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GWU / Sustainability / SUST 1001 / a person who is gaining weight but lacking in some vitamins exhibits

a person who is gaining weight but lacking in some vitamins exhibits

a person who is gaining weight but lacking in some vitamins exhibits


School: George Washington University
Department: Sustainability
Course: Introduction to Sustainability
Professor: R; riffat
Term: Fall 2015
Cost: 50
Name: Final Study Guide - Learning Objectives and Quizes
Description: Here are all the learning objectives filled out for the chapters that will be on our study guide + questions from discussion and previous quizzes!
Uploaded: 12/08/2015
13 Pages 5 Views 6 Unlocks

Food Learning Objectives

What is the Geography of food production?

• Be able to discuss the geography of food production and food consumption o Geography of food production:  

???? For Optimal agricultural production, you need: good soils, sunshine,  

precipitation, growth-promoting temperatures, relatively level land services,  low incidence of natural hazards, you need people  

• The spatial distribution of all of these variables (listed above under  

geography of food production) do not coincide often

• So, growing food is uneven around the world  

o Geography of Consumption

???? Foods are not grown evenly so they are not distributed/consumed evenly

???? North America, Europe, Japan constitute 20% of the world’s population but  consume 80% of the milk and meat

???? In class, Prof Short showed us pictures of families and what they eat in a week • US ✂ sugary foods, processed, not natural, spends $300

What is the Geography of Consumption?

• Chad ✂ beans and grains, rarely have meat, spends $1.23

???? Food consumption is directly related to wealth and hunger is directly related to  poverty  

• Be able to explain the causes of hunger and provide statistics on how significant an issue this  is

o Hunger is the catastrophic lack of food; it is the most extreme form of poverty  o Causes of hunger: poverty, distribution, environmental  

o Statistics:

???? 10-15 million starve or die of disease associated with poor nutrition each year.  ???? 10% of these deaths can be attributed to emergencies such as war or  

catastrophic weather. Most hunger deaths are due to chronic malnutrition  

caused by inequitable distribution and inefficient use of existing food resources ???? 840 Million suffer from Hunger (but down from 925 million in 2000!)  

???? 1 in 7 are hungry

???? 815 of those live in LDCs

How to identify areas of the world where hunger is endemic?

Don't forget about the age old question of umd government and politics

???? 80 % are women/children

???? 1 in 4 children in LDCs are underweight  

???? 153 Million children under 5 suffer malnutrition/under

• Identify areas of the world where hunger is endemic

o Africa – high population growth, decline in per capita of food output

o Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have highest rates of child malnutrition ???? Sub-S A has higher rates of child mortality

o Hot Spots outside of SSA and South Asia:

???? Haiti, Yemen, Laos, Cambodia, Timor, North Korea

o Armed conflicts aggravate hunger in: Eritrea, Angola, Burundi, Ethiopia, Sudan,  Congo, Ethiopia

o Globally, children more at risk

• Define malnutrition and provide examples; define under-nutrition and provide examples o Malnutrition – largest single contributor to disease; lack of essential nutrition; protein  and vitamin deficiency  If you want to learn more check out bio 181 nau

o Undernutriton – lack of adequate calories; a form of malnutrition

o Overnutrition – too many calories, too many fats and sugars, a result of choice,  common in developed countries

• Explain the connection between food issues and the UN Millennium Development Goals o UN Millennium Development Goals want to eradicate poverty and hunger by:  ???? Reduce by half the proportion of people who live on less than one dollar a day.  ???? Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.

o Today, we are on target to possibly reach goal but 840 mill are still hungry; 100 mill  children are undernourished / underweight

• Food Technology and Growing Population

o In the 1900’s world population grows 33% while food production grows 50%  o Intensification – increasing amount of land that grows food

o Intensification – increasing the amount of food that grows per acre ✂ Green  Revolution

• Discuss the Green Revolution and the rise of GMOs

o GMO – are organisms whose genetic material has been artificially modified to change  their characteristics in some way or another; increases yield per plant / acre; does not  need to increase amount of farmland; decreasing growing time  

o Increase use of synthetic pesticides / fertilizers – increases yield and crop destruction;  DDT

o Mechanization of farming – capital intensive, tractors, combines replace manual labor o UNEVEN BENEFITS / TOO EXPENSIVE FOR COUNTRIES THAT REALLY  NEED FOOD + TECHNOLOGIES Don't forget about the age old question of psyc 3253 study guide

