Intro to Women's and Gender Studies, Test 2 Study Guide
Intro to Women's and Gender Studies, Test 2 Study Guide WGST 1101 - 001
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Sanacore on Friday April 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to WGST 1101 - 001 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Kelly Anne Finley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 236 views. For similar materials see Intro to Women's Studies in Women and Gender studies at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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WGST 1101 – Professor Finley – Test 2 Study Guide Highlight = Important Principle Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term Lecture – February 17 gender expression – refers to all of the external characteristics and behaviors that are socially defined as either masculine or feminine, such as dress, grooming mannerisms, speech, patterns and social interactions Stereotypes About Boys bigger, stronger don’t cry as much misbehave more than girls Cognitive-Developmental Theory explains how people organize and understand their perceptions of physical and social reality these perceptions change from childhood as development proceeds how people need to make order out of what is perceived and to make categories In an experiment, parents of newborns perceived boys as bigger, even though they were the same size as girls. Fathers’ perceptions of these infants were more extreme than mothers’ perceptions. Fathers of sons also judged their babies as better coordinated, more alert, stronger, and hardier than did fathers of daughters. Gender Schemas associations and assumptions used to organize information related to gender by linking gender labels to object, traits, and behaviors cognitive development theory = object = ball = masculine gender schema = trait = healthy baby = boy Infant Boys (0-1 year) “Boys and girls cry equally often during infancy, but as development proceeds, boys cry less and less.” Social Learning Theory conformity to gender is policed by a series of external reinforcements, either rewards or punishments Lecture – March 16 History of “Brain Differences” It is the brain’s organization and synapses that dictate intelligence, not gender or race Studies have shown that even unnaturally large levels of testosterone did not alter behavior or mood in normal men Most brain research has been done on rats Most brain experiments are not controlled Stereotype threat – a person is exposed to a negative stereotype about a group to which they belong (ex. women, Asians, African-Americans,) they will then perform worse on tasks related to that stereotype Culture or gender? Gender differences o Girls in the U.S. are doing better in college than boys because they have moved past their older stereotypes more than boys have Cultural differences o U.S. education system is mediocre compared to most other countries in the world Reasons for this are: large amount of children in poverty, English not being every child’s native language, doesn’t encourage learning, education system just isn’t good o U.S. teens have part-time jobs, active social lives, and extracurricular activities, more so than teens in other countries o The gender differences (social learning) within a culture are of less influence than the cultural differences (social learning) Influence of Media on Kids the average American kindergarten student has seen more than 5,000 hours of television, having spent more time in front of the TV than it takes to earn a bachelor’s degree imitating aggressive behaviors appears to be more common among boys in this age group (4 to 6) than among girls (59% to 35%) The “Boy Code” Boys begin exhibiting: inauthentic bravado constant posturing foolish risk taking gratuitous violence Is there a boy crisis in our culture? boys are 4 to 5 times more likely to kill themselves o Suicide accounts for 2/3 of gun deaths o White men comprise over 80% of gun suicides 4 times more likely to be diagnosed as emotionally disturbed 3 times more likely to be diagnosed with attention deficit disorder 15 times more likely to be victims of violent crime The Tough “Guise” The “Boy Code” becomes the “Tough Guise” o the front that many boys and men put up based on an extreme notion of masculinity that emphasizes toughness and physical strength, and gaining the respect through violence or the implicit threat of it Biology and Violence? Are there biological reasons why males commit the vast majority of violence? If so, why do rates of violence vary widely between countries? o Most countries are not as violent as America Why is the U.S. by far the most violent society in the industrialized world? And how do we explain, if the primary cause of violence is biological or genetic, why the vast majority of males do not perpetrate violence? Violence of Mental Illness? If homicidal violence is a result of mental illness, then explain why 98% of school shooting are committed by adolescent males? o Greatest Factors = 1. Male, 2. “loner”, 3. Drug abuse. 