obstacle associated with each step? o 1. Noticing In order to help, we must notice that there is an emergency. Other people can distract our attention o 2. Interpreting the event as an emergency Is the situation really an emergency or are we misinterpreting something? When ambiguous, we look to others. If they’re not panicking, we don’t panic. But everyone is looking to everyone else; therefore, no one looks panicked! Pluralistic ignorance: The state in which people mistakenly believe that their own thoughts and feelings are different from those of others, even though everyone’s behavior is the same Bystanders assume nothing is wrong because no one else looks concerned Smoke-filled room study o 3. Taking responsibility When alone, people feel responsible When others are present, people place the responsibility on everyone else Diffusion of responsibility: The belief that others will or should take the responsibility for providing help o 4. Knowing how to help Do we know how to help? Provide assistance directly, call someone else… Lack of competence o 5. Deciding to help Audience inhibition The more people, the greater the potential embarrassment Rewards and costs Make sure you understand and can define the following terms: pluralistic ignorance, diffusion of responsibility, audience inhibition. o See notes written above. Why is the “Good Samaritan” study so ironic? o Students were supposed to give a talk about the Good Samaritan parable, which involves a priest and a Levite who failed to help a man left for dead on the ground, until a good Samaritan saw him and helped. On the way to their talk they saw a man in need of help and the students that were told they were late were in a rush and did not help him, even though that is the exact situation they were going to discuss. How does happiness affect helping behavior? How does guilt affect helping behavior? o Happy people tend to help more. o In order to avoid the guilt that would accompany not helping someone, people help. How do attractiveness and similarity affect helping behavior? o The more attractive or similar to you someone is, the more likely you are to help them. Under what circumstances are we less likely to help our friends than strangers? o We are less likely to help our friends succeed in areas that are ego-relevant. For example, if you consider and pride yourself in being a good psychology student, you are less likely to help your friend succeed in psychology as well. You are more likely to help a stranger, however, simply because it would not be surprising to have a stranger be better than you at something. How can we increase helping? o Just being aware of the obstacles to helping increases helping. Distraction Pluralistic ignorance Diffusion of responsibility Lack of competence Audience inhibition o Make it clear that you need help o Single someone out How does the presence of others affect our performance? o Depending on task difficulty, others may help (easy task) or hinder (difficult task) our performance. In the early days of psychology, there were conflicting findings concerning the effects of others on performance. What were these conflicting findings? How were they eventually resolved? (Hint: there were 3 steps) -Zajonc’s (Pronounced: Zy-ons) Solution o 3 steps to the presence of others: 1. Presence of other conspecifics creates arousal. 2. Increased arousal enhances the dominant response. 3. For easy tasks, the dominant response is usually correct. For difficult tasks, the dominant response is usually incorrect. What is a dominant response? o The reaction elicited most quickly and easily by a given stimulus. How does the difficulty of the task factor into social facilitation theory? o The strengthening of the dominant response in the presence of others o The presence of others improves performance on simple tasks but worsens performance on difficult tasks What three theories explain why the presence of others increases arousal? Be able to explain each of these theories. o 1. Mere presence: The mere presence of others causes us to be slightly aroused. Explains animal studies Chickens eat more when around others Cockroaches learn complex mazes slower when around others o 2. Evaluator apprehension: The presence of others causes arousal ONLY when those others are evaluating us. Social facilitation disappears when others are blindfolded o 3. Distraction: The presence of others causes arousal ONLY when those others distract us and create attentional conflict. Non-human objects can produce social facilitation effects What is social loafing? When will it tend to occur? How is it affected by group size? o The tendency for people to produce less when their output is combined with the output of others. E.g., brainstorming The larger the group, the easier it is for a member or two to get lost in the crowd. There is less anonymity in smaller groups. When the group is smaller, individual contributions mean more which increases pressure on individuals to deliver what they’ve been assigned. How does social loafing relate to brainstorming? o Brainstorming facilitates social loafing and leads to great productivity loss. How do social facilitation theory and social loafing theory fit together? (In other words, what factor determines whether the presence of others will result in social facilitation or social loafing?) o Social Facilitation: Individual efforts evaluatedIncreased arousalStrengthen dominant responseCorrect (Easy task)/Incorrect (Difficult task) Response o Social Loafing: Individual efforts not evaluatedDecreased arousalImpaired performance Be familiar with the flowcharts from this section.
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