Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide CJ 461
Popular in Criminal Law II
Popular in Criminal Justice
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Hendrixson on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 461 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daniel Clay in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Criminal Law II in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 12/07/15
Adjudication: Bail First/initial appearance o Next step following formal arrest o Triggered by Prosecutor filing a complaint Grand jury indictment This changes the process somewhat o Required within 48 hours of arrest County of Riverside v. McLaughlin Don’t forget the McNabbMallory Rule o 4 primary purposes Notice of criminal charges Notice of constitutional rights Miranda Pretrial Speedy trial Preliminary (probably cause hearing) Determination of bail/pretrial release Appointment of counsel o Plea may be entered at this time Presumptive pleas th 8 Amendment o Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted Bail o Do not have a federal constitutional right to bail Most state constitutionals provide right to bail, except in capital cases o Primary purpose of bail is to guarantee the defendant’s appearance at trial Anything beyond this is excessive (minimum standard) Only 62% of defendants make bail Surety jurisdictions v. money bail jurisdictions ROR – rare, but effective Importance of bail Avoid pretrial detention (presumption of innocence) Avoid personal hardship (presumption of innocence) Assist in own defense (Due Process Right) o Bail reform act of 1984 Creates rebuttable presumption of pretrial release Rebuttable by showing of “clear and convincing evidence” of: Risk of flight Risk to the community Obstruct justice Threaten witnesses or jurors OR certain crimes (drugs, violence, capital cases) If rebutted, “preventative detention” subject to periodic review o PreTrial Detention Substantive Due Process Not punitive Inherently fair? Procedural Due Process Clear and convincing evidence, subject to crossexamination Procedurally fair? o United States v. Salerno (2009) Denied bail, then appealed it (violated 8 Amendment) Court denied bail again, didn’t violate any rights Procedurally fair, but not guaranteed bail o Bell v. Wolfish (1979) Presumed innocent Court didn’t care that they are being held in a jail and did not have bail Usual conditions for a jail The Right to Counsel Development of the Right to Counsel o Powell v. Alabama (1932) Indigents “incapable of defending themselves” o Johnson v. Zerbst (1938) Indigent counsel in federal cases o Betts v. Brady (1942) Refused to require indigent counsel in state cases But did recognize a “special circumstances test” o Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) States have to provide counsel if indigent Wrongfully convicted because he did not have counsel Scope of the Right of Counsel o Attaches when “formal criminal proceedings are initiated” The initial appearance o Attaches at all “critical stages of prosecution” – those that affect the ability to present a defense Arraignment/initial hearing Preliminary hearing Postindictment lineup Custodial interrogation Plea bargaining Trial Sentencing o Does not include Grand Jury or bail Felony v. Misdemeanor Offenses o Scott v. Illinois (1979) Entitled to counsel in misdemeanor crimes unless fined Cannot be sentenced to jail If counsel is given, jail time is possible o Porter v. McCollum (2009) Right to Counsel o No counsel – no jail o Indingency Determinations Public assistance Income Available funds o No right to select appointed counsel Morris v. Slappy (1983) Different for nonindigents Effective Legal Representation o Very difficult to prove A “reasonable probability” that the result would have been different BUT FOR the attorney under the “totality of the circumstances” (PREJUDICE) Civil suits, must prove “actual innocence” o Deficient performance, minimum standards Knowledge of the law Minimum duty of consultation Duty to investigate Immigrant consequences o NonDeficient Performance No duty to break legal rules (perjury) Strategy receives deference, if reasonable Right to SelfRepresentation o Known as “Prose” The “idiot for an attorney” o Judged only have notify defendant of charges, right to counsel. And of the possible punishment o Waiver or right must be unequivocal, subject to: Notice (not last minute decision) Competence Disruption (can lose the right) o May still appoint “standby” counsel The Jury Trial Constitutional right to a jury o Article III Section 2 The trail of al crimes shall be by jury; a trial shall be held in the th state where said crimes have been committed. o 6 Amendment o 14 Amendment Limitations on the right to a jury o Dies not apply to “petty offenses” Blanton v City of North Las Vegas *1989) Several 6 month charges Severity considerations o US. V Nachtigal (1993) o Lewis v US Several 6 month charges o Codispoti v. Pennsylvania (1974) Criminal contempt proceeding depend on actual sentence o Number