• Discuss some of the concerns around GMOs

o Rise of CAFO – concentrated animal feeding operations; bad treatment of animals,  manure  

o GMO concerns  

???? The capability of the GMO to escape and potentially introduce the engineered  genes into wild populations

???? The persistence of the gene after the GMO has been harvested

???? The stability of the gene

o Pesticides / fertilizer concerns

???? The susceptibility of non-target organisms (e.g. insects which are not pests) to  the gene product

???? The reduction in the spectrum of other plants including loss of biodiversity  ???? The increased use of chemicals in agriculture

???? Fertilizer harming water ways (nitrogen and phosphorous)  

• Define and explain the concept of food deserts and provide an example from either lecture or  readings

o An Urban Food Desert is an area with little to no access to healthy AND nutritious  food; people rely heavily on corner stores  If you want to learn more check out uab physics

• Define “local” food , “organic” food

• Be able to discuss trends in urban farming, farmers markets and provide examples o Slow Food Movement – food should taste good; eat in season; eat local; think about  health and economy  We also discuss several other topics like rea study guide

o Organic food - by farmers who emphasize the use of renewable resources and the  conservation of soil and water to enhance environmental quality for future

generations. Organic meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products come from animals that  are given no antibiotics or growth hormones. Organic food is produced without using  most conventional pesticides; fertilizers made with synthetic ingredients or sewage  sludge; bioengineering; or ionizing radiation.  

o Local Food movement – down with corporations; want to build more locally based,  self-reliant food economies

o Farmer’s markets - Retail venue featuring multiple urban, periurban, or rural farmers  operating within a certain geographic area to sell agricultural products directly to  consumers  

o Urban agriculture – private gardens / community gardens, etc

• Questions from Quiz:  

o In the last 50 years, the greatest progress in addressing worldwide hunger and  malnutrition came from development and use of new varieties of high-yielding wheat  and rice  

o Although the green revolution has greatly reduced world hunger and malnutrition, it  has required high levels of increasingly expensive fertilizer and pesticides  Don't forget about the age old question of glenwood ross

o Over the past 200 years, the greatest change in agriculture is the productivity of an acre  of farmland  

o If the total global production of grains cannot be significantly increased in the next 50  years, and the human population continues to increase, by perhaps 50%, how will we  feed the people without destroying the world? One strategy that is likely to succeeded  sis greatly reducing the amount of meat in our diets  

o Although refrigeration, modern shipping, fertilizers, CAFOs, and Green Revolution  high yield crops have some limits or negative impacts, all have contributed to making  food more widely available

o Which country would benefit the most from the use of biotechnology or other  techniques to increase grain production? Africa

o A person who is gaining weight but lacking in vitamins exhibits malnutrition and  overnourishment

o In the developing world, malnutrition and undernourishment would most often kill  children from lowered resistance to disease

o Sustainable agriculture long term will require decreasing the use of fossil fuels and  synthetic fertilizers  

o An Urban Food Desert is an area with little to no access to healthy AND nutritious  AND affordable food; people rely heavily on corner stores  

o Why haven’t green revolution technologies solved hunger for everyone? Uneven  distribution (due to money, technology, not having optimal conditions everywhere) • Important Notes from Readings / Videos:  

Energy Lecture Learning Objectives 

• Know how much oil the US consumes in a day (in mbo) 

o US consumes 20 million barrels of oil a day / 3 empire state buildings worth of oil • Know when global oil discoveries peaked 

o Global oil discoveries peaked in 1962 and the discovery rate has been going down since 

• Explain the primary uses of oil, natural gas and coal in the US

o Oil – primarily used for transportation (gasoline), diesel, jet fuel, also used for industrial, residential and commercial purposes; there’s also a lot of everyday items made from oil 

o Natural gas – primarily used to heat households, fuel for cooking 

o Coal – electricticy generation, steel production, cement manufacturing, and as liquid fuel- Explain how ground level ozone is produced and the primary emission sources • Explain how ground level ozone is produced and the primary emission sources - sun + VOCs  + NOx

o VOCs = motor vehicles, industrial / commercial processes, consumer solvents  o NOx = fuel combustion, motor vehicles, utilities  

