Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide PSYCH 100
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This 78 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael Notetaker on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 100 at Tulane University taught by Thomas Herbert in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 12/08/15
Chapter 1 Introduction and Research Methods 4 goals of Psych: Description, Explanation, Prediction, Change (how can we achieve the desired outcome) 7 major perspectives of psychology Psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, cognitive, biological, evolutionary and sociocultural The bystander effect is the diffusion of responsibility, its effects weaken at numbers greater than 7 Randomness The larger the sample size the greater the randomness and the better the experiment is BIASES AND DECEPTION Placebo's fake variables given to control groups to ensure the same process as the experimental group. The placebo effect is the believed impact of a fake placebo on a test subject (bigger pills elicit a bigger response) Illusory Correlation The tendency to mistakenly see two statistically unrelated events as being correlated when in reality no such association exists Saliency Bias Focusing on noticeable factors when explaining the causes of behavior Confirmation Bias Remembering events that confirm the expectation and ignoring the misses Experimenter Bias Experimenter influences the results to get the result he expected or should get Ethnocentrism Bias Believing ones culture is typical of all cultures Sample Bias The sample is not indicative of the population as a whole either because it is not random or not large enough Random Assignment Using chance to assign participants to test and control groups Confounding variables Extraneous variables that can jeopardize experiments Participant Bias Participants act differently because they know they are being observed Single Blind and Double Blind Studies Participants don't know who is in the control group, (2) researcher and participants don't know who is in the control group. SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC METHOD Basic Research Used to expand scientific knowledge Applied Research Used to solve practical problems both are equally important Operational definition something that we believe is real but cannot be measured or tested P value probability of chance result (<.05 is considered scientifically relevant) Hard vs Soft Science hard sciences more directly measure what they are studying Stable (Normal) Science everyone tests the variable in the same way, gets the same results and is content with the same theory Revolutionary Science Enough data sets from enough different labs come in that challenge the accepted assertion. A new theory emerges which encompasses the old and new data sets, and the new theory becomes the theory in which stable science returns. Paradigm Shift Eventually someone comes up with new technology or new ways of testing the variable, eventually everyone modernizes to these new ways of studying the variable and the shift occurs Human experiments must have informed consent, only justifiable deception, confidentiality, a debriefing, and freedom to withdraw Caveats: Any compensation can violate the freedom to withdraw, deception can void informed consent Animal testing is more highly regulated than human testing What one studies is not necessarily what one measures (Studying aggression, measuring bites) Technology (2 way mirrors. Hidden cameras etc) are used to stop participants from knowing that they are being studied Famous Influencers Wilhelm Wundt Leipzeg, Germany 1879: Father of Psychology Practiced STRUCTURALISM (so did Titchener) William James (earlier, USA) Practiced FUNCTIONALISM Sigmund Freud Practiced PSYCHOANALYSIS AND PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE Wertheimer Practiced GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY Watson, Pavlov and Skinner Practiced BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE Ebbinghaus Father of COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Rogers and Maslow Practiced the HUMANIST PERSPECTIVE and developed Rogerian therapy, where the therapist accepts the patients feelings and talks about them. Maslow created the hierarchy of names and greatly influenced the theory of psychology. Schools of thought STRUCTURALISM: The use of introspection to learn about the structures of the mind by testing trained adults. Focusing on perceptual experiences and sensations. COGNITIVE PERCEPTION: Studies thought perception and information processing by measuring reaction times and brain activity. This is an expanding field because of modern technology advances. NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOPSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVE: Studies genetics and other biological processes of the brain and nervous system EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY: Studies evolution, adaptation and natural selection SOCIOCULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY: Studies sociocultural determinants and social interactions. AKA SOCIOBIOLOGY, growing field. FUNCTIONALISM: Studies how the mind functions to adapt organisms to their environment. Investigates functions of mental processes in adapting to the environment. PSYCHOANALYSIS AND PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE: The study of unconscious processes and unresolved past conflicts. This practice is far less common now and has influenced society more than it has influenced psychology. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY: The whole is more than the sum of its parts BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE: Observing environmental influences on overt behavior. This has a continuing influence on modern psychology HUMANIST PERSPECTIVE Emphasizes inner health and the importance of feelings and counters Freud in saying that humans have free will and that unhealthy people merely have their natural potential locked and they can achieve greatness by unlocking it. COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: Focuses on mental functioning and reasoning 4 Major Research Methods EXPERIMENTAL Manipulation and control of variables to identify cause and effect DESCRIPTIVE Naturalistic observation, surveys and case studies to observe, collect and record data. Naturalistic observation, surveys and case studies. Surveys can be of representative groups or random samples of large populations. The more options there are, the less likely one is to pick an extreme. Case Studies