Psyc 474, Unit 2 study guide
Psyc 474, Unit 2 study guide Psyc 474
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Clarissa Hinshaw on Friday April 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 474 at Northern Illinois University taught by Ellen Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Psychological Basis of Sexuality in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 8: Relationships and Communication\ Terms: Attraction: having a crush on someone, finding them appealing Building: dating, building a friendship Continuation: defining the relationship, officially becoming friends with someone. Deterioration: a relationship or friendship going downhill. Termination (ending): breaking up with someone or ending a friendship. Selfdisclosure: revealing personal information about oneself to someone else, whether it is a friend, relative, or significant other. Responses to jealousy: Destructive communication: communicating through insults, threats, and violence. Constructive communication: using it to strengthen the relationships. Avoidance: not talking about feelings of jealousy. Rivalfocused communication: possessing or stalking their significant other to catch them cheating. Loneliness: feeling sad because one is alone. Solitude: choosing to be alone for selfgrowth reasons. Other Stuff: Jealousy occurs when one believes something or someone else is threatening their relationship. Jealousy is normal, but if it’s doing serious harm to the relationship, it is obsessional jealousy. Men are usually more upset by sexual cheating, whereas women are usually more upset by emotional cheating. People are less jealous when their significant other cheats with someone of the same sex. o Since most people divorce or delay marriage, many relationships will end. o Relationships end when the costs outweigh the rewards. Active methods include trying to fix the relationship or break up. Passive methods: doing nothing or waiting for the significant other to break up with them. Loneliness usually peaks during adolescence because of peer influence. Lonely people often have many physical, emotional, and psychological problems. They also respond more negatively to stress. Lonely people usually lack social skills, lack interest in people, lack empathy, fear rejection, are afraid to open up to people, rush relationships, are pessimistic, and blame their failures on others. Chapter 9: Sexual Behaviors and Fantasies Terms: Masturbation: touching the genitals by oneself by oneself for comfort or stimulation. Other things to know: Early christens believed masturbation was sinful because it did not lead to procreation. People historically believed masturbation could cause diseases such as poor eyesight, memory loss, tuberculosis, and epilepsy. They believed eliminating meat, coffee, tea, and chocolate, as well as increasing consumption of grains and bland foods could decrease masturbation. Kellogg believed signs of masturbation included paleness, weak backs, and rounded shoulders. He believed parents should discourage masturbation and even introduced dangerous genital traps to prevent this. He also believed masturbation encouraged same sex behavior. There is no psychological problem with masturbation, as long as the person is still interested in having sex with their partner. People are masturbating at younger ages and men are more likely to masturbate than women. Women who masturbate are more likely to find pleasure in sex. Women are more likely to achieve an orgasm during masturbation than during sex. Most cismen masturbate by jerking their penis up and down. Some will rub the penis and testes on clothing or another object. In the shower, cismen will use a lubricant, such as soap or petroleum jelly. Many will use sex toys, such as blowup dolls, artificial vaginas, or vibrators, as well looking at pornographic images to become aroused. Ciswomen usually masturbate by massaging their labia, mons, or clitoral area in a circular or back and forth motion. Some will also touch their breasts. Many ciswomen masturbate in the shower. Lesbians are more likely than straight ciswomen to use dildos or other vibrators. Most women have fantasized about being victimized. Women have more fantasies during ovulation. Fantasies about other people are normal and do not mean one in unsatisfied with their partner. Women are most flexible about the gender of their fantasies than men. Nonheterosexual men are more flexible in their fantasies than straight men. Chapter 10: Sexual Orientation Terms: Sexual orientation: the gender(s) of which a person is sexually or romantically attracted to. Ex: women, men, nonbinary genders Heterosexual: a person who identifies as a binary gender and is attracted to people of the other binary gender. Homosexual: a person attracted to people of their gender. Gay man: a person who identifies as male and is attracted to others who identify as male. Lesbian: a person who identifies as female and is attracted to others who identify as female. Bisexual: a person of any gender who is attracted to people who identify as female or male. Pansexual: a person of any gender who is attracted to people of any gender. Asexual: a person of any gender who is not attracted to anyone. Other stuff: Kinsey suggested of sexual orientation being on a sliding scale. This is because of traditional masculine and feminine norms placed on people. Although homosexuality was encouraged or tolerated in some societies, it was condemned in most. In ancient Greece, adult men had sexual relations with teen boys. Swallowing semen was seemed to boost strength and representing manhood. However, men were expected to marry women as adults. Freud believed people became sexually stimulated to the other binary gender parent and homosexuality was an illness. He believed lack of the other binary gender parent caused homosexuality. Learning theory also believes sexual orientation is caused by early experiences. However, many people who participate in samesex encounters as teens identify as heterosexual in adulthood. Gay rights movements started in the 1960s with the Stonewall riots. Chapter 11: Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth Terms: Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG): a hormone present in pregnant women, used to detect pregnancy. Morning sickness: nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Germinal stage: the period after conception before implantation, AKA the zygote Embryonic stage: period from implantation to 2 months gestation. Transition: moving from the first to second stage of labor. Episiotomy: cutting the crotch open to get the baby out. Lamaze method: no drugs, just destress exercises, such as meditation. Cesarean section: surgically removing the baby through the abdomen. In vitro fertilization (IVF): a method where the egg is fertilized in a Petri dish and implanted into the ciswoman. This often takes many tries because it doesn’t always work. Teratogens: things which can damage the embryo or fetus. Some of these include alcohol or aspirin. Other stuff: How a couple feels about pregnancy depends on how prepared they are for a child. The most obvious sign of pregnancy is usually missing a period, but some will spot during pregnancy, so this can be hard. People used to detect pregnancy with a ‘rabbit test’, where urine is injected into a rabbit to see it ovulates. rd th Urine tests can detect pregnancy in the 3 week and blood tests can in the 8 day. Morning sickness can reduce the risk of miscarriage and stillbirth. Sex is usually safe during pregnancy, as long as the mother has no history of miscarriage. Many women are afraid having sex will hurt the baby. Miscarriage is often associated with feelings of loss. Some prescription drugs, narcotics, tranquilizers, alcohol, marijuana, tobacco, and meth can have harmful effects on the fetus. Chapter 12: Contraception and Abortion Terms: Condom: a sheath put over the penis to prevent pregnancy and STIs. Combination pill: a pill containing estrogen and progesterone. Minipill: a pill containing progesterone only Intrauterine Device (IUD): A plastic rod placed in the uterus Vasectomy: a procedure where the vans deferens of a cisman is cut and tied. Other Stuff: The pill is the most popular form of birth control for young, unmarried ciswomen. The morning after pill has high dosages of estrogen and progesterone. The patch works similarly to the pill. Of the shots, Lunelle is similar to the combination pill, but injected once a month. Depo Provera is similar to the mini pill, injected 4x per year. Women are sterilized by having their fallopian tubes cut and tied. Chapter 13: Sexuality in Childhood and Adolescence Other Stuff: Children start masturbating from birth Comprehensive sex ed leads teenagers to make more safe and responsible decisions. Children seem to adjust just fine to samesex parents Some teens want their first time to happen, others don’t, others have mixed feelings about it. Teen pregnancy has gone down in recent years.
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