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Social Development in Middle Childhood II: Peers

by: Cassie Ng

Social Development in Middle Childhood II: Peers CPSY 2301

Marketplace > University of Minnesota > Psychlogy > CPSY 2301 > Social Development in Middle Childhood II Peers
Cassie Ng
U of M

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Introductory Child Psychology
Henriette Warren
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CPSY 2301 at University of Minnesota taught by Henriette Warren in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introductory Child Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.

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Date Created: 12/07/15
Social Development in Middle Childhood II: Peers                  December 3, 2015  1. How do peer relations change over time?  When do we first start seeing peer  interactions?  What types of interactions do we see? How are these interactions  changing over time? See relation change over time. They change from infancy to preschoolers, elementary  school years and adolescence. We first start to see peer interaction in preschoolers.  Change over time: Infancy: ­ sociability (smiling, babbling, imitating etc)  Preschoolers: (~2­5): ­ Peer interaxn slowly emerging ( they are not really interacting but  staying near by, side by side) ­ Level of complexity of interaxn with peers gradually  increases Elementary school years: ­ Peer groups begin to emerge ­ Proximity, shared interests are  important ­ Gender segregated  Adolescence: ­ Formal structure (cliques/crowds) ­ Coed ­ Peer conformity peaks  2. What is a peer? What is the difference between a peer and a friend? The differences between a peer and a friend is for peer, it is about trying to get involve  with a social group. Once children begin to spend significant amounts of time among  peers, they must learn to create a satisfying place for themselves within the social group.  Their greater appreciation of social rules and their increased ability to consider other  people's point of view are essential resources for this developmental task.  3. How did Harlow’s research inform us about the importance of peers?  What findings  point to the importance of others, besides peers, in normal social development?  Monkeys reared with mother only, without peers: ­ Have immature play ­ Have higher  aggression and fearfulness with peers Those with peers only, without mother: ­ Have  higher behavior problems ­ Lowe exploration  Harlow's research about monkeys informs us peers are very important. But it is not the  only key to healthy social development. During middle childhood, children spend more  and more time with peers.  4. How does the conformity to peer pressure change over the course of development? Whenever a group of children exists over a period of time, a social structure emerges.  Social structures are complex organizations of relationships among individuals.  Sometimes dominant children will stand out, being a leader not a follower. These  children is the one who control 'resources' such as toys, play spaces, and decisions about  group activities. There are critical moments in development when children work hard to  negotiate their positions with each other. One such moment is the transition between  elementary and middle school, when new social groupings are being formed. The first  year of middle school, when children are working to establish dominance in new social  groups, and then diminishes significantly during the seventh grade, once the dominance  patterns have been fully formed.  5. Describe the sociometric method. What are the five categories of peer acceptance derived from this method? Sociometric method techniques are methods that qualitatively measure aspects of social  relationships, such as social acceptance (i.e., how much an individual is liked by peers)  and social status (i.e., child's social standing in comparison to peers). 1) Common­ground activity     (The children who became friends were those who quickly found something they could do together. In addition, they explored their similarities and differences)  2) Clear communication     (Children who became friends were likely to listen to each other, request clarification  when they did not understand what the other said, and speak in ways that they were  relevant to the task at hand)  3) Exchange of information      (Children who became friends both asked their partners for relevant information and  provided such information to them)  4) Resolution of conflict      (Children who became friends gave good reasons when they disagreed with eachother,  and they were able to bring conflicts to a quick resolution)  5) Reciprocity       (Children who became friends were likely to respond to their partner’s positive  behaviors with an appropriate positive contribution of their own)  6. What are the correlates of being rejected by ones’ peers, both concurrently and in the long run? Outcomes of peer rejection:  ­ Lonely  ­ Depressed  ­ Socially anxious  Long term:  ­ Lower education  ­ Lower job performance  ­ Lower self­esteem  ­ Higher psychological problems (more anxiety, nervous, depressed)  (Problems continue in adulthood) 7. Describe the factors associated with peer acceptance. How do we know if social skills result from peer acceptance, or vice versa? What interventions are most effective in helping children who are rejected by peers? 