are in depth studies of a few individuals, usually done when there are few test subjects CORRELOGICAL Statistical analysis of relationships between variables to identify relationships and how well one variable influences another. Helpful when unethical or improbable to do an experiment BIOLOGICAL Studies the brain and other parts of the nervous system to identify causation, be descriptive and make predictions CHAPTER 2 Neuroscience and Biological Foundations Neuroglia Cells (Glia Cells) Control biological rhythms such as circadian rhythms and are involved in REM sleep Dendrites change a lot (thicker and thinner, and more or less branchy). The more connections by dendrites that one has the quicker they can process information. Initial axon is called the initial segment, or the axon hillock. Bigger muscles have bigger axons Input to the neuron is analog, the output is in binomials SodiumPotassium pump only counteracts the leak of the neuronal membrane, it does not reset graded or action potential Concentration gradients and electrostatic pressure cause the sodium and potassium to move back and forth so quickly. Charge goes positive because sodium moves in before potassium moves out Graded potentials reflect the input, and they are variable Action potentials (on axons) are all or nothing, the strength of signal remains constant Ligand neuron transmitter Neuron transmitters are everywhere on the cell body, and the more ligand channels that are open the larger the effect will be Saltitory Conduction action potential jumps fro node to node to node The Synapse is the place where we can manipulate the system Major Neurotransmitters Serotonin is unique in that it can be effected by the food that you eat Acetylcholine is both a fast and slow synapse, fast in muscles and slow in the brain • Serotonin (5HT) depression, sensory experiences •Acetylcholine (ACh) movement, learning, memory •Dopamine (DA) – mood, movement, reward pathway •Norepinephrine (NE) – emotion, arousal •Glutamate – excitatory, memory •GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) – inhibitory, movement, anxiety The more mitochondria in an area, the more active that area is Behavioral Genetics The study of the relative effects of heredity and the environment on behavior and mental processes Clinical and Counseling are the most common Psychology degrees The male and female brain are very similar, but the female brain has a thicker central bridge and crosscommunicates better therefore women are more capable of thinking with their whole brain than men are Evolutionary Psychology The branch of psychology that studies the application of the principles of evolution to explain behavior and mental processes Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception Bottom up Processing Perceptual analysis that moves from parts to a whole and starts at the bottom with raw sensory data being sent up through the brain for higher level analysis. (Reading) Top down processing Perceptual analysis that moves from the whole to parts by starting with higher level cognitive processes and then works down (Muscle memory) Processing: Specialized cells inside the sense organs respond to a stimulus. Transduction Sensory receptors convert stimuli into neural impulses to be sent to the brain Coding Neural impulses travel by different routes to different parts of the brain, allowing us to detect various physical stimuli as distinct sensations Sensory Reduction We purposefully reduce the amount of sensory information that we receive to tune out stimuli we don't need Psychophysics The study and measurement the link between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the sensory experience of them Difference Threshold The smallest physical difference between two stimuli that is consciously detectable 50% of the time (aka the Just Noticeable Difference, JND) Ernst Weber,Germany Absolute Threshold The minimum amount of stimulation necessary to consciously detect a stimulus 50% of the time, Gustav Fenchner Sensory Adaptation The process by which receptor cells become less sensitive due to constant stimulation Can't smell your own house GateControl Theory of Pain Pain sensations are altered and processed by certain cells in the spinal cord, which act as gates to interrupt and block some signals while sending others to the brain, Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall Subliminal perception does occur, but does not have a great effect on persuasion (COLOR) VISION Trichromatic Theory of Color Color perception results from three types of cones in the retina, each most sensitive to either red, green or blue, and all other colors result from a mixture of these 3. Opponent Process Theory of Color All color perception is based on three systems of, each of which contains two color opposites (red vs. green, blue vs. yellow, and black vs. white). Depth Perception The ability to perceive 3D space and accurately judge distance Binocular Cues Visual input from two eyes that allows perception of depth or distance Retinal Disparity the binocular cue of distance in which the separation of the eyes causes different images to fall on each retina Convergence The binocular depth clue in which the eyes turn inward to fixate on an object Monocular Cues Visual input from a single eye that contributes to the perception of depth or distance Accommodation The process by which the eyes ciliary muscles change the shape of the lens so that light is focused on the retina; adjustment of the eyes' lenses permitting focus on nearby and distant objects. Perceptual and Size Consistency The learned tendency to perceive the environment as stable and objects as the same size despite changes in distance, color, brightness and size. Perceptual Set The readiness to perceive in a particular manner based on expectations HEARING Place Theory Hair cells are stimulated at different locations on basilar membrane. Explains high frequency and pitch sounds Frequency Theory Hair cells fire at the same rate as the frequency for the sound. Explains low frequency and pitch sounds Amplitude determines how loud the sound is Conduction Hearing Loss Result of damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea, aka conduction deafness Sensorineural Hearing Loss Result of damage to the cochlea's receptor, hearing cells, or the auditory nerve. Aka nerve deafness Pheromones Chemical signals released by organisms to communicate with others, may effect behavior such as recognition of family members, aggression, territorial marking and sexual mating Vestibular Sense Aka sense of balance, located in the inner ear Kinesthesis The sense that