• Explain the pros and cons for using coal, natural gas or renewables for electricity production in the US 

o Natural gas  

???? PROS: emits less pollutants (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen  oxides, mercury, etc.) than coal; easy to store and transport; burns cleaner;  abundant; versatile; produces electricity; cheaper 

???? CONS: toxic; flammable; damage to environment; needs to be processed;  nonrenewable; inefficient transportation  

o Coal 

???? PROS: affordable; easy to burn; abundant; reliable;  

???? CONS: tons of carbon emissions; not environmentally friendly; causes acid  rain; not renewable; mining is hazardous  

o Renewables  

???? PROS: stable prices; continual source of energy; reliable; low greenhouse  emissions; creates jobs; low costs once in place;

???? CONS: high development costs; vulnerable; can't produce in large quantities;  not available in all areas; requires large areas  

• Define and explain the difference between renewable energy and conventional (fossil fuel based) energy – renewable energy can be renewed (duh), conventional energy is pretty much “300 million years of buried sunshine” (Peter LaPuma) and an source that we will soon deplete o Renewable energy = 

???? Cleaner air and water – less cancer, asthma, mercury in fish 

???? Fewer industrial accidents – oil spills, explosions, mine collapses 

o Conventional energy = 

???? Fossil depletion – numerous impacts to health and economy 

???? Climate change = heat wave deaths, disease  

• List the different types of fossil fuels and how they contribute to the energy budget o Coal – constitutes18% of our energy 

o Natural gas – 27% of our energy 

o Petroleum – 38% of our energy 

o A lot of coal and natural gas contribute electricity to the energy budget o Petroleum contributes mostly to transportation; transportation is near 100% dependent on water 

• Discuss the limitations of wind power 

o Costly; hard to find good locations; may not be most profitable for the land; blades  may damage wildlife

• Discuss the limitations of solar power

o Expensive; some energy is wasted as heat (inefficient); maintenance  

• Explain some of the main ideas in the film Carbon Nation 

o Wind turbines in Roscoe, Texas show how this renewable source of energy saved a  town from down fall and poses sustainable solutions to our energy crisis 

???? Wind turbines still allow for ranching and farming of the land  

???? Brought up the idea of idle car factories manufacturing wind turbines 

o Program where prisoners installed solar panels in less fortunate areas 

???? Social justice and sustainable 

o Making energy from algae / geothermal springs  

o Giving incentives for farmers to grow organically 

o Need for a carbon tax 

o Prices for renewable energies have dropped significantly in the past few years – more  affordable 

• Discuss the idea of carbon tax as a solution to discouraging fossil fuel use o The ability to buy and sell carbon emission allowances; encourages people to emit less and to gain money from it 

• Quiz Questions 

o Petroleum is primarily used for transportation in the US 

o Asphalt, plastic and nylon are derived from petroleum (not protein) 

o Coal is a fossil fuel that emits the most oxides of sulfur and contributes to acid rain o From 2012-2015, photovoltaic solar prices have decreased, making them more economically feasible 

o Natural gas in the US is consumed more than any other 

o Health effects of ground level ozone – asthma, health and respiratory problems o US economy is hurt by consuming oil = dependent on other countries, healthcare costs, war 

Learning Objectives for Climate 

• Know the preindustrial and current global carbon dioxide concentration in ppm. o Preindustrial level = around 200 PPM 

o Currently = Around 400 

o If it gets up to over approx. 470 PPM = IRREPRIABLE damage 

• Explain the human health impacts from climate change as discussed in class o Civil conflict – displacement, illness, injury 

???? Climate refugees – Bagladesh being sealed off from india 

o Storms and flooding – displacement, illness, industry 

???? Flooding = chemicals and fuel released to surface waters; unsafe drinking water; waterborne diseases; minor infections become serious 

o Disease transmission – infectious disease 

???? Potential spread of vector borne diseases is expected – deadly bugs can now live / spread closer towards the poles 

