VPHY 3100 Final Study Guide
VPHY 3100 Final Study Guide VPHY 3100
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lorin Crear on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to VPHY 3100 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Li, Dr. Wells, Dr. Brown in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Elements of Physiology in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 12/07/15
Chapter 18 Digestion 0 Purpose to break polymers into monomers via hydrolysis o Digestive tract aka GI tract or gastrointestinal tract 0 Considered outside body I Open at both sides to environment I Nondigestables never actually enter body 0 Layers of tract I Mucosa I Submucosa I Muscularis 0 Inner circular muscularis 0 Outer longitudinal muscularis I Serosa 0 Thin outer membrane 0 Separates tract from abdominal cavity 0 Regulation of GI activities 0 Neural I Fast acting shortlived effects I Extrinsic nervous system 0 Parasympathetic division 0 Generally stimulatory o Spinal nerves in sacral region I Stimulate lower large intestine I Also important for reproduction urinating defecating 0 Sympathetic division 0 Generally inhibitory o Inhibits peristalsis and secretion 0 Stimulates contraction of sphincters I Intrinsic division 0 In uenced by extrinsic nervous system 0 Continues motility in absence of input from extrinsic 0 Submucosal plexus 0 Sheet of neurons between submucosa and inner circular muscularis o Extrinsic and intrinsic NS meet here 0 Myenteric plexus 0 Sheet of neurons between inner circular muscularis and outer longitudinal muscularis o Extrinsic and intrinsic NS meet here 0 Hormonal I Sloweracting longlasting effects I From brain or other digestive organs 0 Oral cavity 0 Deglutition swallowing o Esophagus Oral phase is voluntary Pharyngeal and esophageal phases are involuntary Swallowing center in medulla oblongata controls pattern of contractions necessary for swallowing o Peristalsis 0 Stomach Food bolus moved through esophagus to stomach by series of localized re exes in response to distension of wall by bolus Peristaltic wave 0 Muscle contractions 0 Circular smooth muscle on oral side of bolus contracts and muscle on anal side relaxes o Gastric glands Secrete gastric juice Goblet cells secrete mucus Chief cells secrete pepsinogen 0 Converted to active form pepsin in acid Parietal cells secrete HCl and intrinsic factor IF 0 HCl 0 Kills bacteria 0 Denatures ingested proteins 0 Necessary for conversion of pepsinogen to active pepsin enzyme 0 Production I At apical membrane closest to lumen proton pump moves H out of cell into lumen and Cl is secreted into lumen by facilitated diffusion I Cl39 is cotransported against its membrane with HCO339 at basolateral membrane closest to interstitial uid 0 Stimulation of production I Endocrine 0 Gastrin from G cells carried via blood to parietal and ECL cells I Neural o Acetylcholine from parasympathetic ANS stimulates parietal amp ECL cells I Paracrine o Histamine binds to H2 receptor 0 Antihistamines inhibit receptor and HCl production 0 IF 0 Polypeptide that promotes absorption of Vitamin B 12 in ileum of small intestine 0 Vitamin B 12 important for production of RBCs 0 Production of IF only essential function performed by stomach I Enterochromaffinlike cells ECL secrete histamine and serotonin I G cells secrete gastrin as hormone 0 Protection Digestion and Absorption I Protective mechanisms 0 Physical amp chemical barriers O Mucus coat contains HCO339 0 Structural amp cellular barriers I Digestion 0 Tight junctions between adjacent epithelial cells I Prevent seepage out of stomach Entire epithelium replaced every 3 days rapid rate of cell division Prostglandins I Decrease gastric acid I Increase mucus secretion 0 Proteins partially digested by pepsin 0 Salivary amylase that digests carbohydrates inactivated by acid I Only alcohol and aspirin absorbed in stomach 0 Regulation of Gastric Activities I Local regulation 0 Intrinsic nervous system 0 Increases secretion of pepsinogen amp HCl 0 Hormones gastrin amp histamine 0 Increase secretion of pepsinogen amp HCl When amino acids present I Extrinsic neural regulation 0 Cephalic phase 0 O 0 Thought of food until first 30 min of meal Secretion of gastrin and histamine Secretion of pepsinogen and HCl 0 Gastric phase 0 0 Food is present in