detects bodily posture, orientation, and movement of body parts relative to each other. Located in muscles joints and tendons. Selective Attention Focusing conscious awareness on a specific stimulus while filtering out other stimuli Feature Detectors Specialized neurons that respond only to certain sensory information Habituation The brains reduced responsiveness due to repeated stimulation of the same receptors Chapter 5 States of Consciousness Consciousness Consciousness Awareness of ourselves and the environment, Consciousness is a spectrum Continuum is associated with activity in the cerebral cortex, which is bigger in humans than all other animals Alternate State of Consciousness Any mental state other than ordinary waking consciousness Inattentional Blindness The failure to notice an unexpected stimulus when our attention is directed elsewhere, also known as perceptual blindness. Consciousness Continuum Controlled Processes (mental activities that require focused attention and generally interfere with other ongoing activities), Automatic Processes (mental activities that require minimal attention and generally have little impact on other activities), subconscious (dreaming), little or no awareness (concussion), Alternate States of Consciousness (LSD) Circadian Rhythms A consistent pattern of cyclical bodily activities governed by an internal biological clock, that generally occur son a 245 hour cycle Stages of Sleep NonREM Sleep Stages 13 of sleep REM Sleep Stage 4, rapid eye movements, highfrequency brain waves, paralysis of large muscles, and often dreaming Theories on Sleep Adaptation/Protection, Repair/Restoration, Growth/Development, Learning/Memory Theories on Dreaming Freud's Wish Fulfilment Theory (Manifest masks dreams latent content (dream we remember masks the forbidden unconscious needs). Activation Synthesis Hypothesis Dreams are the products of random brain cell firing that we attempt to make sense of Cognitive View of Dreams Dreams are a type of information processing that helps us interpret daily experiences and turn them into memories Sleep Disorders Insomnia Difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up to early Narcolepsy Sudden irresistible onset of sleep during waking hours Sleep Apnea Repeated interruption of breathing during sleep, causing snoring, poor quality sleep, and excessive daytime sleepiness Nightmare Bad dream that significantly disrupts REM sleep Night Terror Abrupt awakening with feelings of panic that significantly disrupts REM sleep Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive Drugs A chemical that changes mental processes and conscious awareness, mood, and/or perception How Psychoactive Drugs Work Alter the production or synthesis of neurotransmitters Change the storage or release of neurotransmitters Alter the reception of neurotransmitters Alter the deactivation of neurotransmitters Agonist Drug A drug that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell that mimics or enhances a neurotransmitters effect Antagonistic Drug A drug that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell that blocks a neurotransmitters effect Drug Abuse Drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the individual or others Psychological and Physical Dependence The psychological desire or craving to achieve a drugs effect vs. changes in bodily processes that make a drug necessary for minimal functioning 4 drug categories Depressants Act on the Central Nervous System (GABBA) to suppress bodily processes (Alcohol, Valium). All antianxiety drugs work by binding to the GABBA receptor. Slow activity Stimulants Act on the Central Nervous System (Dopamine, Norepinephrine) to increase bodily processes (Caffeine, Nicotine, Cocaine). Associated with euphoria and increased alertness. Opiates/Narcotics Act as an analgesic or pain reliever, act on the Dopamine system (Morphine, Heroine). Sense of euphoria Hallucinogens/Psychedelics Produce sensory or perceptual distortions called hallucinations (LSD, Marijuana). Cause hallucinations or visual distortions Meditation Meditation A group of techniques designed to alter consciousness, believed to enhance selfknowledge and wellbeing through reduced selfawareness Hypnosis An ASC characterized by deep relaxation and a trancelike state of heightened suggestibility and intense focus. Not everyone can be readily hypnotized. Therapeutic uses of Hypnosis: Treatment of chronic pain, severe burns, dentistry, childbirth, psychotherapy Chapter 6 Learning Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes caused by experience Conditioning The process of learning associations between stimuli and behavioral responses Classical Conditioning A type of learning that develops through paired associations, a previously neutral experience (NS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US) to elicit a conditioned response (CR) Example: Pavlov gets dogs to salivate upon hearing the tuning fork typically brought out before dinner Neutral Stimulus Stimuli that do not bring about the response of interest (in this example, a picture of money) Unconditioned Stimulus Stimuli that naturally brings about the response of interest (in this example, food) Unconditioned Response Unlearned reaction to unlearned stimulus (in this example, salivating at the sight of food) Conditioned Stimulus Previously neutral stimulus that now elicits a response (in this example, the tuning fork) Conditioned Response Learned reaction the conditioned stimulus (in this example, salivating at the fork tone) Conditioned Emotional Response When an emotion becomes a learned response to an unconditioned stimulus. e.g., little Albert and the lab rat 6 Principles of Classical Conditioning Acquisition Neutral stimulus is linked to an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the conditioned response Stimulus Generalizations The conditioned response is elicited by the conditioned stimulus and other similar stimuli Stimulus Discrimination The response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus differs from the original Extinction The response diminishes when the unconditioned stimulus is removed Spontaneous Recovery The reappearance of a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus after a period of rest Higher Order Conditioning A neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through repeated pairings with a conditioned stimulus Operant Conditioning Learning through voluntary behavior and its subsequent consequences, reinforcement increases behavioral tendencies, whereas punishment decreases them. Reinforcement The adding or taking away of a stimulus