Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide FDNS 2100
Popular in Human Nutrition and Food
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Summer Boone on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to FDNS 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Grossman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition and Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 12/08/15
O O O 90 90 90 O O O O 90 90 90 90 O O 90 90 FDNS 2100 Final Exam Study Guide Cumulative Exam over Exams 13 Classes of nutrients 6 carbohydrate protein fat Vitamins minerals water I Essential nutrients MUST be obtained by the diet 0 Most important essential nutrient is water A granola bar contains 15 g of digestible carbohydrate 3 g of fat 4 g of protein and 2 g of fiber What is the total energy content in the granola bar I Carbs have 4 calories per gram 15 x 4 60 I Fat has 9 calories per gram 3 X 9 27 I Protein has 4 calories per gram 4 x 4 16 I Fiber has 0 calories per gram I 60 27 16 103 kcal energy content Minerals are inorganic elements typically structural components consumed in varying some large some small quantities all of the above are characteristics of minerals I Are not vulnerable or susceptible to destruction Characteristics of Vitamins I organic compounds I consumed in small quantities I assist in body processes I vulnerable susceptible to destruction Bomb Calorimeter used to measure amount of calories in food Bioelectrical impedance measures body composition Examples of dietary assessment I 24hr recall I food diary I food frequency questionnaire MyPlate Guidelines I make half your plate fruits and vegetables I make at least half your grains Whole I switch to fatfree or lowfat 1 milk I drink water instead of sugary drinks Exchange System food is categorized according to calorie carbohydrate and fat content A healthy diet has variety and balance Only registered dieticians are qualified nutrition experts USDA recommendations AMDR for caloric intake from I Carbohydrate 4565 I Fat lt2035 I Protein 1035 An RDA is the nutrient intake goals set for all healthy individuals and cover 97 of the population Some diseases prevent people from being covered by the DRI I Example someone With cystic fibrosis because they need different things to stay healthy O O O 90 90 90 O O 90 90 A Tolerable Upper Limit table is available at the front of our textbook and shows the maximum amount of a vitamin that you should be getting a max not a goal Calories per day I Females 2000 I Males 3000 Fiber per day 25 grams Dietary Reference Intakes DRI amounts of nutrients to prevent chronic disease and deficiencies Required on a food label I total fat I cholesterol I total carbohydrate I fiber I Calcium iron vitamin A vitamin C o ingredientes listed in decreasing order by weight 0 Percent Daily values are appropriate for moderately active men I 20 Percent Daily Value of a vitamin or mineral high or excellent source To consume more phytochemicals eat more fruit increase vegetable portions use herbs and spices Pathway of food traveling through GI system I mouth 9 esophagus 9 stomach 9 small intestine 9 large intestine The end products of digestion for I Carbohydrates monosaccharides I Fats fatty acids amp glycerol I Protein amino acids Small intestine I surface covered With villi tiny hairlike molecules Which increase its surface area to the size of a tennis court 0 Villi prevents bad bacteria in our GI tract from entering the bloodstream I 3 parts duodenum jejunum ileum o Ilium absorbs bile salts Intrinsic factor and vitamin B 12 When watersoluble nutrients are transported from intestinal cells to the vascular blood system the liver is first to receive them The major metabolic organ of the body is the liver Absorbed in the GI system by simple diffusion I Water I Small lipids Sphincters I GI system I act as gates to regulate ow Large intestine I colon I absorbs water minerals vitamin K Gall bladder I store and secrete bile How to treat heartburn GERD O O O 90 90 90 O 90 O O O 90 90 90 O O O 90 90 90 O O O O O 90 90 90 90 90 I elevate the your head with pillows while sleeping Alcohol myth wine and beer are mild they do not lead to addiction Maltose glucose glucose Complex carbohydrates glycogen amp fiber I Fiber can serve to decrease blood cholesterol andor also to improve increase Gastrointestinal transit Lactose intolerance limit intake of dairy I Aged cheese and yogurt is okay Main source of body s energy glucose Excess protein breakdown e g muscle generates ammonia NH3 which stresses the kidneys Body s response when you eat a high carbohydrate meal in order I Large carbohydrates are broken down into glucose I There is an increase in blood glucose I Insulin is released from the pancreas I Insulin decreases blood glucose by letting blood glucose into cells Good sources of carbohydrates fruit vegetables grains I Bad source meat People following a lowcarbohydrate diet do lose weight