???? Lyme disease, dengue fever, west nile virus, rocky mountain spotted fever, plague, tularemia 

???? Potentially coming to north America – chikungunya, Chagas disease, Rift Valley fever 

o Heat – heat waves, illness industry

???? Hotter seasons equals more allergens 

???? Increased fire frequency from drier conditions in already dry areas 

o Air pollutants – respiratory disease, asthma 

???? As temperature rises, ground level ozone increases triggering more severe cases of asthma 

o Food supply – malnutrition 

• Name some interventions at the individual and national level to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 

o Cap and trade system, solar and wind energy… 


• Be able to explain the "debate" about climate change – not everyone believes / knows about it: accepted in the science world but not as much accepted outside the science world • Explain the seasonaility of CO2 emissions in the Northern Hemisphere o There are higher CO2 rates in the winter b/c in the spring / summer, there are plants and greenery that serve as carbon sinks 

• Identify the four main Greenhouse Gasses and explain their major sources o Methane (CH4) – from wetlands, gas leakage, raising live stock 

o Carbon Dioxide (Co2) – combustion of fossil fuels, industrial processes o Nitrous Oxide (N2O) – agriculture, wastewater management, fossil fuel combustion, industrial processes 

o Water vapor - the higher concentration of water vapor is then able to absorb more  thermal IR energy radiated from the Earth, thus further warming the atmosphere. The  warmer atmosphere can then hold more water vapor and so on and so on 

• Explain the "Greenhouse effect" What role do CO2 and methane play in the atmosphere? Is the "Greenhouse effect" scientifically controversial? 

o It is not scientifically controversial 

o It is a natural process, with out it we would die 

o But excess greenhouse gases cause too much warming 

o Co2 and methane in large amounts trap radiation in our atmosphere and prevent it from escaping in the form of heat 

• Provide examples and discuss the potential impact of climate change on: floods, wildfires, spread of disease, heat waves, civil unrest, hurricanes 

o Dry areas get drier, wet areas get wetter = more floods and wild fires 

o Heat waves kill a lot of people 

o Climate refugees 

o Diseases more likely to be spread (see health impacts of climate change above) • Define the term "climate refugee" and discuss how this relates to issues of social justice. Give examples of climate refugees. Discuss how this also relates to ideas in the film "Our Year of Extremes" 

o Bangladesh – social justice issue; very poor, can’t really go anywhere else, India keeping them out with a fence  

o Maldives – buying a new island 

• Why does climate change result in more extreme weather? Give examples from class and from the film "Our Year of Extremes" 

o Warming affects weather patterns, glaciers melting affect water currents o Higher temperatures = different evaporation / raining patterns, warmer air can hold more water and then release it all at once! = storms! 

o Changing air at quicker rates = more air moving, hurricanes (warmer oceans provide more power to these storms) 

• Why will sea level rise with climate change? What are predictions for seal level rise? Discuss impacts of sea level rise on cities and human health 

o Greenland ice melting at even faster rates – water level increase 

o Predicted to rise about 1 meter by 2100 

• Explain what the difference is between climate mitigation and climate adaptation. Give examples from the film "Our Year of Extremes" 

o Mitigation – reducing the impacts, adopting greener technologies, going green

o Adaptation – how to adjust to the changing conditions; eg: more flood resistant buildings, etc 

• Discuss reasons to be optimistic about climate change, including ways to slow down the impact of climate change 

o There is a momentum going, corporations trying to lower footprint, people becoming more educated; GWU being 50% solar powered by 2016; newer technologies 

• Quiz questions 

o Facts related to climate change: CO2 absorbs infrared radiation, we add more Co2 to the atmosphere every year, the average global temperature is increasing, the oceans absorb Co2 

o Examples of public health impacts that may occur due to climate change – increased allergens. Food shortage, migration of diseases, increased deaths from heat waves o Decreased ice and snowpack contributes to the additional warming of the earth (ice reflects radiation out of our atmosphere, when it melts, there is less ice for reflecting so there is more heat / radiation on the earth) 

o Climate change models predict – decrease in Artic sea ice, accelerated sea level rise, increased frequency of violent storms 

o Asthma may increase from climate change because the increased presence of CO2 / ozone in the atmosphere 

o Vector borne diseases may increase from climate change because as places get warmer, disease carrying bugs that typically live in warmer places are able to now live and survive in these “newly warmer” locations 

o The greenhouse effect – earths warming mechanism; natural; too much is bad; it is not scientifically controversial 