following a response, which increases the likelihood of that response being repeated Punishment The adding or taking away of a stimulus following a response, which decreases the likelihood of that response being repeated Thorndike's Law of Effect Responses that produce a satisfying effect are more likely to be repeated whereas those that produce a discomforting effect are less likely to be repeated Reinforcement vs. Punishment Neither is inherently good or bad, Reinforcement strengthens responses and Punishment weakens them Primary Reinforcers Stimuli that increase the probability of a response due to their innate biological value. e.g. food and water Secondary Reinforcers Stimuli that increase the probability of a response due to their learned value. e.g. money Positive Reinforcement The adding of a stimulus that strengthens a response and makes it more likely to occur in the future. For example giving someone candy for drawing a picture Negative Reinforcement The removal of a stimulus that strengthens a response and makes it more likely to occur. For example turning off the TV when you get scared by a horror movie Premack Principle Using a naturally occurring high frequency response to reinforce and increase low frequency responses. For example not letting yourself eat dessert until you finish your vegetables. Primary Punishers Stimuli that decrease the probability of a response because of their innate biological value. e.g. hunger and thirst Secondary Punishers Stimuli that decrease the probability of a response due to their learned value. e.g. poor grades and parking tickets Positive Punishment The addition of a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to occur. For example slapping someone for talking Negative Punishment The removal of a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to occur. For example taking away a cell phone for bad grades. Principles of Operant Conditioning Shaping A training method where reinforcement is delivered for successive approximations of the desired response Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement Every correct response is rewarded. This is the only schedule of reinforcement that can lead to extinction (the diminishing of a response when it is no longer rewarded). Partial or Intermittent Reinforcement Some but not all correct responses are rewarded. Fixed Ratio A reinforcer is delivered for the first response delivered after a fixed number of responses. (every 100th caller wins a concert ticket) Variable Ratio A reinforcer is delivered for the first response made after a variable number of responses whose average is predetermined (slot machines average 1 payout per 500 tries) Fixed Interval A reinforcer is delivered for the first response made after a fixed time interval (monthly paycheck) Variable Interval A reinforcer is delivered for the first response made after a variable number of time whose average duration is predetermined. (Pop quizzes) Ratio's produce responses at a faster rate and continuous responses, unlike Chapter 7 Memory Memory The internal record or representation of some prior event or experience; the mental capacity to encode, store, and retrieve information. It is a constructive process, meaning that the process and organizing and shaping information during the processing, storage and retrieval of memories. Memory Models Encoding, Storage and Retrieval Model (ESR) Suggests that memory is formed through three processes: Encoding (getting information), storage and retrieval Three Stage Memory Model Suggests that memory storage requires passage of information through three stages (sensory, short term, and long term memory) Sensory Memory Initial memory stage which holds sensory information; has a large capacity but the duration is only a few seconds Short Term Memory Temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long term memory. Its capacity is limited to 5 to 9 items and is has a duration of about 20 seconds. Chunking The process of grouping separate pieces of information into familiar, manageable chunks. For example remembering the alphabet instead of 26 letters Maintenance Rehearsal The memory improvement technique of repeating information over and over again to maintain it in the short term memory. For example cramming Working Memory An alternate term for short term memory, which emphasizes the active processing of information. Long Term Memory Stores information for long periods of time, the capacity is virtually limitless, and the duration is relatively permanent. Explicit/Declarative Memory A subsystem within LTM that consciously stores fact, information, and personal life experiences o Semantic Memory A subsystem of LTM that stores general knowledge, a mental encyclopedia or dictionary o Episodic Memory A subsystem of LTM that stores autobiographical events and the context in which they occurred, a mental diary of ones personal life Implicit/NonDeclarative Memory A subsystem within LTM that unconsciously stores procedural skills and simple classically conditioned responses Like tying a shoelace o Priming A process in which a prior exposure or stimulus facilitates or inhibits the processing of new information, even when one has no conscious memory of the initial learning and storage Improving Long Term Memory Organization Categorize memories in a hierarchical fashion Rehearsal Repeating information so it is understood, not memorized o Elaborative Rehearsal Linking new information to previously stored material, also known as deeper levels of processing Retrieval o Retrieval Cues Specific cues require one to recognize the correct response (multiple choice test) and general cues require you to recall previously learned material (essay question) o Encoding Specificity Principle Retrieval of information is improved if cues received at the time of recall are consistent with those present at the time of encoding (taking a test in the same room as the class) Forgetting Theories of Forgetting Decay Theory Connections between neurons degrade over time, causing a loss of memory. This explains the use it or lose it theory of losing skills that go unused. Interference Theory 2 competing memories interfere with each other, usually similar memories o Retroactive Interference A memory error in which new information interferes with remembering old information, this is backwards acting interference. Learning new phone number and forgetting old one o Proactive Interference A memory error in which old information interferes with remembering new information, this is forwards acting interference. The Spanish you learn in high school messes up French that you