stomach Positive feedback loop I Increased secretion of HCl amp pepsinogen increased gastric secretion 0 Intestinal phase 0 Stomach disorders 0 O O O I Peptic ulcer o Erosion of mucus membrane of stomach or duodenum Food enters small intestine Gastric activities inhibited by stretch of intestinal wall I Prevents overloading of intestine Fats in duodenum decrease gastric activities Increase secretion of enterogastrones CCK and GIP 0 Helicobacter pylori o Bacteria residing in GI tract may cause ulcer 0 Treatment by antibiotics 0 Acute gastritis o Histamine released due to tissue damage and in ammation stimulates further acid secretion 0 Treatment by histamine receptor H2 R blockers 0 Small Intestine 0 Folding I Villi and microvilli 0 brush border enzymes on surface of microvilli I Increased surface area for absorption I Each villus contains capillaries and central lacteal 0 Absorption I Duodenum and jejunum 0 Carbohydrates amino acids lipids iron and calcium I Ileum o Bile salts vitamin B12 electrolytes water 0 Slow waves I Depolarizations paced by interstitial cells of Cajal I Slow wave opens voltagegated Ca2 channels 9 action potential contraction of smooth muscle 0 Motility I Peristalsis 0 Movement of chyme through intestine 0 Small and weak movement I Segmentation 0 Major contractile activity of intestine 0 Strong contraction to mix chyme 0 Large intestine o Motility I Outer surface bulges to form haustra baglike structure 0 Function I Absorption of water and electrolytes I Production of vitamin K and some B vitamins by microbes o Defecation I Waste material passes to rectum I Relaxation of internal anal sphincter involuntary and external anal sphincter voluntary 0 Regulation of Intestinal Activities 0 Neurotransmission I Acetylcholine stimulates smooth muscle contraction behind bolus I Nitric oxide stimulates muscle relaxation in front of bolus o Endocrine regulation I Secretin 0 Stimulates HCO339 secretion I Cholescyctokinin CCK 0 Stimulates contraction of gallbladder 0 Stimulates enzymatic secretion in pancreatic juice I Gastric inhibitory peptide GIP o Inhibits gastric motility 0 Stimulates insulin secretion 0 Liver o Lobes 9 lobules 9 hepatic plates 9 hepatocytes I Plates separated by sinusoids and bile canaliculi 0 Function I Production of bile acids and salts o Bile stored in gallbladder o Bile bile acid bile salts bilirubin electrolytes cholesterol HCO339 water I Conversion of old hemoglobin to bilirubin Which is then added to bile 0 Gives bile yellowish color 0 J aundice caused by buildup of bilirubin in blood 0 Symptom yellowish appearance of sclera I Metabolism of protein into urea and uric acid I Metabolism of lipids into ketone bodies 0 Hepatic portal system I Digested food is absorbed and delivered to capillaries in villi From there drains into hepatic portal vein and is transported to liver 0 Enterohepatic circulation I Reabsorption of substances reuses 95 of bile o Pancreas o Pancreatic juice I Contains water HCO339 and digestive enzymes I Most pancreatic enzymes produced as inactive precursors called zymogens o Trypsinogen o Travels through pancreatic duct and converted to trypsin by enterokinase in small intestine o Trypsin inhibitors prevent conversion of trypsinogen in pancreas o Digestion and absorption 0 Carbohydrates I Digestion 0 Salivary amylase 0 Brush border enzymes 0 Hydrolyze oligosaccharides into monosaccharides I Absorption 0 Only monosaccharides can be absorbed o For high luminal glucose concentration facilitated diffusion o For low luminal glucose concentration cotransport With sodium 0 Protein I Digestion o Begins in stomach o In duodenum and jejunum o Endopeptidases I Cleave peptide bonds from interior of polypeptide o Exopeptidases I Cleave peptide bonds from ends of polypeptide I Absorption 0 Free amino acids cotransported With sodium 0 Di and tripeptides transported via secondary active transport using proton gradient 0 Lipids I Digestion o Bile secreted When lipids present in duodenum o Emulsifies lipids forms smaller fat molecules 0 Micelles formation transports digested fat in bubbles called micelles which move to brush border for absorption 0 Pancreatic lipase o Hydrolyzes triglycerides to form fatty acids and monoglycerides I Absorption o Transported via portal veins to liver 0 Fatty acids and monoglycerides absorbed