Physiology 215 Exam 5 Study Guide
Physiology 215 Exam 5 Study Guide phys 215
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Friday April 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to phys 215 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Kelly-Worden in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 194 views.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Exam 5 Study Guide 1. lung volumes a. Tidal Volume (TV) i. of air in/out with each normal breath (normally about 500 ml) b. Vital Capacity (VC) i. Total volume of air that can be moved in/out during a single breath (up to about 3100 ml) c. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) i. Volume of air which can be forcibly inhaled at the end of a normal inhalation d. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) i. Amount of air which can be forcibly exhaled at the end of a normal expiration e. Residual Volume i. Amount of air which always remains in alveoli 2. Asthma: airway obstruction due to a. Thickening of the airway walls b. Plugging of the airways by excessive secretion of mucus c. Hyperresponsiveness of the airways leading to constriction of the smaller airways caused by spasm of the smooth muscle in the airway walls 3. Hyperventilation: increase in ventilation that exceeds the oxygen needs (occurs if blood carbon dioxide levels go to high) 4. Inulin and PAH a. Inulin is filtered in the glomerulus, but is not reabsorbed (125 ml/min) b. PAH (paraaminohippuric acid) is filtered by the glomeruli and secreted in the proximal tubule (it is removed from all the plasma that moves through the kidneys, 625 ml/min) 5. plasma and renal clearance a. Renal clearance is a measurement that allows one to analyze the activity of the kidney. It is a very peculiar measurement and this leads to confusion for students. The definition for clearance is the volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed by the kidney in a given amount of time (usually a minute). b. Every minute approximately 625 ml of plasma goes to the kidney. This is the renal plasma flow. Some of the fluid leaves the kidney in the plasma while some leaves the kidney as urine. There are only two ways for a substance to end up in the urine: either it is filtered at the glomerulus and then not reabsorbed from the tubules, or the substance is not filtered but is secreted by from the peritubular capillaries into the tubules. In either instance, the substance ends up in the collecting duct and is excreted into the urine. 6. internal vs. external respiration a. External respiration is basically the transfer of gas between respiratory organs such as lungs and the outer environment b. Internal respiration or tissue respiration/cellular respiration refers to a metabolic process in which oxygen is released to tissues or living cells and carbon dioxide is absorbed by the blood. 7. the diaphragm and inspiratory muscles a. When the diaphragm contracts, its central portion moves downwards and sides move upwards and cause inhalation. b. inspiratory muscles which cause the thoracic cavity to expand or induce inhalation 8. inspiration vs. expiration a. Inspiration: rib cage moves up and out, diaphragm contracts, pressure in the lungs decreases and air comes rushing in. b. Expiration: rib cage moves down and in, diaphragm relaxes and moves up, pressure in the lungs increases and air is pushed out. 9. hypoxia: oxygen deficiency in the body a. Anemic hypoxia a reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. It is caused by a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood or a reduced number of red blood cells. b. Circulatory hypoxia (stagnant hypoxia) oxygen deficiency due to poor circulation of the blood or poor blood flow. Examples of this condition are high "G" forces, prolonged sitting in one position or hanging in a harness, cold temperatures, and positive pressure breathing. c. Histotoxic hypoxia the inability of the tissues to use oxygen. Examples are carbon monoxide and cyanide poisoning. d. Hypoxic hypoxia a reduction in the amount of oxygen passing into the blood. It is caused by a reduction in oxygen pressure in the lungs, by a reduced gas exchange area, exposure to high altitude, or by lung disease. 10. alveolar cell types a. Squamous alveolar (type 1) forms the structure of an alveolar wall. b. Great Alveolar (type 2) secrete pulmonary surfactant to lower the surface tension of water and allows the membrane to separate, therefore increasing its capability exchange gases. 11. alveolar ventilation rate a. (TVDead space volume)*respiratory rate 12. PO a2 partial pressures of gases a. reflects the amount of oxygen gas dissolved in the blood. It primarily measures the effectiveness of the lungs in pulling oxygen into the blood stream from the atmosphere. 13. disassociation curve and saturation of hemoglobin + a. Effect of increased P CO2 , H , temperature, and 2,3 bisphosphoglycerate on the O –Hb cu2ve. Increased P CO2, acid, temperature, and 2,3bisphosphoglycerate, as found at the tissue level, shift the O2–Hb curve to the right. As a result, less O an2 Hb can be combined at a given P , sO2that more O is un2oaded from Hb for use by the tissues. 14. carbonic anhydrase: present only in the red blood cells a. The carbonic anhydrases form a family of enzymes that catalyze the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and protons, a reversible reaction that occurs relatively slowly in the absence of a catalyst. 15. hypercapnia: excessive CO in t2e blood 16. pulmonary compliance a. is a measure of the lung's ability to stretch and expand. In clinical practice it is separated into two different measurements, static compliance and dynamic compliance. Static lung compliance is the change in volume for any given applied pressure. 