learn in college Motivated Forgetting Theory We forget some information for a reason, Freudian idea Encoding Failure We may not fully encode all the precise details of information in the short term memory, resulting in incomplete storage in the long term memory Retrieval Failure Theory Memories are still stored but are momentarily inaccessible. The tip of the tongue phenomenon is in this category Factors of Forgetting Misinformation Effect A memory distortion that results from misleading post event information SerialPositioning Effect A characteristic of memory retrieval, in which information at the beginning and end of a series is remembered better than material in the middle. More prevalent in children Source Amnesia A memory error caused by forgetting where, when, or how a previously stored memory was acquired, while retaining the factual knowledge; also known as source confusion or source misattribution Sleeper Effect A memory error in which information from an unreliable source that was initially discounted later gains credibility because the source is forgotten Spacing of Practice Distributed practice (studying) is better than massed practice (cramming) Culture How Biology Effects Memory Long Term Potentiation A long lasting increase in neural excitability, which may be a biological mechanism for learning and memory Flashbulb Memories A recall of vivid, detailed, and nearpermanent images associated with surprising or strongly emotional events; it may or may not be accurate Retrograde Amnesia The loss of memory for events before a brain injury, backwards acting amnesia Anterograde Amnesia The inability to form new memories after a brain injury, forward acting amnesia Consolidation The process by which LTM memories become stable in the brain; neural changes associated with recent learning become durable and stable Chapter 11 Gender and Human Sexuality General Sex The biological differences between men and women, such as genitals, masturbation and intercourse Gender The socially constructed differences between men and women Androgyny Exhibiting masculine and feminine traits Transsexual Being born with the biological characteristics of one sex but feeling psychologically as if one belongs to the other sex, having a gender identity that does not match ones sex Men are more right brained and women are left brained and have better cross hemisphere communication Sex Problems Paraphilic disorders Psychosexual disorders involving disturbing and repetitive sexual fantasies, urges, or behaviors, which cause distress or impairment to the person, and/or involves harm or risk of harm to others Fetishtic Disorder Urge to have kinky sex Exhibitionist Disorder Urge to flash people or publicly masturbate Sexual Dysfunction A significant disturbance in a person's ability to respond sexually, or to experience sexual pleasure. Erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation. Vaginismus (painful vaginal contractions), and female orgasmic disorders. Inhibited sexual desire, sexual aversion, and dyspareunia (painful intercourse) Performance Anxiety The fear of being judged in connection with sexual activities Sexual Scripts The learned, or socially constructed guidelines for sexual interactions Exam 2 Chapter 6 learning and conditioning, operant (Skinner) and classical (Pavlov) conditioning, insight learning (associated with primates, the monkeys and the box), modeling (mimicry or children imitating parents, Bandera and the Bobo doll), names of researchers Concepts Definitions, law of effect, define CS, UCS (stronger than CS), CR, UCR, Generalization and Discrimination (Generalization comes first), Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery, Law of Effect/Reinforcement/Punishment, Schedules of Reinforcement/Scalloping/PRP, Shaping, Modelling, Delayed (best type, CS is presented 0.5 seconds first)/Simultaneous/Backward CSUCS Pairings, LTP (Long Term Potentiation, model that states that learning happens at the synapse level across the whole brain, it is not isolated to one part) Chapter 7 Memory models (3 stage model), forgetting, memory improvement strategies for STM and LTM, Injury and disease States (important) Concepts Stages of memory, Levels of Processing, Aspects of SM, STM (millers magical number 7), and LTM, Capacity/Chunking (recalled as a chunk), Rehearsal Strategies, Forgetting/Amnesia (retrograde and anterograde) (Henry Moliason, HM, had anterograde amnesia) /Alzheimer's (early diagnosis=better survival rate), Spaced vs. Massed practice, Serial Positioning Effect (Remembering the first and last items in a sequence better than those in the middle) Chapter 8 Cognition: Images, Concepts, Hierarchies (subjects shown pictures and asked to recall details while measuring reaction times, priming and hierarchical storage of memories) Divergent/Convergent/Creative thinking (It is a thinking style, not an intelligence measurement), Intelligence Quotients (Average of 100, standard deviation of 15), Reliability/Validity of IQ tests (fluid and functional intelligence ability increase inversely, keeping IQ scores the same and reliable, however they have cultural biases), Problem SolvingMental set and Functional Fixedness (obstacles to creativity, mental sets are a rigid thinking pattern where the same problem solving patterns are used over and over again, Functional Fixedness is using an object over and over again without a new use, Types of Intelligence (crystalizedfacts and figures, fluid real time problem solving), Phoneme, Morphene, Grammar Chapter 11 Gender vs. Sex (all terms and definitions, both definitions of sex), Early Misconceptions (masturbating and wet dreams were unhealthy), Research on Sex (questionnaires by Alfred Kensey, Masters Johnson hooked up subjects to machines and measured bodily functions. Sex response cycle is fixed for males and variable for females (3 patterns)), Anatomy and Physiology (Humans are born with tissue for both male and female (analogous sex organs, Penis matches with Clitoris, Vagina and Scrotum), Hormones and the sexual orientation in rats) Sexual Dysfunctions (STI's, ED, Premature Ejaculation etc.) Chapter 13 Personality Personality Unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions Traits Relatively stable personality characteristics used to describe someone Early Trait Theorists Allport, Cattell 16 traits Modern Trait Theorists McCrae and Costa 5 traits (OCEAN) Scores from highlow on a continuum below Openness Original and open to new idea or being conventional Conscientiousness Punctual and organized or lazy and disorganized Extroversion Active and affectionate or passive and reserved