exam 4 PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Karnes on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Craig Cummings in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 160 views.
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Date Created: 12/08/15
1. Be familiar with the following vocabulary, if they are very similar try to identify the distinctions among them; personality, personality trait, temperament, self- actualization, superordinate trait, idiographic vs. nomothetic approaches, projective vs. objective measures, self, self-awareness, self-schema, self-esteem, self-serving bias. -Personality: consists of the characteristics, thoughts, emotional responses and behaviors that are relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances. “the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine characteristic behavior and thought” -Personality trait: dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across circumstances. -Temperament: general tendencies to feel or act in a certain way. Temperaments are broader than personality traits. Life experiences ma alter personality traits but temperaments represent the innate biological structures of personality. -Self actualization: humanistic approaches emphasize personal experience, belief systems, the uniqueness of the human condition and the inherent goodness of each person. The propose that we seek to fulfill our potential for personal growth through greater self understanding. -Superordinate trait: If the person behaves the same way on many occasions the person is characterized as possessing a trait. Traits such as impulsiveness and sociability can be viewed as superordinate traits. Eyesnck proposed that there are three superordinate traits: introversion/ extroversion, emotional stability and psychoticism. -Idiographic: person centered approaches to studying personality; they focus on the individual lives and how various characteristics are integrated into unique persons. assume all individuals are unique -Nomothetic approaches: approaches to studying personality that focus on how common characteristics vary from person to person. In other words idiographic approaches use a different metric for each person and nomothetic approaches uses the same metric to compare all people. -Projective measures: personality test that examine unconscious processes by having people interpret ambiguous stimuli. -Objective measures: relatively direct assessments of personality usually based on information gathered through self repost questionnaires or observer ratings -Self: persons sense of self involves the personals mental representation of personal experiences, the persons thought processes, physical boy and conscious awareness of being separate from others and uniques -Self awareness: helps lead people to act in accordance with the values and beliefs they hold. for example people are less likely to cheat if they are sitting in front of mirrors, seeing their own face reminds them the value of not cheating -Self Schema: each person processes information about himself deeply, thoroughly and atomically. Helps us perceive organize and interpret useful information about the self. It also helps each of us filter information so we are likely to notice things that are self relevant. -Self esteem: the evaluative aspect of the self concept, indicates a persons emotion response to contemplating personal characteristics.Although related to self concept, people can objectively believe positive things about themselves with ought liking themselves very much .conversely people can like themselves very much and therefore have high self esteem. -Self serving bias: the tendency for people to take personal credit for success but blame failures on external factors 2. Be able to describe up to 3 distinctions between psychodynamic and socio-cognitive theories of personality (hint. the PPTs have a table stating a few differences). If you can identify the 3 dimensions on which the two theories are compared and state the differences it might come in handy.Adifferent extreme comparison might be between Situationist (e.g., Skinner) and psychodynamic psychologists (e.g., Freud). Which of these two views relies heavily on learning within the person’s lifetime? Psychodynamic: based on self analysis and therapy, emphasis on unconscious mental influences, personality is inconsistent Socio-cognitive based on experimental findings, emphasis on conscious self regulated behavior, personality is situationally dependent Skinner rejected the idea that personality is the result of internal processes, viewed personality as mainly a learned response to patterns of reinforcement. 3. Freud believed that personality consists of what 3 structural components? Conscious: level consists of the thoughts that we are aware of preconscious level consists of content that is not currently in awareness but that could be brought to awareness Unconscious: level contains material that the mind cannot easily retrieve 4. Make sure that you know the 3 superordinate traits in Eysenck’s hierarchical model of personality. introversion/extraversion, emotional stability, and psychoticism. 5. Be familiar with the 5 factor theory of personality. What are the 5 factors? Is this approach considered idiographic or nomothetic? The 5 factor theory is nomothetic. How well does this apply to non-human animals? How well does the 5-factor theory hold up to cultural differences?Are there any gender differences related to 5 factor theory? The five factors are: Openess to experience (imaginative vs down to earth, likes variety vs. likes routine, independent vs conforming Conscientiousness(organized vs disorganized, careful vs careless, self disciplined vs weak willed) Extraversion(social versus retiring, fun loving vs. sober, affectionate vs reserved) Agreeableness(soft hearted vs ruthless, trusting vs suspicious, helpful vs uncooperative) Neuroticism(worried vs. calm, insecure vs secure, self pitying vs self satisfied) -it is nomothetic, because it looks at how all people vary on the five basic personality traits. -the big five emerge across cultures, adults and children, even when vastly different questionnaires assess the factors. some cross cultural differences, such as how interpersonal relatedness, or harmony isn't important in western culture but is much more important in china. one reason for this could be that many chinese live in densely populated areas, therefore