Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide
Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide Psych 2010
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meagan on Friday April 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 9: Development Prenatal development o Time from conception to birth Germinal o Stage from fertilization to implantation Embryonic o Stage from 2 weeks – 2 months, very vulnerable, and the end is when the first bone cell is developed Fetal o Stage from 2 months – 40 weeks and when all of the systems are complete Age of Viability o Around 24 weeks in the pregnancy Teratogen o Agents that harm the embryo or fetus Stage Theory o Look at how development occurs in steps Continuous View o Gradual look at how development occurs Longitudinal Study o Same participants all the time (within subjects) Cross Sectional Study o Different participants (between subjects) Nutrition & Prenatal Development o Time from conception to birth and how certain food is necessary for health and growth Fetal Alcohol Syndrome o Exposure to the teratogen alcohol during pregnancy can cause low birth weight, face and head abnormalities, etc. Effects of Drugs/Alcohol on Development o Microcephaly, Heart defects, Hyperactivity, Mental Retardation, Working memory, Developmental delay, Depression, Lying, Suicide, and Criminal Behavior Motor Development o Reflexes needed for survival and they are examined to make sure neurological function is intact Reflexes (Moro, stepping, babinski, etc) o Survival mechanisms that pave the way for learning more complicated behavior patterns Cephalocaudal Trend o Top to bottom Proximodistal Trend o Center to outer parts Developmental Milestones o behaviors or physical skills seen in infants and children as they grow and develop Attachment o A strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances Harry Harlow o Studies the effects of child/caregiver bond using a Rhesus monkey Strange Situation Experiments o Experiment done to test what kind of attachment a child has with their mother or caregiver based on the actions of the child Social Contact o One of the main reasons why a strong attachment occurs with a caregiver Separation Anxiety o anxiety provoked in a young child by separation or the threat of separation from their mother Secure Attachment o Attachment style for a majority of infants; the infant is confident enough to play in an unfamiliar environment as long as the caregiver is present and is readily comforted by the caregiver during times of distress Avoidant Attachment o Children with this attachment do not get upset or cry at all when caregiver leaves and they may prefer to play with the stranger rather than the parent during their time in the playroom Ambivalent Attachment o Those with this may cry a great deal when the caregiver leaves the room but then be inconsolable when the caregiver tries to calm them down upon return Disorganized Attachment o Those with this may or may not get upset or cry when the caregiver leaves and may or may not be comforted when caregiver comes back Cognitive Development o the construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving, and decision-making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood Piaget o Came up with the 4 stages of development Vygotsky o Studied social interaction and said that language is essential to development Schema o describes an organized pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them Assimilation o The process by which new information is placed into an existing scheme Accommodation o The process by which a new scheme is created or an existing scheme is drastically altered to include new information that otherwise would not fit into the scheme Sensorimotor Stage o The first stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; during this stage, infants acquire information about the world though their senses and motor skills Preoperational Stage o The second stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; during this stage, children think symbolically about objects, but they reason based on intuition and superficial appearance rather than logic Concrete Operational Stage o The third stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; during this stage, children begin to think about and understand logical operations, and they are no longer fooled by appearances Formal Operational Stage o The final stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; in this stage, people can think abstractly, and they can formulate and test hypotheses through deductive logic Object Permanence o Even if you can’t see it anymore it still exists Pretend Play o Fantasy and imaginary play Egocentrism o Not able to share another’s viewpoint Animism o When all things are living Conservation (liquid, number, mass, etc) o Physical quantities remain constant Infants and Object Permanence o Happens at about 8 months of age Infants and Mathematics o Around ages 7-11 the development of reversibility in mathematic operations start to occur Limitations to Piaget’s theory o Overestimates age differences and not all adults can think abstractly Inner Speech o Verbal thought and