4. Preoccupation with guns, 5. History of being bullied Only 23% had previous history of psychiatric disorder Lecture – March 23 “If Americans could only have one child, they would prefer that it be a boy rather than a girl, by 40% to 28% margin, with the rest having no preference or no opinion on the matter. These attitudes are remarkably similar to what Gallup measured in 1941, when Americans preferred a boy to a girl by a 38% to 24% margin.” (Gallup Poll, June, 2011) Gender Preference and Global Consequence More girls than boys die in infancy and early childhood globally Top reasons include: female infanticide abandoning girls selling girls (servitude and/or prostitution) giving girls less food (particularly protein) One explanation for gender preference = systematic correlation between female infanticide, chronic warfare, and male supremacist cultural values (Divale and Harris) Cultural Representation: The Culture of “Femininity” culture behaviors and attitudes learned from communities languages (literal and figurative) and religious practices complex social organizations = families, friendships, professions, etc. cultural representation cultural ideas are communicated and absorbed through a variety of media from birth and now increasing exposure with constant media no image is free from assumptions and messages about gender (or other identities) cultural norms reinforced by cultural representations set of social rules that all are expected to follow enforce them in others and ourselves defines an activity and erases the possibility of other definitions children first imitate “gender” children internalize parental messages regarding gender at an early age, with awareness of adult sex role differences being found in two-year-old children children even deny the reality of what they are seeing when it doesn’t conform to their gender expectations (i.e., a child whose mother is a doctor stating that only men are doctors) gender role acquisition young children (less than 5) “try on” genders and ignore many cultural norms by age 5—aware of cultural representations and norms—children classify themselves into a gender and believe that gender does not change conform to gender roles and police behavior of other children (even without adult reinforcement) cultural representation of gender roles looking at toys toys become work and careers o toys created and market for girls reflect childcare, home care, or cleaning o toys for boys reflect athletics, professions, or competition (often violent) gender norms in household chores girls over 5 years old not only spend more time doing housework, they begin earlier than boys girls are usually asked to do a wider range of chores (laundry, cleaning, cooking, etc.) gender difference in chores become grater with age (14 to 17 years old) boys are more likely to be paid for chores older girls are more likely to be tasked with household chores in two income households (both parents are working) more than two genders other cultures-past and present-have more than two genders India, Nepal, Afghanistan, Balkans/Albania, Native American tribes (“two spirit”) Joan of Arc (now recognized Saint by Catholic church) led army to victory while dressed like male soldiers Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Pakistan, Thailand – modern nations recognize “third” or “other” gender binary gender system western culture imposes a binary gender system two sex (male/female) two gender (woman/man) gender binary is not egalitarian (equal value, complimentary roles, shared power, etc.) binary where one gender is dominant, the other as subordinate men are the main power/character/subject, while women are the supporting/secondary/object gender trouble gender performance theory (post-modern philosophy) reveals that by enforcing a gender binary, one gender will attempt to have power over the other and controlling freedom shows how gender precedes sex and sexuality two genders resulting in a patriarchy is not inevitable to have freedom, trouble and disrupt the gender binary. Society should eradicate the binary detour into “tomboyism” “temporary detour on the road to female development, a last adventure before the final commitment to womanhood” noisy, competitive, outdoorsy high on energy use bodies and voice freely to explore world of people and things tomboy gender performance majority of female college students describe themselves as former tomboys o more than half of adult women surveyed recalled having been tomboys…it becomes the rule, not the exception among growing girls, nearly 3 out of 4 currently place themselves in the tomboy category among Western cultures, it has no counterpart among males “succumb to cultural norms of womanhood” 1. Cinderella ate my daughter 2. decline in academic performance 3. sexual desirability as primary self 4. move in the “eye of culture” 5. ritual subordination 6. license withdrawal/loss of voice “Cinderella ate my daughter” males outnumber females 3 to 1 in family films females are 4x as likely as males to be shown in sexy attire. Further, females are 2x s likely as males to be shown with a diminutive waistline From 2006 to 2009, not one female character was depicted in G-rated family films in the field of medical science, as a business leader, in the law, or politics Females are also underrepresented behind the camera. Across 1,565 content creators, only 7% of directors, 13% of writer, and 20% of producers are female. This translates to 4.8 males working behind-the-scenes to every one female “succumb to womanhood” AAUW study revealed that girls’ self-esteem plummets as they reach adolescence, with a concurrent drop in academic achievement–especially in math and science Lecture – March 30 Sexual Desirability as Primary Sense of Self a study from Orenstein found that girls were overly involved with their appearance, clothes, and beauty products instead of their studies sexual desirability becomes the central component of their self-image projects upon the young body and adult sexuality that youth is not emotionally, mentally, socially, or physically able to manage Girls Lose “I” as Move into “Eye of Culture” Dr. Barbara Fredrickson (1997) documents dynamic of “self-objectification” = the act of viewing the self, particularly the body, from a third-person perspective correlation with depression, eating disorders, reduces cognitive function, and sexual dysfunction focus on how the body looks, not how it