Agreeableness Trusting and good natured or suspicious and irritable Neuroticism Self conscious and emotional or comfortable and calm High correlation between what men and women want in a partner Pro's Evolutionary and cross cultural studies support the 5 factor model, and it helps describe the personality traits using the fewest number of traits Con's lacks explanation and specificity Freud Psychoanalytic Theories Examine how unconscious mental forces interplay with thoughts, feelings, and actions Freud (attention from the mother is huge), NeoFreudians Adler (Thrust for human existence is to overcome feelings of inferiority to achieve superiority), Jung (Collective unconscious consisting of archetypes), and Horney (Developed concept of basic anxiety) The mind has 3 levels according to Freud Conscious Thoughts or motives a person is currently aware of or remembering Preconscious Thoughts, motives, or memories that can be voluntarily brought to mind Unconscious Thoughts, motives, or memories that cannot be brought to mind. Largest motivator of behavior Personality Structures Id Instinctual energy (Pleasure Principle) Ego Rational part of psyche (Reality Principle) Superego The Conscience (Morality Principle) Defense Mechanisms Ego's protective method of reducing anxiety by distorting reality; used everyday, but excessive use is associated with psychopathy Repression Sublimation Threatening desires are turned into more accepting avenues Denial Rationalization Intellectualization Ignoring the emotional aspects of a painful experience, by focusing on abstract thoughts Projection Transferring unacceptable thoughts to others Reaction Formation Refusing to acknowledge unacceptable urges by exaggerating the opposite urge Regression Responding to a threatening situation in a way appropriate to an earlier age (very serious) Displacement redirecting impulses toward a less threatening person or object Psychosexual Stages Freudian idea of 5 developmental periods key to personality development Oral Stage018 months Anal Stage18 months3 years Phallic Stage36 years Latency Stage6 years to puberty Genital Stagepubertydeath (Most other theorists have additional stages between puberty and death) Inferiority Complex Alfred Adler's idea that feelings of inferiority develop from early childhood experiences of helplessness and incompetence. This leads to the WillTo Power feeling, where individuals want to take control of their lives and become superior. Collective Unconscious Carl Jung's theory that each person has an identical inherited collective unconscious that consists of primitive images and patterns of thought, feeling, and behavior called archetypes. Basic Anxiety In Horney's view feelings of helplessness and insecurity that adults experience because as children, they felt alone and isolated in a hostile environment. Pro's Historical credit for some Freudian concepts (defense mechanisms), modern psychodynamic theories use more empirical methods Con's Psychoanalytic concepts difficult to test, overemphasizes biology and unconscious forces, inadequate evidence, sexism, and lack of cross cultural support Freud has a much greater influence on society than he had on science Freud's correct beliefs Emphasis on early childhood experiences, children experience pleasure, animalistic past, role of caregivers, therapeutic method, "The talking cure" Talking Cure Therapy where patients discuss their feelings and problems, catharsis, used effectively after WWII with soldiers who had PTSD, this created a resurgence in Freudian theory. Humanistic Theories Personality develops from internal experiences and individual feelings of basic worth Human nature is innately good, with a positive drive towards selffulfillment Self Actualization The inborn drive to realize one's full potential and to develop all one's inherent talents and capabilities Pro's Many concepts incorporated successfully into therapy Con's It is naïve to assume that all humans are innately good, poor testability and inadequate evidence Rogers Emphasized the importance of self, mental health is related to the degree of congruence between self concept and life experiences. The more overlap the healthier the person Self Concept A person's relatively stable self perception, or mental model, based on life experiences, particularly the feedback and perception of others. Conditional Positive Regard Positive behavior toward a person contingent on behaving in certain ways Unconditional Positive Regard Positive behavior toward a person with no contingencies attached. Rogers liked this one better Maslow Hierarchy of needs Basic human necessities must be satisfied before higher growth needs SelfActualization Innate tendency toward inborn drive that develop all one's talents and capabilities o Hierarchy of Needs: Physiological needs, safety and security, love and belonging, selfesteem, selfactualization Social Cognitive Theories Personality reflects individuals interactions with their environment Bandura Self Efficacy Learned expectation of success, AKA self confidence Reciprocal Determinism A complex reciprocal interaction exists among the individual, his or her behavior, and environmental stimuli Rotter Cognitive Expectancies What people expect to happen Reinforcement Value Cognitions, behaviors, and their effect on the environment Internal Locus of Control Belief that one can control the events in their life through their own efforts (free will) External Locus of Control Belief that the environment and external factors control their lives, (fate) Pro's Emphasizes how the environment affects and is affected by individuals, meets standards for scientific testing Con's Ignores genetics and stability of personality and has a narrow focus Biological Theories Brain Structures Cortex controls personality Neurochemistry Chemical imbalances are associated with mental disorders Genetic Factors People tend to be like their parents, genetics can be attributed to almost 50% of one's personality Biophysical Model Multiple theories provide different insights and proportionately different contributions to society Personality Assessment Interviews Pro's Insights Con's Time, expensive, demand characteristics Observations Pro's Standard information Con's Possible deliberate perception, social desirability bias, diagnostic difficulties, possible cultural bias, and inappropriate use Objective Test MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Multiple choice, specific retrieval cues) Paper and pencil multiple choice survey, there are built in scales that measure faking a personality or other unreliable answers Con's Deliberate deception