getting along with others my be more essential than in places where people live farther apart. -gender differences related: 6. How have twin studies informed our understanding of the role of genetics and/or environment in personality? Figure 13.19 summarizes twin study findings related to 5 personality traits. Twin studies are a type of descriptive study in which (biologically related) twins’ (either identical or non-identical) personalities are measured are compared to determine how similar, or different, they are. If the personalitiesidentical twins are more similar than the personalities of non-identical twins, scientistcan safely attribute the similarityto the greater extent of genetic similarity in the identical twins. It is safer to conclude that the similarities are genetically linked because the environment has essentially been the same for twins (both identical and non-identical). If the environment is the only important determinant of personality and genetics do not matter , then both types of twins should have the same degree of similarity. However, this is not the case. Twin studies can also compare personalities between identical twins raised together and identical twins reared apart. If the later share the same degree of similarity as the former, it indicates that completely different environments did not influence personality. Leaving genetics to account for the similarities. A3 type of study is an adoption study in which the personalities of two non-related children raised in the same environment are compared. Even when reared in different environments (which can happen if the parents lose custody of the children and the children are paired with different foster homes) identical twins usually share a large number of personality traits. These studies typically confirm that personality is largely a function of genetics and is determined less by environmental circumstances. The opposite occurs when two un-related children are raised by non- biological parents. The personalities are typically different between children and parents. 7. What relationship is there between infant temperament and adult personality? Childhood temperament is a reliable predictor of adult personality traits. It accurately predicts specific patterns of behavior and overall personality structure.According to the experiment summarized by figure 13.20 which of the infant temperaments were strong predictors of adult behavior? Which behaviors and which temperaments were assessed? Under controlled temperament was the strongest predictor in adult behavior, inhibited temperament is biologically determined, well adjusted and inhibited are less likely to have the same behavior problems of uncontrolled children. 8. When it comes to personally relevant information, are there any differences in depth, thoroughness, or automaticity of processing personally relevant vs. non-relevant information? 9. When it comes to Freudian/Neo-Freudian vs. trait theories, which focus on description and which focus on explanation? Freudian/Neo-Freudian theories focus more on explanation. In these theories, ones personality develops while the Id, Ego, and Superego are in a way fighting with one another to determine conscious thought, which in turn leads to behavior, which is in turn the reflection of ones personality (the way they tend to act). So, it is essentially an explanation of how personality develops without focusing on describing how the person acts (behaves). On the other hand, trait theories are created through the identification of common behavior patterns among multiple people. Trait theories are essentially created through descriptive observation. So, trait theories are by definition more descriptive in nature than explanatory. Psychological Disorders Study Guide 1. According to the DSM what factors constitute a psychopathology? Think personal distress, cultural norms, and adaptive vs. maladaptive behaviors. -psychopathology- sickness or disorder of the mind many behaviors considered normal in one setting may not be considered deviant in other settings does the person act in a way that deviates from cultural norms for acceptable behavior? is the behavior maladaptive? that is does the behavior interfere with the persons ability to respond appropriately to different situations? is the behavior disruptive, does it cause the individual person distress or does it threaten people in the community? does the behavior cause discomfort and concern to others thus impairing the persons social relationship psychopathology is a line between normal and abnormal, thoughts/ behaviors that are maladaptive rather than deviant must interfere with at least one aspect of the persons life to determine whether a given behavior or a set of behaviors is a mental disorder or simply unusual 2. Be familiar with the distinction between structured and unstructured clinical interviews. What is the goal of both methods? They are both part of psychological testing, right? How is psychological testing different from neuropsychological testing? -distinction between the two: unstructured is highly flexible, interview is many times guided by the past experiences with the client and catered toward the client's needs. Structured is standardized questions in the same order each time, no room for flexibility. Psychological testing provide information that is useful for treating psychological disorders, neuropsychological testing might incite problems with a particular brain region. 3. What two, broadly stated, factors are most attributed to the cause of mental disorders? biological factors and psychological factors 4. How are obsessions and compulsions related to OCD? Involves frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive actions. Obsessions are recurrent intrusive and unwanted thoughts or ideas or mental images. Compulsions are particular acts that the OCD patient feels driven to perform over and over again. 