by brush border 0 Triglycerides and phospholipids resynthesized Within cell and combine with lipoprotein to form chylomicrons o Chylomicrons secreted into central lacteals Chapter 19 Metabolism 0 Metabolism all anabolic synthesis and catabolic hydrolysis reactions in body 0 Basal metabolic rate BMR O 0 Energy 0 O Affected by thyroid hormones I Hyperthyroidism high BMR I Hypothyroidism low BMR ATP generated by glycolysis and Kreb s cycle Brain neurons prefer to use glucose amp use ketone bodies in periods of longterm starvation Resting skeletal muscles use fatty acids during exercise use glucose Red blood cells can only use glucose because they lack mitochondria necessary to perform Kreb s cycle 0 Nutrients 0 Essential fatty acids linoleic acid 06 and linolenic acid 03 o Vitamins I Water soluble B amp C function as coenzymes Widespread effects I Fat soluble A vision D Ca2 metabolism E antioxidant K clotting factors 0 Free Radicals 0239 OH39 and NOquot Produced by mitochondria as byproduct Assists White blood cells in destroying bacteria NOquot has important role in vasodilation Build up can cause oxidative stress and cell damage Superoxide dismutase SOD Bcarotene and vitamins C amp E protect against oxidative stress 0 Adipose tissue 0 Differentiation I PPARy peroxisome proliferator activated receptor subtype y 0 Functions as transcription factor 0 Activates genes for differentiation amp metabolism 0 Activated by fatty acids or prostaglandin 0 Energy metabolism I Energy stored as triglycerides I Storage and release hormonally controlled I Secrete adipokines leptin resistin retinol BP4 TNFOL and adiponectin 0 Leptin o Decreases appetite o Bolsters immune activities 0 Plays role in fertility and puberty o Adiponectin o Insulinsensitizing antidiabetic agent 000000 0 Obesity I Causes secretion of leptin TNFOL resistin and retinol Which leads to tissues becoming insulin resistant 9 type II diabetes I Body mass index BMI gt 30 kgm2 0 Regulation of Eating o Hunger center in hypothalamus I Secretes neuropeptide Y NPY and agoutirelated protein ARP to promote hunger I Secretes melanocyte stimulating hormone MSH to decrease hunger I Endorphins promote overeating vs serotonin suppresses overeating o Stomach and small intestine I Shortterm mealtomeal regulation I Gherlin in stomach promotes hunger vs CCK in SI promotes satiety o Leptin I Longterm satiety factory o Insulin I Satietyfactor 0 Hormonal Regulation of Metabolism o Absorptive state I Increased secretion of insulin 0 Post absorptive state I Increased glucagon secretion 0 Interconversion of Energy Substrates o Absorptive state I Excess glucose 9 Increased glycogenesis in liver amp skeletal muscle 0 Increased cellular uptake of glucose by skeletal amp cardiac muscles amp fat tissue I Excess fatty acids 9 increased lipogenesis I Excess amino acids 9 increased protein synthesis 0 Post absorptive state I Increased glycogenolysis and lipolysis o Shortterm to longterm starvation I Gluconeogenesis formation of glucose from noncarbohydrates I Ketogenesis formation of ketone bodies 0 Insulin and Glucagon o Islet of Langerhans I B cells secrete insulin in response to increased blood glucose level 0 Normal fasting glucose level is 65100 mgdl 0 Stimulated by parasympathetic division I A cells secrete glucagon When blood glucose levels decrease 0 Stimulated by sympathetic division 9 stress hyperglycemia 0 Type I diabetes aka juvenileonset diabetes I Autoimmunity killer T cells target glutamate decarboxylase in B cells 0 Type II diabetes I Tissues become insulin resistant I Typically in middle aged people I Oral Glucose Test 0 Measures insulin resistance and insulin secretion 0 Reactive hypoglycemia experienced as B cells overshoot due to tissue resistance 0 Metabolism amp Hormones o Adrenal Hormones I Epinephrine secreted by medulla in response to shortterm stress I Glucocorticoids secreted by cortex in response to longterm stress 0 Thyroid Hormones I Cretinism symptom of hypothyroidism low levels of T4 and T3 0 Severely stunted physical and mental growth 0 Growth Hormone somatotropin I Effects mediated by IGF I somatomedin I Anabolic effects increased protein synthesis I Catabolic effects increased lipolysis I Diabetogenic effects decreased glycolysis hyperglycemia 0 Ca2 and P043quot 0 Osteoblasts perform bone deposition