of jurors Thompson v. Utah 12 people on a jury Williams v. Florida 6 people on a jury o Ballew v. Georgia (1978) 5 people on a jury Court said no 6 people is enough Jury selection o Jury venire requirements Random selection Nondiscrimination Subject to “exemptions” Equal protection clause applies Proved by “rule of exclusion” o Defense must show “substantial underrepresentation” o Government then must show it did no intentionally discriminate and underrepresentation is due to other factors (i.e. registrations) Fair crosssection of the community o Theoretically prevents jury stacking o Challenges “Distinctive group” is excluded Representation is not fair and reasonable Underrepresentation is a result of systematic exclusion Intent is not relevant o Voir Dire Judge or lawyers or both conduct questioning Look at specific requirements articulated in: o Ham v. South Carolina (1973) o Rosales –Lopez v. US (1981) o Turner v. Murray (1989) Answers can result in juror exclusion Preemptory challenges (no reason) o Cannot be used in a discriminatory fashion (Baston Test) Challenges for cause (bias/prejudice) o Ultimately judge’s decision Death qualified juries Bifurcated Trials “For cause exclusion” of the morally opposed o Historically applied to the sentencing phase o Lockhart v. McCree (1986) Related Trial Rights o Public Trial Derives from the Star Chamber FICA Courts Applies to all hearing and phases of the trial “reasonably substantial” to the defendant’s defense against the criminal charges In some situations the public may be excluded Press may be excluded at P/C hearing if prejudicial The defendant does not have an absolute right to attend his own trial If disruptive may be removed and allows to watch in CCTV Other “restraint” mechanisms may be too prejudicial o Shackles with a table cloth Juveniles The trial rights o Opening statements o Presentation of evidence Prosecution’s caseinchief Direct examination Cross examination th 6 amendment confrontation clause Not necessarily facetoface: children Hearsay o Generally excluded, no confrontation o Testimonial statements of someone no longer available (i.e. dead) may be admitted Must have had opportunity to X o Nontestimonial statements admissible When not taken to gather evidence o Closing arguments o Jury instructions Beyond a reasonable doubt Burden of proof vs. burden of persuasion o Jury deliberations Must occur for a ‘reasonable amount of time” before declaring a mistrial The Allen/Dynamite Charge (proportions and holdouts) Jury may be polled Jury unanimity Required at the federal level 28 states require unanimity (tipping point?) Jury nullification Sentencing Purposes and Types of Sentences o Review of purposes of punishments Retribution Deterrence Specific deterrence General deterrence Rehabilitation Incapacitation Restoration o Types of sentences Imprisonment Fines Probation Intermediate sanctions (i.e. community service) Death Civil forfeiture History of sentencing o Sentencing in the U.S. derives from English common law Historically emphasized harsh punishments, not imprisonment Felonies = executions Misdemeanors = corporal punishment, restitution, humiliation The Salem Witch trials Lasted until the ratification of the Bill of Rights (1791) o 8 Amendment prohibition on “cruel and unusual” punishment Emphasized imprisonment Puritan’s and penitentiaries Emphasized indeterminate sentences Established a sentencing range o Minimum and maximum Individualization o During the 1970s, U.S. reversed positions on indeterminate sentences Too much individual discretion of judges Replaced by “determinate” or “foxed-time sentencing” Uniformity in sentencing “X” years for “X” offense The “One size fits all” approach o Resulted in the adoption of the USSG Computation of sentence based on criminal history and the characteristics of the offense Mandatory until 2005 Made “advisory” in United States v. Booker Imposing Sentences o Despite the guidelines, in the Federal system there are specific procedures that must be followed: The Presentence Report Sentencing Hearing The Right of Allocation Victim Impact Statements The Decision Begins with the USSG Based upon a wide range of information o Some information must be determined by a jury Consecutive v. Concurrent sentences o May be “overruled” by: Clemency Pardon Appeals Reviewing Sentencing o All sentences must comport with the 8 amendment What does “cruel and unusual” mean? Methods of punishment The death penalty o Violation for juvenile offenses Imprisonment o Length of imprisonment and conditions o Three Strikes Laws o Juvenile Life without parole Considerations Legislative enactments Sentencing practices Nature of punishment Offenders Nature of the crime Penological justification Miller v. Alabama Chapter 11 Absolute Immunity o Judges, prosecutors, witnesses, and jurors may not be sued for acts undertaken as part of the judicial function Bivens Legal Suit o Federal law enforcement officers and other federal employees may be sued for violating an individual’s constitutional rights or a