feels validation of self is external Ritual of Subordination the presentation of the female body in advertising communicates a larger message of femininity as passive and powerless licensed withdrawal in advertising images, women are shown as having no voice and shown as psychologically adrift: spaced out, inattentive...even dead backlash theory = “politics of despair” backlash – resistance of those in power to attempts o change the status quo covert backlash – ridicule, condemnation, ostracism, censure overt backlash – assassination, rape, beatings, lynchings, other violence backlash must: 1. action must be a reaction to something another has done 2. reaction must use coercive power 3. must involve trying to reinstate part or all of one’s former power 4. reinstating power has greater intensity because the loss is experienced more painfully than gain internalizing the backlash incidents of anorexia nervosa during a 50-year period and found that the incidence of anorexia among 10-19 year-old girls paralleled the change of fashion and its idealized body image subjects exposed to slides of thin models consequently presented with lower self- evaluations than subjects who had been exposed to average and oversize models dangerous relationship to food is normalized eating disorders – most common are anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder. Characterized diagnosable extreme emotions, attitudes, and behaviors surrounding weight and food issues disordered eating – atypical eating behavior, wide range of irregular eating habits. Unhealthy relationship with food some good things girls who participate in sports report lower pregnancy rates and beginning sexual activity later than girls who do not participate in sports girl scouts were asked how to be themselves and resist gender stereotypes o confront notions of female fragility o challenge views in the media and elsewhere of assertive women as “unfeminine” or destructive o compliment girls on their actions or intelligence, not their appearance o don’t speak negatively about your body, her body, or anyone else’s body Tough Guise Notes - When talking about violence in America, we’re almost always talking about violent masculinity - The media goes out of its way to be gender neutral when discussing mass shootings or violence even though the perpetrators are almost always men - When girls and woman act out violently, their gender becomes the story - Defenders of the gun industry and violent media industry speak out against each other but do not acknowledge that they both promote and profit from violent culture - “When we talk about a culture of violence, we’re almost always talking about a culture of violent masculinity, and when we talk about a culture of violent masculinity, we’re talking about what the culture teaches boys about being a man.” - Contrary to popular belief, it is actually Italian American mafia movies that inspired much of the ideas of violent manhood that are seen in various social groups today - Despite the increased violence in media and men, a common opinion is that men are becoming too “emasculated” - Traditional ideas of masculinity were especially challenged during the late 60s and early 70s with the civil rights movement, feminist movement, lgbt+ movement, and anti-war movement in their explicit rejection of traditional masculinity, especially that of straight white men - People such as Rush Limbaugh tell men that they are victims of the feminist movement - There are somewhere around 300 million guns in America, and nearly 2/3 of those guns are owned by just 20% of the American population - Rape culture is “a twisted kind of group ritual in male culture” in which guys “bond” with each other by dehumanizing and abusing women to prove to each other that they’re real men - Guys more invested in traditional roles of manhood are more likely to be homophobic - Lack of empathy for people who aren’t in the “boys club” is prevalent, especially in terms of homeless people across the country being brutally attacked, beaten, and even killed by “normal” guys - Psychiatrist James Gilligan interviewed a number of violent criminals and found that the biggest reason they resorted to violence was because they felt shamed, humiliated, or disrespected - Violence cannot be reduced to a cause of mental illness, seeing as 98% of mass shootings have been perpetrated by men and there are plenty of women with mental illness, as well as the fact that most mentally ill people aren’t violent at all The Codes of Gender Notes - Erving Goffman was a social anthropologist who wrote a book about gender called “Gender Advertisements” - Another book of his “The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life”, published in 1969, uses the metaphor of the actor to show how we are always “acting” how we think is appropriate for situations we are in - Gender is part of a process where we learn certain attributes that are considered correct for us in terms of gender - Sex refers to biological characteristics - Gender refers to how society differentiates between these characteristics (usually male and female in Western cultures) - The characteristics within these categories are considered “masculine” or “feminine” and are considered exclusive to each - There is nothing biological or “inherent” about gender, we learn gender and gender expression from society and what it deems appropriate - The two sex/two gender division has led to the downplay of similarities between men and women and downplays variability within them - There is nothing natural about gendered actions or pose that is portrayed in media The notes for the films are pretty basic. I would definitely suggest watching the films to get the full messages and information.