a richer set of symbols Noncommunicative Speech o Thinking out loud Zone of Proximal Development o The place where the child understands Scaffolding o The place in which the caregiver changes where needed, in order to support the child Moral Reasoning o thinking process with the objective of determining whether an idea is right or wrong Kohlberg o Came up with the stage theory that consists of preconventional, conventional and the postconventional stage Preconventional Stage o Earliest level of moral development; at this level, self-interest and event outcomes determine what is moral Conventional Stage o Middle stage of moral development; at this level, strict adherence to societal rules and the approval of others determine what is moral Postconventional Stage o Highest stage of moral development; at this level, decisions about morality depend on abstract principles and the value of all life 1. What are the 3 stages of prenatal development? What is the age of viability? Germinal, embryonic, and fetal. 24 weeks. 2. What types of research designs are used in developmental research? Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies. 3. What environmental factors have an effect on prenatal development? Anything from nutrition to birth weight. 4. What stage of prenatal development is the most vulnerable to the environment? Embryonic 5. What are the basic trends in motor development? Large ranges in milestones, cultural constraints, and the dynamic systems theory. 6. What are developmental norms? What effect does culture have on development? The standards used to measure the progress of a child’s development. Culture can cause certain developments to occur earlier or later in a child depending on for example how often a baby gets held or not. 7. What is temperament? What are different types of temperaments? Biologically based tendencies to feel or act in certain ways. Activity level (overall amount of energy and of behavior a person exists), Emotionality (the intensity of emotional reactions), and Sociability (general tendency to affiliate with others). Chapter 8: Language and Thought Language o A system of communication using sounds and symbols according to grammatical rules Animal Language o Animals can communicate; looked at specifically in apes; much more effort for them than humans Phoneme o The basic sounds of speech, the building blocks of language Morpheme o Smallest language units that have meaning, including suffixes and prefixes Grammar o System of rules that specify how units of language can be combined meaningfully Language Structure o Consists of phenomes, morphemes, and grammar Language Development o Process starting early in human life; consists of receptive language and productive language Babbling o Part of productive language; baby is around 4 months of age One word stage o Part of productive language; baby is around 12 months o Sounds start to carry meaning Segmenting Speech o Part of receptive language; baby around 7 months Receptive Language o Hearing or seeing Productive Language o Speaking and writing Theories of Language Development o Operant Learning (Skinner), Nativist Theory (Chomsky), and the Interactionist Approach Telegraphic Speech o Part of productive language; the 2 word stage; baby around 24 months Critical period o Time when deaf children should be paired with cochlear implants (2 - 4 years old) Language Acquisition Device o Proposed by Chomsky, it is the mental capacity which enables infants to gain and produce language Rational Choice Theory o Chance x payoff = expected gain Algorithm o Well defined procedure that guarantees a solution Heuristic o Shortcuts used to reduce the amount of thinking that is needed to make decisions Availability Bias/Heuristic o Making a decision based on the answer that most easily comes to mind Conjunction Fallacy o Think that 2 events are more likely to occur together than either individual event Representativeness Heuristic o Judging likelihood in terms of how well they represent prototype Framing Effects o Context or phrasing of problem that lead to different answers Means End Analysis o the problem solver begins by envisioning the end, or ultimate goal, and then determines the best strategy for attaining the goal in his current situation Analogical Problem solving o Solving a problem using the information from the information gathered Functional Fixedness o In problem solving having fixed ideas about the typical functions of objects Reasoning o The act of thinking about something in a logical way Practical reasoning o use of reason to decide how to act Theoretical reasoning o Reason leading to understanding Syllogistic Reasoning o Reasoning used to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true Chapter 13: Personality Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic o Conscious Information we are aware of at any given moment o Subconscious/preconscious Information that can, with little effort, be brought into consciousness o Unconscious Information that is difficult to access; hidden desires, memories, conflicts o Id Instinctual drives present at birth o Ego Thing that mediates the id and external world (emerges during infancy) o