5. In relation to depression be familiar with the distinctions among the following: major depressive disorder, dysthymia, hypomania, mania, bipolar disorder (type 1 and 2), and seasonal affect disorder. How is SAD related to geographical location? Overall, is depression more common in men or women? Bipolar disorders involve radical fluctuations in mood, bipolar disorder is much less common than depression. Whereas depression is more common in women, bipolar is equally prevalent in women and men. Bipolar emerges most commonly during late adolescence or early adult hood. manic episode are characterized by elevated mood, increased activity, diminished need for sleep, grandiose ideas, racing thoughts and extreme distractibility hypomanic episodes are often characterized by heightened creativity and productivity. they can be extremely pleasurable and rewarding. In fact, not too disruptive in people’s lives. Major depression according to DSM criteria, a person must have one of two symptoms: depressed (often irritable) mood or loss of interest in pleasurable activities for at least two weeks. In addition the person must have other symptoms such as appetite and weight changes, sleep disturbances, loss of energy, difficulty concentrating, feeling of self reproach or guilt, and frequent thoughts of death and perhaps suicide. Unlike major depression, dysthymia is mild to moderate severity. This kind of depression is not severe enough to merit diagnosis of major depression. That is, people with major dysthymia may have many of the same symptoms of people with depression but those symptoms are less intense. The distinctions between depressive disorder, dysthymia and major depression are unclear. In keeping with a dimensional view of mental disorders these states may be point along a continuum rather distinct disorders. One research finds dysthymia leads to major depression. Geographically: less seen in developing countries where people do not take advantage of the treatment options because they do not want to admit to being depressed 6. Anxiety disorders: be familiar with the symptoms and distinctions among generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobias, and obsessive compulsive disorder. What do OCD and GAD have in common? Those suffering from anxiety disorders feel anxious tense and apprehensive. They are offend depressed and irritable because they cannot see any solution to their anxiety. Constant worry can make falling asleep and staying asleep difficult, and attention span and concentration can be impaired. By continually arousing the autonomic nervous system, chronic anxiety also causes bodily symptoms like sweating, dry mouth, rapid pulse, shallow breathing, increased blood pressure, and increased muscular tension, hypertension, headaches, and intestinal problems and can eve cause illness and tissue damage. Phobic disorder: classified based on the object of the fear. Fear is exaggerated and out of proportion to the actual danger Generalized anxiety disorder: (GAD) always present, constantly anxious and worry incessantly about minor matters, the sufferer is constantly on the alert for problems. Resulting in distractibility, fatigue, irritability, sleep problems, headaches, restlessness, light headedness and muscle pain. Women are diagnosed more than men. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive actions. More common in women than men,generally begins in early adulthood. OCD anticipate catastrophe and loss of control. Opposed to those with other anxiety disorders, who fear what might happen to them, those with OCD fear what they might do or might have done. OCD and GAD: more common in women than men, in OCD the person allows an impulse to enter the consciousness and then the prefrontal cortex becomes overactive in an attempt to compensate.As a result associations established between obsessions and behaviors that reduce the anxiety arising from the obsessions. They share emotional, cognitive, somatic and motor symptoms. Anxiety results from cognitive factors such as paying excessive attention to perceived threats, situational factors such as observing another’s individuals fearful reaction and biological factors such as temperamental style. These factors interest to produce OCD. These interactions illustrate that nature and nurture influence the development of this condition. 7. What didAaron Beck hypothesize about the though pattern of individuals with depression? hypothesized that people with depression think negatively about themselves and about the future. Beck refers to these negative thoughts about self, situation, future as the cognitive triad. People with depression blame misfortunes on person defects while seeing positive occurrences as the result of luck. People who are not suffering depression do the opposite. Beck notes that people with depression make errors in logic. For example: they generalize based on single events, magnify the seriousness of bad events think in extremes, and take responsibility for bad events that have little to do with them. 8. Be familiar with dissociative identity disorder. What was this disorder formerly referred to as? (Should be obvious). Formally called multiple personality disorder. This condition consists of the occurrence of two or more distinct identities in the individual. Most people diagnosed with DID are women who report being severely abused as children. Children cope with abuse by pretending it is happening to someone else. Overtime this dissociated state takes on its own identity. The separate identities usually differ, gender identify, sexual orientation, age, language spoken, interests, psychological profiles and patterns of brain activation. Even their handwriting can differ. 9. Schizophrenia: be familiar with the distinction between positive and negative symptoms. What two side effects have been linked to typical antipsychotics? Positive symptoms: delusions are false beliefs based on innocent inferences about reality. Persistence of this belief in spite of clear evidence to the contrary is a good example of how people with psychological disorders can deny reality because their cognitive processes misinform them about what is real and what is not. Delusions are characteristics of schizophrenia regardless of the culture, but the type of delusion can be influenced by cultural factors. Hallucinations are false sensory perceptions that are experienced without an external source.Auditory hallucinations are often accusatory voices. These voices may tell the person with schizophrenia that he or she is evil or inept or they may command the person to do dangerous things. Loosening of associations individual shifts between seemingly unrelated topics as he or she speaks making it difficult or impossible for a listener to follow train of thought. Disorganized behavior: people exhibiting this symptom might wear multiple layers of clothing even on hot summer days, walk along muttering to themselves, alternate between anger and laughter, or pace and wring their hands as if extremely worried Negative symptoms: patients becoming isolated and withdrawn, often avoid eye contact and seem apathetic. They do not express emotion even when discussing emotional subjects. Speech is slowed, they say less than normal, use monotonous tone of voice, long pause before answering, failure to respond to a question, inability to complete an utterance after initiating. Negative symptoms are more common in men than women. Although positive symptoms can be reduced with antipsychotic medications, negative symptoms often persist. Positive symptoms are neurotransmitter dysfunction and negative are associated with abnormal brain anatomy. 