and may lose a little extra weight during the first few months as compared to people following a traditional weight loss diet but this difference extra weight loss disappears over time Dietary fat I protects internal organs from shock contributes to the taste and smell of foods the major material of cell membranes provides essential fatty acids Triglycerides three fatty acids and glycerol Saturated fatty acids are solid at room temperature and contain 0 double bonds Dietary fat provides the essential fatty acids inoeic and inoenic needed for proper growth and development Phospholipids Contain a phosphate and nitrogen Constituents of cell membranes Saturated fats bad fats bad to consume I Examples coconut oil palm oil Good sources of cholesterol meat eggs milk Bad source peanuts Total fat consumption should be 2530 of total kcalories Saturated fat consumption should be 10 or less of total kcalories Cholesterol intake should be less than 300 mg per day Trans fatty arise when polyunsaturated oils are hydrogenated To improve LDLHDL ratio Maintain a healthy body weight Consume soluble bers Exercise regularly Don39t consume animal fats O O O O O 90 90 90 90 O O 90 90 O O 90 90 O O 90 90 O O O 90 90 90 The Mediterranean diet contains olive oil Lowers cardiovascular risk by providing antioxidants and reducing blood clotting Plant sterols quotheart healthyquot because they decrease absorption of dietary cholesterol Good source of Omega3 fatty acids sh 9 of the 20 amino acids are essential and must be obtained in the diet Proteins Build enzymes and some hormones Build antibodies Acidbase balance Low source of protein fruits Negative nitrogen balance nitrogen output gt nitrogen input Typical in chronically ill people Positive nitrogen balance nitrogen input gt nitrogen output Protein RDA is 8 x body weight in kilograms Example adult who weighs 154 lbs 70 kg would have a protein RDA of 56 g 8 x 70 56 Animal proteins supply all essential amino acids while most proteins are low in one or more essential amino acids Nutrients of concern ie potentially limiting in a vegan diet vitamin B12 vitamin D iron zinc not calcium 2x your RDA of protein is safe to consume quotWhy some people are vegetariansquot health concerns moral objections to eating animals in adolescents as a cover up for an eating disorder Bene ts of a vegetarian diet it is low in cholesterol and saturated fat it contains quothealthy fatsquot it is high in ber Better for the environment to use plants as a source of dietary protein because you get more protein per acre of land from them Vitamin A vision and cell division good source forti ed milk Water soluble vitamins needed more frequently every 13 days than fat soluble vitamins not a high risk for toxicity De ciency in Vitamin B12 poor nerve function Excessive amounts reaching toxic levels of Vitamin B6 nerve damage Vitamin D found in foods of animal origin as well as in forti ed foods made in the body from sunlight exposure O O 90 90 O O O O 90 90 90 90 O O 90 90 I de ciency rickets in children or Osteomalacia in adults Thiamin I found in pork I de ciency results in Beriberi muscle weakness Ribo avin I Good sources milk and milk products I Deficiency results in cracks at the corners of the mouth Betacarotene I form of Vitamin A I good sources carrots amp sweet potatoes Folate I De ciency during pregnancy causes neural tube defects I Good source Leafy green vegetables Avoid supplements that have for better metabolism Vitamin E I functions as an antioxidant I good sources vegetable oils Vitamin A I Known to be teratogenic cause fetal malformation in high doses during pregnancy During the Civil War more soldiers died from vitamin C de ciency called scurvy than from gun shots Diet for patients with hypertension I Reduced sodium intake I Increased potassium and calcium intake I Increased magnesium and vitamin C intake Broccoli contains a phytochemical Sulforaphane which can inhibit certain cancers The number one cause of death in developed nations is cardiovascular disease A Body Mass Index BMI of 21 is considered normal healthy Fad diets andor weightloss scams I blames weight gain on a single nutrient such as carbohydrate or constituent such as gluten I eliminates an entire food group such as grains or milkmilk products I fails to plan for weight maintenance following weight loss Fat carried in the stomach area of your body central obesity or apple shaped is highly related to risk for chronic disease Energy Out I the amount of calories that you usebum each day I greatest amount of total energy expenditure for the average person basal metabolic rate 250 fewer calories a day to lose 1 pound in two weeks Normal eating I Being exible about eating I Varies in response to your emotions your schedule your hunger and your proximity to food Factors that contribute to another s eating disorders I making fun of another person s eating habits or food choices I complimenting someone when