storage of calcium and phosphate I Simulated by estrogen Osteoclasts perform bone resorption move calcium and phosphate out of bone I Suppressed by estrogen Parathyroid hormone PTH is most important in control of blood calcium I Increased blood calcium level Levels of both regulated by OH2 Vit D3 Which is produced by liver and kidney Calcitonin lowers plasma calcium levels I Used as treatment for osteoporosis loss of bone density Chapter 20 Reproduction 0 Sexual reproduction O O O O Transmits randomized genes from two individuals to next generation Genetic chromosomal sex I XX or XY determined by sperm cell I Barr body one X chromosome inactivated in each female somatic cell Gonadal sex I Sexdetermining Region in Y chromosome SRY 0 Encodes testisdetermining factor TDF I Genetic sex 9 gonadal sex 9 in uence hormones 9 phenotypic sex I Testis 0 Seminiferous tubules o Germinal epithelium o Sertoli cells I FSH receptors I Secrete inhibin inhibits FSH production I Secrete Mullerian inhibition factor I Forms bloodtestes barrier that prevents autoimmune attack on sperm 0 Leydig cells 0 LH receptors 0 Secrete testosterone Phenotypic sex I Mullerian inhibition factor MIF MIH AMH 0 Causes regression of Mullerian ducts in males 0 Without MIF uterus amp uterine tube develop in females I Testosterone amp dihydrotestosterone DHT 0 Testosterone causes development of Wolffian ducts into male sexual accessory organs 0 DHT produced from testosterone causes development of penis scrotum and prostate 0 Without testosterone Wolffian ducts degenerate in females I Disorders of embryonic sexual development 0 Female pseudohermaphroditism o Congenital adrenal hyperplasia enlargement due to abnormal cell division 9 increased androgen production 9 male genitalia 0 Male pseudohermaphroditism o Testicular feminization syndrome 9 female genitalia that ends blindly 0 Lack of 50treductase 9 ambiguous external genitalia o Endocrine regulation I Hypothalamus releases GnRH 9 anterior pituitary secretes LH lutenizing hormone and FSH follicle stimulating hormone 9 gonads secrete sex steroids 9 negative feedback to hypothalamus and anterior pituitary I LH and FSH secreted in pulsatile fashion to prevent desensitization of gonads I Sex steroids 0 Male mainly testosterone 0 Female estrogen E2 and progesterone P4 0 Both inhibin peptide source of negative feedback 0 Puberty 0 Brain maturational changes 0 Age of onset related to of body fat amp leptin secretion in female 0 Male Reproductive System 0 Spermatogenesis formation of sperm I Testosterone for meiosis amp early stage of sperm maturation I FSH for later stage of spermatid maturation I Spermiogenesis o Maturation of spermatids to spermatozoa 0 Sertoli cells eliminate cytoplasm of spermatids o Semen spermatozoa uids from seminal vesicles and prostate gland I Seminal vesicles secrete prostaglandins I Prostate gland secretes alkaline uid 0 Erection I Controlled by cerebrum hypothalamus and sacral region of spinal cord I Parasympathetic stimulation of erectile tissues 0 Nitric oxide as neurotransmitter 9 activates guanylate cyclase 9 increases cGMP 9 vasodilation 9 erection o Viagra inhibits phosphodiesterase enzyme that breaks down cGMP 0 Emission I Movement of semen into urethra I Sympathetic stimulation 0 Ejaculation I Sympathetic stimulation 0 Female Reproductive System 0 Endometrium mucosa portion of uterus undergoes cyclic changes 0 Ovarian cycle 1 First meiosis occurs at late gestation and produces primary oocytes before completion 0 At completion creates secondary oocytes 2 FSH stimulates growth of primary follicle amp granulosa cells form layer covering oocyte in follicle Primary follicle 9 secondary follicle 4 Secondary follicle 9 Graafian follicle Fluidfilled vesicles inside follicle fuse to form antrum 0 First meiosis is completed to form secondary oocytes 0 Granulosa cells produce estrogen amp inhibin 0 Granulosa cells form ring around oocyte called cumulus cells 0 Development of LH receptors 5 LH stimulates follicle With most receptors 9 ovulation 0 Rest experience atresia degeneration and reabsorption of follicle o Menstrual cycle I Follicular phase 0 Day 1 increase in FSH receptors in granulosa cells 9 increased estrogen secretion estrogen peak Ovulatory phase 0 estrogen peak 9 increased GnRH pulses by hypothalamus 9 increased