and social desirability bias, diagnostic difficulties, cultural bias and inappropriate use Projective Test Rorschach and TAT (Like an essay, general retrieval cues) Rorschach Presented with a series of ambiguous figures and are asked to describe each figure. Expectation is that one will project their personality into their answer TAT Given a picture and asker to tell them a story about it with a beginning, middle, and end Pro's Insights Con's Lower reliability and validity subjective Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures Every man for himself vs. Group>Individual (Capitalism vs. Communism) Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders Abnormal Behavior Patterns of emotions, thoughts, and actions considered pathological for one of these reasons: Statistical infrequency and maladaptive (bad for you), Disability or dysfunction, Personal distress, Violation of norms All of these behaviors are on a continuum, abnormal behavior is usually an exaggeration of normal behavior Neurosis Outdated term in older DSM's that stands for a normal person who experiences subjective distress Psychosis A serious mental disorder characterized by extreme mental disruption and defective or lost contact with reality Insanity The legal designation for the state of an individual judged to be legally irresponsible or incompetent to manage his or her own affairs because of mental illness. Comorbidity The cooccurrence of two or more disorders in the same person at the same time, as when a person suffers from both depression and alcoholism CulturalGeneral Symptoms Shared Symptoms across cultures (nervousness, restlessness, personal worries, etc.) Clinical Disorders are exacerbated cases of personal disorders (you can be a nervous nelly, or you can be paranoid) Culture Bound Symptoms Unique symptoms that differ across cultures (Anorexia is western, Vietnamese koro) Treatment of Mental Disorders People used to believe that demons were the cause of abnormal behavior, leading to exorcisms as treatment 1790's Pinel emphasized disease, physical illness, and humane treatment which became the Medical Model Pinel discovered that spending time outside allowed for faster recovery times, modern outpatient theory Modern Psychology includes 7 major perspectives on abnormal behavior Sociocultural Behavioral Evolutionary Humanistic Psychoanalytic Cognitive Faulty thinking Biological Problems with brain function, genetic predisposition, biochemistry (+cognitive=most effective depression treatment) The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSMV) Provides detailed descriptions of symptoms on all known biological disorders, updated periodically 5 axis Guidelines for making decisions about symptoms Axis I Clinical Disorders Axis II Personality Disorders Axis III General Medical Information Axis IV Psychosocial or Environmental Problems Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning Importance of Diagnosis Research populations Based on the diagnosis of individuals, those diagnoses with the illness are subjects Drug treatment Different neurotransmitters associated with different mental illnesses. Different diagnoses result in different drug prescriptions Conformation bias Tendency to seek out symptoms with diagnosis, once a label is assigned stereotypes follow o Rosenhan Told graduate students to fake mental illnesses to gain admittance into mental clinics Anxiety Disorder Characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear, they are linked to GABA Generalized Anxiety Disorder Persistent anxiety that is not associated with any particular stimulus. Overly concerned with normal daily events, leads to other problems as fight or flight stress hormones are always on. Panic Disorder Persistent, recurring attacks of anxiety and worry (including future attacks). Involves significant sympathetic arousal and can last for hours. Phobia Intense, irrational fear of a specific object or situation (learned and often linked to early childhood experiences) ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder (OCD) Intrusive, repetitive fearful thoughts (obsessions) urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors (compulsions), or both Explanations Psychological Faulty cognitions, learning maladaptive behaviors Biological Evolution, genetics, brain functioning and biochemistry Sociocultural Environmental stressors, cultural socialization Anxiety in animals is very similar to anxiety in humans Mood Disorders Characterized by extreme disturbances in emotional states or affect (affective disorders). Serotonin and Norepinephrine Two Main Types of Mood Disorders Major Depressive DisorderDepressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, and maintain interest in life Bipolar Disorder Repeated episodes of mania and depression; cycle not necessarily even. People with mania can recognize that their thought process is wrong but they cannot control it Biological Brain functioning, neurotransmitter imbalances, genetics, evolution. Monoamine Hypothesis of Depression Depression is the result of too little serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain. Reserpine and Tuberculosis, during TB research reserpine deficiencies were found to cause depression. Learned Helplessness Theory Seligman's term for a state of helplessness or resignation in which someone learns that escape from something painful is impossible and stops responding and may become depressed. eg. Resignation that one must stay in jail for a whole year. Gender and Cultural Diversity Culturalgeneral symptoms for depression (lack of energy, sad affect) Women are more likely to suffer from depression due to a combination of biological, psychological, and social forces (Biosocial model). This includes more social acceptability of outward signals of depression, lower socioeconomic status, more internalizing of emotions, and different gender roles. Schizophrenia Severe break from reality, means split mind, and refers to the split from reality. It does not mean multiple personality. The main neurotransmitter system is DADopamine. 