they lose weight or diet stress formulas or time release on their label I saying someone is healthy or well because she is thin Indicators that you respect your body I I can accept a compliment about my appearance I I wouldn t panic if I gained a few pounds I I rarely feel guilty or anxious after eating a high fat food Magnesium I Inhibits muscle contraction and blood clotting and can be found in dark green foods Zinc I Good source oysters Sodium I Main source in US adults processed foods Minerals work only when in balance I More isn t better balance is better Lack of calcium leads to osteoporosis Soft drinks provide a high concentration of phosphorous I Decreases the absorption of calcium Fluoride I Best source drinking water Iron I Heme and nonheme forms I Deficiency most common nutrient deficiency in the US and worldwide 0 Iron levels in children transitioning from infancy to childhood decline Iodine I Deficiency goiter a swelling in the neck area 0 During pregnancy mental retardation or cretinism Copper I Deficiency rare but present with excess amounts of zinc Phosphorous I second most abundant mineral in the body I part of bones and teeth DNA and RNA and cell membrane lipids Selenium I functions as an antioxidant and makes thyroid hormone active I Deficiency may increase risk of heart disease When you have low blood calcium I intestines absorb more calcium I bones release calcium I kidneys excrete less calcium As food processing increases potassium K decreases and sodium Na increases I Example fresh peaches gt canned peaches gt frozen peach cobbler Recommendations to decrease bone loss I Adequate Vitamin D I Adequate Calcium I Weight bearing exercise Potassium O O 90 90 O O 90 90 I Good source bananas and orange juice I Plays a role in uid and electrolyte balance nerve transmission and muscle contraction I Toxicity occurs when potassium salt a salt made from this nutrient is overused Chromium I Facilitates glucose uptake into cells I May help with diabetes I Good sources meats egg yolks and whole grains Chloride I Component of stomach acid I Good source table salt Sulfur I Always a part of other compounds I Forms bridges in proteins to stabilize them Toxicity of iron I Seen in individuals af icted by hemochromatosis I Most common genetic disorder in the US Electrolytes cause osmotic pressure I Pressure caused by movement of water within or between cells To prevent food borne illness I keep hot foods hot I keep cold foods cold I keep raw foods separate I keep your hands and kitchen clean The Food and Drug Administration FDA evaluates the safety of food and has taken the position that genetically engineered GE fruits vegetable and grains are safe unless they differ substantially from similar foods already in use Food should NOT stay in the Temperature Danger Zone for more than 2 hours Foods labeled with the USDA seal for organic foods CANNOT I Be irradiated treated with ionizing radiation I Be Genetically engineered I Be fertilized with sewage sludge I Be produced with synthetic chemicals such as pesticides Potential food borne illness found in I foods that are high in moisture I foods that are high in nutrients I foods that are chopped or ground The Temperature Danger Zone for foods is 40 to 140 F To reduce your pesticide intake I Wash and peel fresh produce I Trim fat and remove skin from meat Most foodborne illnesses food poisoning are caused by errors committed in a commercial setting restaurants Foods with high risk for food borne illness I Dairy O 90 O O O 90 90 90 I Meat I Raw vegetablesfruits 39 Sushi 13 of all produce sales in stores I Lettuce potatoes bananas Impulse buys are often located by the cash registers in super markets Average supermarkets make about 12 cents profit after taxes for every dollar of food sold Top foods that cause food allergies I cow s milk I eggs I nuts peanuts I wheat Lowfatcow s milk should NOT be given to children before they are 2 years old I Only whole milk Recommended weight gain during pregnancy 2530 lbs Medical opinion regarding alcohol consumption during pregnancy I 0 drinks during the pregnancy abstinence When feeding children I the parent chooses what food to serve the child chooses how much of that food to eat Benefits of breastfeeding I provides ideal food for the infant I provides antibodies for the infant I provides nutrients that are very absorbable for the infant I decreases risk of uterine and breast cancer in the mother To treat obesity in children I Get the junk food out of the house I Allow the child to grow into hisher weight I DON T put the child on a low calorie diet Extra calories per day a lactating breastfeeding woman needs to consume 500 Attentiondeficithyperactivity disorder ADHD may be related to caffeine intake and chronic hunger in children Atrophic gastritis seen in the elderly can lead to decreased absorption of I vitamin B 12 I Calcium I iron
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