right under federal law Civilian Review o Civilian review boards in most large cities investigate and recommend punishments for police found to have engaged in misconduct Color of State Law o An act under the authority of state or federal law Dual Sovereignty Doctrine o An individual may be prosecuted twice for the same offense by different jurisdictions Federal Tort Claims Act o A federal statute that authorizes an individual to sue the federal government for various torts Injunction o A judicial order directing a halt to a harmful act or policy PatterorPractice Decree o A judicial order requiring a police department to adopt various reforms Qualified Immunity o Police officers, correctional officers, and other criminal justice professionals may be sued only for violating “wellestablished” constitutional rights Title 42, Section 1983 of the U.S. Code o Individuals may be sued for acting under the color of state law for violating an individual’s constitutional rights or a federal right Tort Actions o A state court suit for damages to compensate individuals who have suffered harm Chapter 12 Bail o Release prior to trail typically based on the payment of ten percent of a fixed bail amount Bail Clause o Clause in the 8 Amendment that prohibits the requirement of excessive bail Complaint o A prosecutor’s filing of a sworn statement charging a defendant with a specific offense or offenses Critical Stages of the Prosecution o Those phases of the prosecution that may negatively impact the defendant’s ability to present a defense at trial and at which the presence of an attorney would safeguard the defendant First Appearance o Following an arrest, a suspect’s initial appearance before a judge for the determination of probable cause, to be informed of his or her rights, for decisions to be made on pretrial release and bail, and for the appointment of an attorney (for indigents) Indigent o An individual who is unable to afford a lawyer and who in entitled to the appointment of a lawyer at a public cost Ineffective Assistance of Counsel o Term to describe a lawyer’s performance that falls below the range of reasonably effective competence and affects the outcome of the trial Money Bail o Pretrial release of a defendant based on payment of a fixed amount of money Presumption of Regularity o A court’s assumption that criminal justice decision makers acted in good faith rather than out of a discriminatory intent Preventive Detention o Holding of an individual without the option to post bail, used where defendant pose a flight risk or a risk to the community Pro Se o Latin for “on his or her own” o Individuals act pro se who represent themselves at trial Probable Cause Hearing o A hearing to determine whether there is probable cause to detain a suspect Release on Recognizance o Pretrial release based on a promise to appear for trial Surety Bond o Bond posted by a bail bondsman indicating his or her promise to pay a defendant’s bail in the event that the defendant does not appear for trial Vindictive Prosecution o Prosecution in violation of the Due Process Clause pf the 5 and 14 th Amendments, which protect individuals who assert their constitutional or statutory rights from retaliation on the form of having more serious charges brought against them Chapter 13 Arraignment o The defendant is informed of the charges against him or her and is required to enter a plea Beyond A Reasonable Doubt o Each element of a criminal offense must be established beyond a reasonable doubt Blockburger Test o Double jeopardy prohibits prosecuting individuals for the same criminal offenses that have the same elements Brady Rule o The prosecution is required to turn over exculpatory information to the accused Burden of Proof o Prosecution must prove every element of a criminal charge beyond a reasonable doubt CaseInChief o The presentation of the prosecution’s evidence at trial Challenge for Cause o A juror may be excluded from the jury based on an actual or presumed inability to impartially evaluate the evidence Closing Argument o Summary of the evidence by the prosecutor and defense Collateral Estoppel o A fact established in a trial is assumed to be established in other prosecutions Compulsory Process Clause o 6 Amendment right to compel the appearance of witnesses Confrontation Clause o Physical presentation of a suspect to a witness or victim CrossExamination o Questions regarding the direct testimony of a witness Double Jeopardy o Prosecuting a defendant in the same jurisdiction on two occasions for the same offense Dual Sovereignty Doctrine o An individual may be prosecuted twice for the same offense by different jurisdictions Dynamite Charge o The judge instructs jurors who are in the minority to reconsider the reasonableness of their views Fair Cross Section Requirement o The jury must be selected from a group of individuals that fairly represents the community Hearsay o A witness’s testimony about what someone else said that is introduced to prove the “truth” of a fact or facts Hung Jury o A jury