LH secretion 9 ovulation Luteal phase 0 After ovulation empty follicle becomes corpus luteum CL 0 CL secretes progesterone and estrogen 9 negative feedback on LH and FSH secretion 0 If no fertilization progesterone decreases 9 menstruation 0 Contraceptive pills mimic luteal phase Rhythm Method of Contraception 0 Women measure oral body temperature upon awakening daily 0 Day of LH surge estrogen amp progesterone low 9 temperature low 0 Luteal phase high progesterone 9 temperature high I Menopause 0 Increased FSH and LH 0 No estrogen progesterone or inhibin secretion 0 Increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases amp osteoporosis 9 0 Embryos o Fertilization I Capacitation of sperm 0 After being in female reproductive tract for 7 hours ejaculated sperm become fertile I Occurs in Fallopian tubes I Acrosomal reaction 0 Creates pore in zona pellucida outer layer of egg for sperm penetration I After penetration hardening of zona pellucida prevents fertilization by two sperm I Second meiosis then completed by secondary oocyte 0 Growth I Fetus cell mass inside blastocyst hollow ball of cells I Trophoblasts outer layer of blastocyst form placenta 0 Secrete hCG LHlike substance 0 Maintains CL and prevents menstruation 0 Stem Cells I Can selfrenew and differentiate into different cell types I Totipotent aka omnipotent stem cells 0 Ability to create entire organism I Pluripotent stem cells 0 Embryonic stem cells ESC because they cannot develop into develop into extraembryonic tissue placenta I Multipotent cells 0 adult stem cells 0 limited number of cell types possible Chapter 15 The Immune System 0 Innate defense 0 Nonspecific first line of defense 0 Triggered by pathogenassociated molecular patterns PAMPs I Lipopolysaccharide LPS in Gram bacteria I Peptidoglycan in Gram bacteria I Gram refers to absencepresence of cell wall respectively I PAMPs recognized by surface tolllike receptors TLRs of immune cells Formation of PAMPTLR complex 1 2 3 4 Usually in ammation occurs Release of cytokines signaling proteins from immune cells Cytokines activate other immune cells 0 In ammation I Part of healing process when tissues are injured I Redness swelling warmth pain I Initiates nonspecific phagocytosis by white blood cells WBCs I Initiation Injuredinfected tissues release cytokines Cytokines activate mast cells nearby Mast cells secrete histamine Histamine causes vasodilation Vasodilation makes it easier for WBCs to reach injuredinfected tissues 0 WBCs also attracted by danger associated molecular patterns DAMPs I Cells that die from apoptosis do not release DAMPs o Diapedesis aka extravasation I exiting of capillaries by phagocytes through pseudopod movement I Phagocyte engulfs bacterium in a vacuole phagolysosome 0 Types of phagocytes I Neutrophils first to arrive at site of infection I Monocytes Second to arrive o Tlymphocytes I Third to arrive I Part of specific immunity 0 Fever I Regulated by hypothalamus I Induced by exogenous pyrogens such as LPS from Gram negative bacteria I Decreases bacterial activity 0 Interferons I a B Y subtypes I polypeptides produced by cell infected With virus I nonspecific resistance to viral infection in nearby cells I increase overall immune activities I decrease tumor growth 0 Adaptive defense 0 Specific responses to different pathogens 0 Humoral immunity responses related to transport of antibodies Ab o Cellmediated immunity uses T cells to destroy cells infected by pathogens 0 B lymphocytes B cells I memory cells and plasma cells I Have Ab receptors for specific Ag binding 0 AgAb binding causes B cell to clone 0 Some clones become memory cells long lifetime 0 Some become plasma cells Ab factory 0 Ab I Structure 0 Y shape o 2 long heavy H chains and 2 short light L chains 0 Each chain contains constant fragment Fe and variable fragment Fab 0 Fab is responsible for Ab specificity I Types 0 IgG main Ab in circulation 0 IgA main Ab in mucus secretions o IgE responsible for allergic reactions 0 T lymphocytes T cells I Killer cytotoxic T cells I Helper T cells 0 Enforces activities of killer T and B cells 0 Specifically targeted by HIV along With macrophages 0 Suppressor T cells 39 Suppresses activities of killer T and B cells I Helps protect against autoimmune response
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