10. Personality disorders: make sure you are familiar with the distinction between antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. How easily are these disorders treated (Ch. 15)? What seems to be the most effective treatment for BPD (Ch. 15)? What is the relationship between age andAPD related crime? In what setting isAPD treatment most effective (Ch. 15)? boarderline personality disorder is characterized by disturbances in identity, in effect and in impulse control. Called borderline initially because patients were considered on the boarder between normal and psychotic. twice as common in women than men. Dialectical Behavior Therapy is the best for BPD it combines elements of bejaviaoal and cognitive treatments with a mindfulness approach based on eastern meditative practices. antisocial personality disorder is marked by lack of empathy or remorse. Those withAPD behave in socially undesirable ways such as breaking the law because they tend to be hedonistic, seeking immediate gratification of wants and needs without any thoughts of others. Normally goes away at the age of 40 reason unknown. Anti anxiety drug may lower hostility levels somewhat and lithium has shown promise in treating aggressive impulsive behavior of violent criminals who are psychopathic. setting is most effective in society, where they can see rules than by trying to get around them. Psychopaths display more extreme behaviors than those withAPD. They are pathological in their degree of callousness and are particularly dangerous. 11. Childhood Disorders: How has the diagnosis of autism changed since the DSM III? Has the prevalence in autism changed in the last 30 years? Is this likely attributed to a change in the population or might it be due to something else? Be familiar with the core symptoms of autism (they have been consistent across all DSM versions). What is the prognosis of autism? ADHD, what are the core symptoms ofADHD? What is the prognosis ofADHD? In the past thirty years there was a dramatic increase in the number of children diagnosed with autism. This increase was likely due to the greater awareness of symptoms by parents and physicians and a willingness to apply the diagnosis to a wider spectrum of behaviors.Autism is characterized by deficits in social interaction by impaired communication and restricted interest. Children with severe autism are unresponsive, impaired language social and cognitive development and restricted and receptive behavior. Autism is primarily a biological disorder. Gene mutations play a role. Prenatal and or neonatal events that may result in brain dysfunction. ADHD: restlessness, inattentive and impulsive. they need to have directions repeated and rules explained over and over. Often friendly talkative, they can have trouble making and keeping friends because they mis subtle social cues and make unintentional social mistakes. The cause of the disorder is unknown. It is most likely a heterogenous disorder in other words the behavioral profiles of children withADHD var so the causes of the disorder most likely vary as well. Children withADHD more likely than other children come from disturbed families, Connection between the frontal lobes and limbic system is impaired in ADHD patients. Treatment of Psychological Disorders 1. Generally speaking, is pharmacological or behavioral treatment associated with greater long term improvement? Behavioral treatment would be better for long term improvement but it might require the patient to continue treatment 2. What was the core of Freud’s psychoanalytic therapy approach? Therapist aim to help a patient examine the patients needs defenses and motives as a way of understanding why the patient is distressed. Most proponents of the psychodynamic perspective continue to embrace frauds “talking therapy” 3. What factors were ignored by Freud but later incorporated into various models of psychopathology by some of the neo-Freudians? 4. What is the focus of the humanistic approach to treatment? emphasize personal experience and the individuals belief systems goal of humanistic therapy is to treat the person as a whole, not as a collection of behaviors or a repository of repressed thoughts. 5. Be familiar with the psychoanalytic, cognitive behavioral (CBT), behavioral, and cognitive approaches to treatment. Know the differences among them. Focus on the general/overall principles. 6. Be familiar with the process of exposure therapy. What is systematic desensitization and what is a fear hierarchy? I would recommend that you practice describing how you might implement this technique for a specific phobia. 7. What is evidence based treatment? How does it differ from more traditional forms of treatment? How might it be advantageous? 8. What is group therapy and what advantages might it have over individual therapy? 9. Be familiar with electroconvulsive therapy, deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, screaming therapy, and reenacted birthing. If these treatments are used today which disorders are they used to treat when and if they are effective? 10. In relation to antipsychotic medications, what is compliance and why might it be an issue? Think about the case of bipolar depression with the presence of mania. 11. In the treatment of schizophrenia we discussed the success of chlorpromazine (chapter 14 slides “sources of schizophrenia”) which treated positive symptoms while producing negative symptoms and other motor deficits. In regard to the motor deficits, which disease shares similar motoric symptoms? 12. Be familiar with Marsha Linehan’s Dialectical behavior therapy used to treat BPD. Be familiar with the steps involved in this form of treatment.
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