17. respiratory centers a. Respiratory control centers in the brain stem. 18. elastic recoil a. the rebound of the lungs after having been stretched by inhalation, or rather, the ease with which the lung rebounds. With inhalation, the interpleural pressure (the pressure within the pleural cavity) of the lungs decreases 19. airway resistance a. the opposition to flow caused by the forces of friction. It is defined as the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow. Resistance to flow in the airways depends on whether the flow is laminar or turbulent, on the dimensions of the airway, and on the viscosity of the gas. 20. functions of the kidney: a. Maintaining H2O balance b. Maintaining proper osmolarity of fluids c. Regulating the quantity and concentration of the Extra Cellular Fluid (ECF). d. Maintaining proper plasma volume e. Maintaining the acid/base balance (pH) f. Elimination of end products g. Excreting foreign compounds h. Producing erythropoietin i. Producing renin (important in salt conservation) j. Conversion of vitamin D to the active form 21. the glomerulus: balllike structure with capillaries passing through it, water and solutes from the blood filter into the tubular part of the nephron from here 22. peritubular capillaries: Vasa recta the peritubular capillaries of juxtamedullary nephrons that form hairpin loops 23. tubular secretion vs. tubular reabsorption a. Tubular reabsorption selective movement of essential filtered substances from the tubular lumen to the peritubular capillaries. b. Tubular secretion selective movement of certain substances from the peritubular capillaries into the tubular lumen 24. glomerular filtration and GFR a. GFR= K * fet filtration pressure b. K f filtration coefficient) depends on the permeability (how leaky it is) of the glomerular membrane and the amount of surface available for solutes to cross c. Net filtration rate= glomerular blood pressure – the net hydrostatic pressure d. So; NFR= 55 mmHg45 mmHg or 10 mmHg 25. autoregulation of GFR a. TWO MECHANISMS: b. Myogenic (muscle produced) mechanism afferent arteriole vascular smooth muscle automatically contracts with an increase in arteriole pressure c. Tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism involves macula densa cells which contain granules, part of distal convoluted tubules (DCT) (part of juxtaglomerular apparatus) 26. the proximal tubule a. leaves Bowman’s capsule, passing the fluid through a convoluted path down to the Loop of Henle 27. transepithelial transport a. Involves the movement of molecules through two membranes: i. The luminal membrane (lumen side) 1. The surface of the cell lining the lumen is called the apical membrane ii. The surface in contact with the extracellular fluid is called the basolateral membrane b. The characteristics of these two membranes are different in terms of their complement of ion channels and transport proteins. The electrochemical gradients for the molecules which are moved are also different with respect to the concentrations in the lumen, epithelial cell and plasma side. 28. reabsorption of sodium, chloride, amino acids, glutamate and phosphate a. Almost all glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed. b. Reabsorption is in exchange for Na+ and occurs in the proximal tubule c. The movement of glucose and amino acids against their concentration gradient from the lumen into the epithelial cell is coupled to the movement of Na+ ions down their concentration gradient. d. Sodiumglucose symport is located on the apical membrane that lines the lumen e. Extracellular sodium binds to the symport i. This causes a conformational change that creates a high affinity binding site for glucose ii. When glucose binds, the symport changes conformation again to an open channel to the inside of the cell iii. Sodium is released as it moves down its concentration gradient 1. Unbinding of sodium causes the glucose binding site to become low affinity & glucose is released iv. This process requires no energy (no ATP) 29. the juxtaglomerular apparatus: a. runs next to the glomerulus 30. vasopressin a. chief target of vasopressin; regulates kidney collecting duct water permeability and hence renal regulation of body water balance b. Angiotensin increases the secretion 31. Urea a. A waste product from the breakdown of proteins b. The concentration of urea in the glomerular filtrate is equal to that in the plasma. c. Urea becomes concentrated as water leaves and it is left behind d. As the concentration of urea increases in the tubule, it can diffuse from the lumen into the peritubular capillary e. Only 50% of all urea is reabsorbed 32. filtration fraction a. Filtration GFR (plasma inulin clearance) = fraction renal plasma flow (PAH clearance) b. 20% of plasma that enters the glomeruli is filtered 33. hydrogen, potassium, organic ion secretion a. 34. osmolarity/tonicity a. Isotonic normal osmolarity (concentration of salts in water) is 300 milliosmols/liter (mosM) b. Hypotonic a solution with an osmolarity below the normal concentration c. Hypertonic a solution with an osmolarity greater than normal 35. Hypertention:can be caused by an abnormal increases in reninangiotensin aldosterone activity 36. Aldosterone a. Aldosterone increases the reabsorption of Na+ ions by the collecting ducts by promoting the expression and synthesis of the transport proteins involved in moving Na+ ions. That is, aldosterone promotes the expression and synthesis of Na+ channels on the luminal membrane and the Na+ / K+ ATPase on the membrane b. Acts on the adrenal cortex causing the release of aldosterone c. No aldosterone ~8% sodium lost in the urine d. Too much aldosterone complete sodium reabsorption 37. Starling Hypothesis: a. implies that, through a semipermeable capillary wall, hydrostatic pressure shifts fluids outwards, while the oncotic pressure of the plasma albumin (protein) holds fluid within the capillary. (Starling Forces) 38. the renal process a. Glomerular filtration nondiscriminating filtration of protein free plasma b. Tubular reabsorption selective movement of essential filtered substances from the tubular lumen to the peritubular capillaries. c. Tubular secretion selective movement of certain substances from the peritubular capillaries into the tubular lumen 39. water permeability in the nephron a. regulated by the hormones aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, and atrial natriuretic peptide. 40. glycosuria a. The presence of glucose in urine is called glycosuria. This occurs when the plasma glucose level reaches 300 mg per 100ml, but can occur at values as low as 150 mg per 100 ml. This plasma level is called the renal plasma threshold for glucose. b. Glycosuria occurs most frequently in two conditions: i. Diabetes Mellitus hyperglycemia occurs due to inadequate secretion or action of insulin. In this condition the plasma glucose level increases to a level above the renal plasma threshold. ii. Lowering of renal plasma threshold. This is usually a non pathological condition and occurs most frequently during pregnancy. In this case glycosuria occurs even though the normal renal plasma threshold is not surpassed. 41. renal and respiratory anatomy 42. renal and respiratory homeostasis
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