unable to reach a verdict Indictment o An accusation of criminal activity returned by a grand jury Information o A document signed by a prosecutor charging an individual with a crime Invited Response o A prosecutor’s closing statement that responds to a statement by the defense attorney Jury Instructions o A judge’s direction to the jury regarding the law Jury Nullification o A jury’s refusal to follow the law and acquittal of a defendant Jury Poll o A questioning of individual jurors whether they support the jury verdict Key Man o Potential jurors are selected by a small group of individuals Manifest Necessity o A mistrial based on the conclusion that public justice will not be served by continuing the trial Miscarriage o An individual may be subjected to a second trial despite the fact that jeopardy has attached Mistrial o A fundamental error that causes cancellation of a trial Modified Indictment States o Four states require indictments for felonies punishable by capital punishment and life imprisonment Motion for a Judgement of Acquittal o Motion based on the contention that “no reasonable juror could conclude that guilt was proven beyond a reasonable doubt”. No Bill o The grand jury refuses to indict an individual Nolo Contendere o “no contest” o Requires the permission of the court o Plea is used when a defendant, while not admitting guilt, does not dispute the charge Opening Statement o The prosecutor and defense attorney each indicate at the beginning of the trial the evidence they plan to introduce during the trial Pattern Jury Instructions o Standard jury instructions Peremptory Challenge o Removal of jurors without an obligation to state a reason Petit Jury o The jury Plea Bargain o Agreement to plead guilty in return for a reduction in charges or other considerations Preliminary Hearing o Determination whether a defendant should be bound over for trial Presentment o A report filed by a grand jury with the court in criminal activity Pretrial Motions o Motions filed before the beginning of a criminal trial Purging the Grand Jury o Selecting the grand jury Reasonable Doubt o The standard for a criminal conviction Rebuttal o The defense case at trial Recusal o Judge should remove himself or herself from a case on a conflict of interest or bias Rule of Exclusion o Substantial underrepresentation of a group on the jury venire Speedy Trial th o 6 Amendment right to a trial without unreasonable delay Subpoena Ad Testificandum o A court order to produce a tangible object Subpoena Duces Tecum o A court order to produce documents Transactional Immunity o Exemption from prosecution for any offense arising out of the act or transaction that is the subject of a witness’s testimony True Bill o Records the names of the grand jurors issuing an indictment Use and Derivative Use Immunity o A witness may not be prosecuted based on information derived from his or her testimony Venire o Group of individuals from which the jury is selected Venue o Location of the trial Vicinage o Selection of the jury from the area in which the crime is committed Voir Dire o Examination of potential jurors Chapter 14 Abandonment o Failure to file timely state appeal for postconviction relief when an attorney has dropped the case without notice to the defendant Abuse of Writ Doctrine o Prohibition on filing successive writs of habeas corpus raising the same issue Actual Innocence o A claim on a writ of habeas corpus that the defendant did not commit the crime Automatic Reversal Rule o Requirement that violation of a fundamental constitutional right during trial results in the reversal of a conviction on appeal Capital Punishment o A death sentence Cause and Prejudice o Exception that allows a defendant who defaulted on his or her appeal to file a writ of habeas corpus if he or she is able to demonstrate that the state caused the default by withholding information or by some other misconduct or that the default resulted from ineffective assistance of counsel Clemency o A reduction in a criminal punishment Collateral Remedies o Remedies that are available following the exhaustion of direct appeals Concurrent Sentences o Criminal sentences served at the same time Consecutive Sentences o Criminal sentences served one after another Determining or FixedTime Sentencing o A fixed and certain criminal punishment Eight Amendment o Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that includes the prohibition on cruel and unusual punishment Final Judgement Rule o Rule that an appeal may be taken only following a verdict General Deterrence o Criminal penalty intended to discourage individuals from committing a crime Habeas Corpus o Latin for “you have the body” o A writ of habeas corpus is an order issued by a judge to a government official (usually the warden of a correctional institution) to bring an imprisoned individual to court and explain why the individual is in detention Harmless Error o An error made in admission of evidence that does not contribute to the conviction obtained o An appellate court must