a. number of combinations in a language, or a persons’ lexicon, are determined by the rules of phonology
i. phenomes: The smallest significant unit of sound in a language. A phonemic system is the sound system of a language.
ii. morphemes:the smallest significant unit of meaning in a language. b. Noam Chomsky's famous saying “Colorless green ideas sleep furiously” violates the rules of semantics
c. “twitch on the television”> anticipation error
d. people recognize words more quickly when they are in a sentence is influenced by word frequency and context effects
e. characteristics of sound exchangeerrors (Garrett 1975)
i. occur mostly in nearby words
ii. tend to NOT occur across phrases
iii. do not respect grammatical category or function
f. characteristics of word exchange errors
i. span some distance
ii. respect grammatical category and function
1. implies that words and sounds are on two different processing
a. one for phenomes and morphemes, and one for sytax
g. speech errors
i. sound exchange
1. ex) drink beer > deer brink
ii. anticipation errors
1. ex) take my bike > bake my bike
iii. preservation errors
1. ex) beef noodle > beef needle
1. ex) taxi + cab > tab If you want to learn more check out What is syn-dihydroxylation?
h. language ambiguity
i. word ambiguity
1. words can have multiple meanings
2. ex) bank: river or financial institution?
ii. syntactic ambiguity
1. phrases that can be “parsed” in multiple ways
2. ex) "Last night saw an elephant in my pajamas. How he got there (i.e.,in my pajamas), I'll never know"
i. top down processing
i. using all information you have immediately
ii. have principles for dealing with conflict between information sources iii. evidence about it solving ambiguity
1. sounds: context effects are late
2. syntax: context effects are early
3. word meaning: pragmatics/using elaborative inferences
j. connectionists model does a better job of explaining
i. how errors occur at the phenome level
1. related in sound and meaning Don't forget about the age old question of What are the major organs in the cardiovascular system?
ii. errors that invent new words If you want to learn more check out How are faces special?
k. garden path effect
i. sentences that begin to meal one thing but end up meaning another ii. illustrates temporary ambiguity
1. initial ambiguity, but meaning is made clear by the end
iii. shows that when people encounter ambiguity they.. We also discuss several other topics like What is the type of knowledge represented by a fitness leader’s skill in motivating his clients to adhere to a disciplined exercise routine, and one that is very difficult for the leader to explain to others is called?
Don't forget about the age old question of It is when you have different outcomes, the factor that was not in common was probably the cause, what is it?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the consequences of arctic sea ice loss?
1. syntax first approach parsing
a. people first group words into phrases as governed by a
number of syntax rules
b. reinterpret the sentence when errors in parsing occur
l. phenomic restoration effect
i. “it was found that the *oat...”
ii. an example of how our knowledge of the meanings of words and the likely meanings of sentences affects speech perception
iii. example of top down
m. experiment where a sentence is a garden path sentence in one context, but an easy sentence in another context
i. supports serial, bottom up model
n. Sapir Whorf hypothesis
i. (weak version) language favors some thought processes over others 1. will tend to think in ways that are most favorable to us