Climate panel main points  

• Climate science as a cultural war – its like cigaretts, many know that its bad for you but they  still keep doing it; not many educated about what’s happening; many reject the belief of it  occurring

• An overriding conclusion about the climate change debate – it’s not a “pollution issue” • We don’t have that much evidence to SCIENTIFICALLY PROVE climate change (only 50  years or so of changes compared to the entire time earth has been in existence), but we still  have many clues pointing towards this

• Disadvantages of carbon tax: public dissent  

Environmental Law and Policy  

• Understand the concept of public nuisance 

o Legal standard: an unreasonable interference with a right common to the general public ???? Includes significant interference with public health, safety, peace, comfort or  convenience 

o Balancing Test is used to determine whether an activity rises to the level of a private or  public nuisance  

???? Basically a form of cost benefit-analysis 

???? Court will weigh the nature of the interference and the extent of harm caused by  that interference against the utility and benefits of the activity giving rise to the  alleged nuisance

???? If benefits outweigh harm, then no nuisance. 

o Most common forms of environmental nuisances: air pollution and water pollution • Understand key methods of regulation used in the following statutes: 

o Clean Air Act (CAA) 

???? National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 

• EPA establishes ambient air quality standards for six criteria pollutants • States implement these through State Implementation Plans

• Regions classified as “attainment” (meeting the standards) and “non

attainment” (not meeting the standards)

???? Performance Standards 

• EPA also issues specific performance standards for new and majorly 

modified sources 

• Standards are based on emissions reductions that can be achieved 

through available technology 

• Precise standards differ depending on the type of facility and whether it  is located in a “non-attainment” or “attainment” region 

???? Market-Based Regulation 

• In 1990, Congress added a cap-and-trade program for NOx and SO2 (air  pollutants which contribute to acid rain) 

• The cap-and-trade program has been very successful, and emissions 

reductions achieved at ¼ of the anticipated cost 

???? Citizen Suits 

• Allow citizens to bring a lawsuit against regulators or private actors to  enforce the CAA 

o Clean Water Act (CWA) 

???? Cooperative Federalism: EPA delegates to most states the responsibility for  permitting, inspection and enforcement of the Act 

???? Point sources versus non-point sources: EPA any discharge of a pollutant from  a “point source” into waters of the United States. Point sources include pipes,  channels and other conveyances. Non-point sources include any source that is  not a point source which typically involves urban runoff and runoff from farms  and development projects. States are responsible for managing non-point  

source pollution so that it does not contributed to “impairment” of a river or  lake.  

???? Technology standards: The CWA relies on technology standards (referred to as  “categorical standards” since each category of industry has its own unique  emissions limitations based on what constitutes the best available control  

technology) for point sources. These categorical standards are established by  U.S. EPA in a rulemaking proceeding.

???? Water quality standards: The CWA relies on state “water quality standards,”  similar to ambient air standards, to assure that a waterway is not impaired by a  combination of non-point source discharges and the aggregate pollution from  multiple point sources. The water quality standard is translated by states into a  “total maximum daily load” (TMDL) for pollutants. If the TMDL is exceeded,  the state must seek additional reductions from point sources or reductions from  point sources.

o Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) ???? Waste site cleanup. CERCLA is designed to ensure that improperly disposed of  hazardous substances are cleanup and threats to public health and the  

environment are abated. “response actions” are designed to deal with relatively  stable sites while “removal actions” are designed to provide rapid response in  cases where illegal hazardous waste disposal or storage may present an  

immediate threat.

???? Strict Liability. CERCLA relies on liability for the cost of cleanup rather than  on more traditional regulatory approaches. Strict liability means that the  

government need not prove that the waste was managed negligently to establish  liability. Simply managing hazardous waste improperly is sufficient to  

establish liability.  