1) Physical Attractiveness  ­ Attractive children are generally more popular from elementary school onward    . By preschool: attractive youngsters are described more favorably by teachers & peers    . Unattractive youngsters are more aggressive toward peers  2) Social Skills  ­ Accepted: outgoing, friendly, and helpful  ­ Rejected: Anxious/withdrawn OR aggressive  3) Attachment quality:  ­ Securely attached children have more satisfying peer relationship  4) Parenting:  ­ Authoritative Style  ­ Modeling (how adults talk to their children, interaction) 5) Academic achievement:  ­ Rejected children tend to do poorly academically score lower on IQ tests  ­ Mixed feelings for popular children (If academic achievement is viewed as uncool)  Social Skills is the direction of effects issue  ­ Social skills predict status (popularity) with unfamiliar peer groups Improve peer relationships:  ­ Social Skills Training  . Most common intervention, helps improve communication, turn­taking, joining  groups  . Academic skills training  . Parenting training  . Teacher training  8. What do we know about sexual segregation during middle childhood? What outcomes are associated with maintaining sex segregation? Violating segregation? What are the “rules” for cross- gender contact? ­ Studies in the United States have found that when children are 6 years of age,  roughly 68 percent choose a child of the same sex for a ‘best friend’; by the time  children are age 12, the figure has grown to about 90 percent  ­ The tendency to aggregate with peers of the same sex strengths throughout middle childhood because of gender differences in activity preferences. In particular, the  male­style play preferred by boys includes high levels of physical activity, such as horseplay and play fighting, whereas the females­style paly preferred by girls  includes more cooperative and prosocial forms of play, such as clapping and  jump­rope games  ­ Boys and girls do interact with each other, sometimes in very amusing ways ­ Calling a boy on the telephone and leaving a pseudoromantic message on the family answering machine is one of favorite border­crossing technique  ­ Boys sometimes engage in more direct border crossing, such as pulling pigtails and  snapping girls’ bras.  ­ In addition, contact between boys and girls may be more frequent, open and  ‘normal’ in the neighborhood than it is in the school setting, especially if there is a  shortage of potential same­sex playmates  9. What is friendship and how do children make friends? How stable are friendships? How do cognitive advances influence children’s ability to form and maintain friendships? What outcomes are associated with having a best friend or not having a best friend? ­ To pick out one or a few other children with whom they feel this kind of special  affinity is the childhood precursor of the need for interpersonal intimacy that will  be called love  ­  Developmentalists find that similarity promotes equality in the relationship,  positive reinforcement, and cooperative interactions—all factors associated with  friendship stability  ­ Friend­keeping is enhanced when children share similar behavioral characteristics,  even when those characteristics are maladaptive ­ Children develop a more sophisticated understanding of their friendships and the  unique needs, motives, and goals of their friends  ­ 3 general spheres of influence that are affected by the development of perspective­ taking: friendship understanding, friendship skills, and friendship valuing  ­ Friendship understanding: the child’s developing knowledge of the nature of  friendship  . Describe children as young philosophers who have theories about how to make  friends , sustain relationships, and manage conflicts  ­ Friendship skills: the specific action strategies that children use in developing  their relationships. Like friendship understanding, friendship skills become   increasingly sophisticated over time  ­ Friend valuing ( The child’s ability to make a personal commitment to a  relationship and be emotionally invested and motivated to maintain it)  ­ Claimed that the failure to form such friendships in childhood creates a social  deficit that is difficult to remedy later  ­ Children with best friends score higher on measures of self­esteem and positive  feelings of self­worth, whereas children with no friends tend to be timed, overly  sensitive, and at risk for later psychological problems 10. How do parents influence children’s peer relationships? How do parents’ relationships with their children change over the course of development? ­ Parents expecting their children to display new behavioral competencies and  increasingly sharing their control over their children’s lives with their children  ­ Children whose parents divorce are more likely than other children to have  problems in a range of areas. According to the divorce­stress­adjustment  perspective , these problems stem from both the short­term trauma of divorce and  its long­term effects. 


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