5 Areas of Major Disturbance Perception Hallucinations, usually auditory Language Word salad, flight of speech Thoughts Psychosis, delusions (false belief), flight of thought Emotion Exaggerated or flat affect Behavior Unusual actions, catalepsy, waxy flexibility, stereotypical Classifications Paranoid Dominated by delusions and hallucinations Catatonic Motor disturbances and echo speech Disorganized Incoherent speech, flat or exaggerated emotions, and social withdrawal Undifferentiated Other Residual Does not meet full criteria anymore but still shows symptoms Positive Schizophrenia Symptoms Exaggerations of normal thought processes or additions such as hallucinations Negative Schizophrenia Symptoms Loss or absence of normal thought processes, such as social withdrawal. Biological Genetic predisposition (especially among identical twins), disruptions in neurotransmitters, brain abnormalities Psychosocial Stress, disturbed family communication Diathesis Stress Model A hypothesis about the cause of certain disorders which suggests that people inherit a predisposition that increases their risk for mental disorders if they are exposed to certain extremely stressful life experiences. Gender and Cultural Diversity Numerous cultural general symptoms, but significant differences exist in: More common in industrialized societies, form, onset in puberty, prognosis. Substance Abuse Disorder Abuse of or dependence on a mood or behavior altering drug Two General Groups Substance Abuse Interferes with social or occupational functioning. Criteria: Maladaptive use, failure to meet obligations, repeated use in dangerous or unhealthy situations, repeated legal problems, constantly thinking about the drug. o Comorbidity Abuses also suffer from other psychological problems Substance Dependence Shows physical reactions, such as tolerance and withdrawal. Criteria: Tolerance, withdrawal, higher doses or longer duration of use than intended, lack of effort to control use, other activities given up or reduced, much time spent on acquiring the substance, continued use despite knowledge that this practice is maladaptive. Dissociative Disorders Splitting apart of experience from memory and conscious Dissociative Amnesia Dissociative Fugue Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder, or DID) Prescence of multiple distinct personality systems in the same person at different times. Often linked to traumatic childhood experiences Personality Disorders Inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause impairment of social and occupational functioning, similar in general nature to, but less severe than, mental disorders Antisocial Personality Disorder Loner o Profound disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others. Egocentrism, lack of conscious, impulsive behavior, superficial charm. (Sociopath or Psychopath) o Biological Genetic predisposition, abnormal brain functioning in the Amygdala o Psychosocial Borderline Personality Disorder Erratic o Impulsivity and instability in mood, relationships, and selfimage o Biological Genetic inheritance, impaired brain functioning o Psychosocial Childhood history of neglect Dysthymic Personality Disorder o Schizotypal Personality Disorder o Context Behavior does not occur in a vacuum, importance of context can not be overlooked, context includes: Location, event, Zeitgeist (Spirit of the times), Historical frame of reference Chapter 15 Therapy Psychotherapy Techniques employed to improve psychological functioning and promote adjustment to life Three Major Approaches to Therapy Talking Insight (Address Personal Understanding) Psychoanalysis Freudian therapy designed to bring unconscious conflicts into consciousness. o Free Association Feud would say something and the client would respond right away o Dream Analysis The id is closest to the consciousness in the dream state o Analyzing Resistance Probing into areas that the client pushes back on, areas that clients don't want to talk about o Analyzing Transference Analyzing the feelings that a client has for someone in society which are transferred to the therapist o Interpretation Evaluating Psychoanalysis as a Theory Limited application and lack of scientific credibility Psychodynamic Therapy briefer, more directive, and more modern form of psychoanalysis that focuses on conscious processes and current problems. This method is more successful. Cognitive Focuses on faulty thinking and beliefs o Improvement comes from insight into negative selftalk (unrealistic things a person has been telling him or herself) o Cognitive Restructuring Process of changing destructive thoughts or inappropriate actions o Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT, Albert Ellis) Eliminates self defeating beliefs through rational examination o Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Howard Beck) Confronts and changes behaviors associated with destructive cognitions Depressive Thinking Patterns Selective Perception Focusing only on the bad things Overgeneralization Extrapolating events to larger overarching ideas that are not correlated Magnification Making problems appear larger than they are AllorNothing Thinking There is no grey area or glass half full, its all bad Evaluating Cognitive Therapy Considerable success with a range of problems. It is criticized for overemphasizing rationality, ignoring unconscious dynamics, minimizing importance of the past, etc. Humanistic Maximizes personal growth through affective restructuring (emotional readjustment) o Key Assumption: People who are suffering from a blockage or disruption of their normal growth potential, which leads to a defective selfconcept. Rogers's Client Centered Therapy Emphasizes the client's natural tendency to become healthy and productive Empathy Unconditional Positive Regard Genuineness Evaluating Humanistic Therapy Group, family and marital (family and marital therapy is designed to change maladaptive family and couple dynamics Behavior (Address Maladaptive Behaviors) Classical Conditioning Systematic desensitization Good for treating specific phobias, not general anxiety. Gradual process of extinguishing a learned fear by working through a hierarchy of fearful stimuli while in a relaxed state. Joseph Wolpe. Aversion therapy Pairing an unpleasant stimulus with a maladaptive behavior. Operant Conditioning Shaping Successive approximations of target behavior are rewarded, (includes roleplaying, behavior rehearsal, and assertiveness training) Reinforcement Punishment Adding or taking away something Extinction Withdrawal of attention Tokens Symbolic rewards used to immediately reinforce the desired behavior Observational learning o Modeling: Watching and imitating models that demonstrate desirable behaviors(Used for lower level disorders, not helpful for mental disorders) Pro's Strong evidence for success with a wide range of problems Con's Questioned and criticized for generalizability and ethics Biomedical (Mental Illness and medical treatments, such as drugs used to reduce chemical imbalances) Psychopharmacology o Antianxiety Drugs GABA, increases relaxation and reduces anxiet
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