???? Retroactive Liability. Many hazardous waste sites were created decades ago  before hazardous waste was closely regulated. Because these old sites needed  to be cleaned up and because there is common law precedent for liability,  

CERCLA applies to all sites where hazardous waste materials were disposed  even if the disposal occurred decades before the law was passed.

???? Joint and several liability. Joint and several liability means that any one person  who improperly disposed of waste at a site can be held responsible for cleaning  up the entire site because it is often very difficult to ascertain who contributed  which waste in which amount to a disposal facility. Parties held responsible  may, however, file a lawsuit against others who disposed of waste to recover a  portion of the cost they paid for cleanup (called a “contribution” action. This  form of liability makes it easier for government to speed cleanup since they do  not have to sue all of the contributors which, on occasion can be in the  


???? The “superfund”—CERCLA was designed with a philosophy designed to  promote cleanup first and litigation later. As a result, Congress created a large  fund (the “superfund) based on a fee on chemical feedstocks that were typical  of the chemicals found at hazardous waste sites to allow the government to  quickly initiate cleanup work and then later seek reimbursement from parties  responsible for the site. This approach spurred rapid cleanup but the feedstock  tax was allowed to expire several years ago restricting EPA’s ability to do  cleanup work.

• Understand the limits of environmental regulation 

o Clean Air Act 

???? Difficulty of regulating emissions from older vehicles including cars and diesel  trucks 

???? Difficulty of addressing climate change 

o Clean Water Act 

???? Dealing with non-point source pollution 

???? Updating technology standards which are often outmoded 

???? Keeping up with permit renewals (every five years)

o Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) ???? Funding 

???? The cost of some cleanups 

• Understand other factors that drive behavior

o Regulation

o Societal Values

o Economic Incentives and Disincentives

o Internal Economic Considerations such as Reputation and Customer Desires • Quiz Questions 

o The primary regulatory mechanism used under the clean air act: national ambient air  quality standards based on health impacts  

o Most major US environmental laws were passed n the 1970s 

o What is NOT a reason for Regulatory Revolution of 1970s ✂ decreasing 

transboundary pollution 

???? Reasons for the Regulatory Revolution 

• Continued industrialization 

• Species extinctions observed  

• A growing sense that existing laws were inadequate 

• Dramatic environmental events such as the Cuyahoga River catching on  


o What is an example of market regulatory system ✂ a program that allows power plants  to buy or sell allowances to discharge sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere 

o Three principal behavioral drivers that motivate organizations to adopt more  sustainable practices: regulation, social values, economics 

o Environmental Successes in the US  

???? CERCLA – pushed for individuals to be more aware and careful of managing  their wastes and abiding to standards

???? Cap and trade system – successful and shows future promise for more  

environmental successes

o Environmental NON successes in the US

???? Still hard to regulate non point source solution

???? Companies still find ways to bypass laws and regulations (Volkswagen)  

???? Can’t regulate oceans  

Learning Objectives for Sustainability Solutions

• Define daylighting  

o Bringing water from streams that were previously put underground (by engineers for  development) to the surface; may be because of flooding problems; allows for more  space when it rains, and it looks nicer  

o Streams at small scale restores ecosystems as well as human amenities

• Be able to identify and explain the importance of recent storm water management design such  as the one for Four Mile Run, the Dell at UVA and the Cheonggyecheon River o Four Mile Run  

???? in Arlington and Alexandria

???? Before: constrained floodplain, urbanized area, river seen as gross, pollution,  little human access

???? After: made parks along the sides, added trees and human access points, created  a space for the river to flod

o Dell at UVA  

???? Used day lighting technique

???? There was a stream that was put underground and a parking lot was built on it  ???? But over the years there were lots of flooding problems so they took out the  parking lot and made a really pretty pond

o Cheonggyecheon River

???? Seoul, South Korea

???? There was a free way, lots of traffic

???? Around 5 miles of it was removed and parks and trees were planted alongside it ???? They made a pedestrian zone = environmentally friendly, economically friendly  (pedestrians are better for business), helps solve social justice issues