Superego Idealistic principle, moral guide/conscience, inflicts guilt to thwart (emerges between 3-5 years of age) o Conflict Problems between the Id, ego, and superego; ego attempts to reconcile; focus on sexual and aggressive impulses o Anxiety Produced with long-lasting inner conflict o Defense Mechanisms Unconscious reactions to protect person from anxiety and guilt o Repression Excluding source of anxiety from awareness o Displacement Shifting the attention of emotion from one subject to another o Reaction Formation Warding off an uncomfortable thought by overemphasizing its opposite o Projection Attributing unacceptable qualities of the self to someone else o Rationalization Concocting a seemingly logical reason or excuse for behavior that might otherwise be shameful o Denial Refusing to acknowledge source of anxiety o Sublimation Channeling socially unacceptable impulses into constructive, even admirable behavior o Psychosexual Stages According to Freud, developmental stages that correspond to distinct libidinal urges; progression though these stages profoundly affects personality o Oral Stage Last from birth to 18 months; infants seek pleasure through mouth o Anal Stage 2-3 years old; toilet training leads them to focus on the anus o Phallic Stage 3-5 years old; direct their libidinal energies toward the genitals o Latency Stage Children suppress libidinal urges or channel them into doing schoolwork or building friendships o Genital Stage Adolescents and adults attain mature attitudes about sexuality an adulthood o Fixation Due to deprivation or overindulgence; caregivers redirect or interfere sexual focus o Adler A Neo-Freudian who came up with individual psychology o Jung A Neo-Freudian who came up with analytic psychology o Analytic Psychology emphasizes the primary importance of the individual psyche and the personal quest for wholeness o Individual Psychology emphasizing feelings of inferiority and a desire for power as the primary motivating forces in human behavior o How are these different from Freud’s theory? Different in that they disagreed with him because his emphasized role of conscious mind and they wanted to downplay sex and aggression. o Personal Unconscious Information difficult to access like hidden desires, memories, and conflicts o Collective Unconscious Culturally shared ancestral memories o Archetypes Symbols that are innate ideas or tendencies that shape human behavior o Introvert/Extravert The different personality types that came out of analytic psychology Humanistic o Approaches to studying personality that emphasize how people seek to fulfill their potential through greater self-understanding Behavioral o Approach to studying personality that focuses on their actions Big 5 o The idea that personality can be described using five factors: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism Trait Theory o An approach to studying personality that focuses on how individuals differ in personality dispositions Incongruence o The gap between self-concept an reality Congruence o The ideal self, self-image, and true self Self-Image o How you view yourself true Self o how you really are Ideal Self o Who you want to be Unconditional Love o Fully functional congruence; openness to experience, living in the moment, and creativity Conditional Love o Maladjusted congruence; defenses to deal with anxiety, conforming, and not intuitive Self-Actualization o The desire for self-fulfillment Stability of Personality o Personality can change as people age Self-Concept o Everything you know and believe about yourself Self Esteem o The evaluative aspect of self-concept in which people feel worthy or unworthy Effects of Situation on Personality o Strong situation (masks personality) and weak situation (shows true personality) Self-Serving Bias o The tendency for people to take personal credit for success but blame failure on external factors Better than average effect o Feel that we are better at something than we really are Freud o Studied physical manifestations of problems in behavior Rogers o Studied the humanistic approach to behavior Maslow o Studied humanism Skinner o Studied behavior; developed the theory of operant conditioning Bandura o Studied behavior in children with the bobo doll study Allport o Studied behavior before the unconscious; came up with 18000 words to describe personality Cattell o came up with 170 logically different traits which could be combined into 16 basic trait descriptors Assessing Personality How is personality assessed? o Projective tests Personality tests that examine unconscious processes by having people interpret ambiguous stimuli Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) o A person is shown an ambiguous picture and asked to tell a story about it; scoring is based on the motivational schemes that emerge Rorschach inkblot test o Person looks at an apparently meaningless inkblot and describes what it appears to be; how a person describes the inkblot reveals unconscious conflicts and other problems Personality Inventories o Consists of 240 items designed to assess the Big Five personality factors
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