be convinced beyond a reasonable doubt that the error is harmless Incapacitation o Punishment intended to isolate the offender from society Interlocutory Appeal o An appeal taken prior to the final verdict Moot o An issue that is unnecessary for an appellate court to address Nonweighing States o States in which the death penalty may be imposed once the jury finds an aggravated circumstance and that the death penalty is justified based on the totality of the circumstances Pardon o A release from additional criminal punishment Plain Error Exception o Exception that permits an appellate court to review an error that was not raised in the trial court Presentence Report o Report submitted to a judge by a probation officer containing facts that are relevant for establishing a defendant’s criminal sentence Rehabilitation o Punishment that is designed to assist an individual who is criminally convicted to become a lawabiding and productive member of society Restoration o Punishment that compensates the victim for losses resulting from crime Retribution o Punishment that is intended to exact vengeance or revenge Retroactivity of Judicial Decisions o Principle that a U.S. Supreme Court judgment should be retroactively applied to all cases that are yet to be filed and cases that already have been filed Right of Allocution o Right of the defendant to address the judge at a sentencing hearing Selective Incapacitation o Punishment that singles out offenders who have committed designated offenses for lengthy incarceration Sentencing Guidelines o A formula established by a state legislature for determining criminal sentences Sentencing Hearing o A judicial hearing to determine a defendant’s criminal sentence Specific Deterrence o Punishment that is intended to deter a specific individual from committing additional crimes Successive Petition Doctrine o Rule prohibiting the file of a second habeas corpus that raises a claim that has been presented in a prior petition Three Strikes and You’re Out Law o Law requiring that three felonies result in lengthy imprisonment or life in prison Weighing States o States in which a sentence of death is based on balancing aggravated and mitigating circumstances Chapter 15 Administrative Review Board o Military officers who review decisions of combat status review tribunals Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF) o Congressional authorization for use of force Combat Status Review Tribunal (CSRT) o A group of three neutral officers to the U.S. armed forces who are appointed by the secretary of defense of the United States to determine whether a detainee is an unlawful combatant Detainee Treatment Act of 2005 o Congressional act that provides that no person in the custody or under the effective control of the Department of Defense shall be subjected to any treatment or technique of interrogation not authorized in the U.S. Army Field Manual on Intelligence Interrogation Enemy Combatant o An individual who, if captured in battle by the U.S. military forces, does not qualify as a prisoner of war Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) o Congressional act that establishes procedures for national security electronic surveillance and searches Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) o Special curt that issues warrants for electronic surveillance and physical searches to investigate issues involving national security and terrorism Material Witness Warrant o Warrant allowing the government to arrest a witness whose testimony is material to a case and who may flee in order to avoid testifying Military Commissions o Tribunals composed of military officers that are convened to prosecute noncitizen, unlawful combatants accused of terrorism Military Commissions Act of 2006 (MCA) o Congressional act establishing military commissions that are provided with jurisdiction over any alien unlawful combatant who has engaged in hostilities r has intentionally and materially supported hostilities against the United States National Security Letter (NSL) o Letter issued by the attorney general of the United States requesting information relevant to an investigation of terrorism or secret foreign intelligence activities PATRIOT Act o Congressional act passed in October 2001 that provides procedures to combat terrorism Pen Register o Device that records the number of outgoing calls from an individual telephone Roving Wiretap o Electronic surveillance authorized for any device used by the target of the investigation SneakandPeek Search o A search that is not disclosed to the subject of the search State Secrets Doctrine o Permits any U.S. government to intervene in any civil case and ask the judge to prevent the presentation of evidence that would damage the security if the United States TrapandTrance Device o A device that records the number of call coming in to a telephone Wall, The o A policy that prohibited communication between the FBI and CIA in regard to national security and terrorism
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