• Discuss how the Clean Water Act has improved water quality in the US o Industrial pollutants reduced; decreased point source pollution; more life and  biodiversity in water systems

• Discuss ways in which technology can empower people around issues of sustainability (for  example apps for water, air, etc.)

o Tap it app – shows where you can refill your water bottle

o American Lung Association website – lets you track your exposure to ozone and bad  stuff in the air  

o Walkability – rates places based on how “walkable” they are

• Discuss efforts to “return to the tap”

o Returning to the tap is economically and environmental friendly  

o Waterbottles suck and are wasteful – drain our pockets and hurt the environment o Tap water is cleaner than bottled water because the FDA regulates tap water and there  are little regulations on bottled water

• Explain at least FIVE ecosystems benefits of the Urban Tree Canopy = Urban tree canopy are  the trees along the streets / sidewalks / in the city

o Energy savings – reduce heating and cooling bills

o Human comfort – reduce urban heat island effect (when sun light is absorbed by  concrete and makes cities and urban places warmer)

o Air cleansing – filter air pollutants

o Water treatment savings – intercept rain water preventing runoff

o Carbon sequestration – trees are carbon sinks

o Habitat preservations – reduce fragmentation

• Discuss the role of non-profits in increasing the urban tree canopy

o The Advisory Neighborhood Committee had volunteers go around and count public  trees and provided maps showing where the most trees are; allows government to set  goals to increase tree density  

• Discuss the role that cities play in climate mitigation and adaptation; be able to give some  examples of both mitigation and adaptation efforts.

o Amsterdam

???? Mitigation: promotion of fuel cell usage to lower energy consumption; aims to  reduce CO2 by 50% by 2015; all municipal buildings must produce all the  energy they need; 75% people in Amsterdam own bicycles

???? Adaptation: making a map to highlight vulnerable areas in the city;  

restructuring buildings to deal with flooding

o Brooklyn  

???? Adaptation: made piers into park – absorbs flooding

• Define brownfield; explain why developers worry about redeveloping brownfields  o Brownfield –wanting to expand, redevelop, or reuse the property which may be  complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant,  or contaminant

o Developers worry about liability for public or health problems that may occur • Discuss brownfield redevelopment using case studies from lecture or class readings o EG: Seattle’s Gas Works Park – took a gas making plant and made it a park o EG: Baltimore Tide Point – was factories but now office buildings

o If one brownfield is built on, then more nearby will also be built on; (if one works,  other developers are less scared)

• Define Smart Growth and be able to discuss at least FOUR characteristics of Smart Growth  planning

o Smart Growth – building urban, suburban and rural communities with housing and  transportation choices near jobs, shops, schools; creates healthy communities with  strong local businesses and jobs that pay well and reinforces our economy; eg:  Arlington, VA; but may pose some social justice issues

???? Mixed used development, residential, retail, recreational

???? Large density of building around tansporation hubs

???? Urban villages where people work live play shop

???? Use of transit, walkways, bikes

???? Public art, parks, wide sidewalks, street trees, cafes  

• Use GW’s Harvest Home to discuss examples of sustainable landscape design that promotes  social justice  

o Team Capitol DC’s concept was HARVEST HOME, an innovative house of the future  that harvests natural resources to power the home while maintaining comfort for its  ideal resident, a wounded American veteran who has returned from the wars in Iraq  

and Afghanistan. After competing in the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon  2013, Team Capitol DC donated HARVEST HOME to its veteran client. Through  harvesting natural resources, comforting design features, and an innovative biomedical  atmosphere that contributes to rehabilitation of body and spirit, HARVEST HOME  will help heal its resident and the environment.

• Using the readings and short films and class lecture, explain the ways that Curitiba Brazil has  implemented urban sustainability while addressing three Es.  

o No money for subway system so made bus lanes (get places fast)

o Less than 5% total cost of subway

o Tube bus stop to decrease loading and unloading times

o Low income residents can exchange garbage for tokens to ride on the bus (cleans up  pollution)  

o Economy – cheap alternative to subway system; accessible by people  

o Equity – people can trade TRASH for tickets to ride the bus; solves social justice issue o Environment – carpooling, promotes recycling and not littering

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