BIO II Notes 3/31
BIO II Notes 3/31 BIO 1144
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Friday April 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Pathway of Air +Most of pathway lined with: Mucus secreting ciliated (filters out particles) epithelium Warming +Some of pathway lined with: Cartilage rings +External Nares Fancy word for nostrils Nasal Cavity: cilia, warms and moistens inhaled air Internal Nares : back of mouth cavity where it connects with throat Pharynx of Mouth Cavity: where respiratory & digestive system cross paths +Opening to respiratory tube is called Glottis Epiglottis (flap) helps prevents items entering Glottis Larynx: voicebox Trachea: windpipe ,largest section of tube, goes down to chest cavity and splits into 2 Bronchi +2 Bronchi (Bronchus) Right Bronchus: wider, straighter shot to right lung Left Bronchus: smaller, goes around heart to reach left lung Split into smaller tubes Bronchioles +Bronchioles Inside lungs Contain Alveoli which are air pockets, site of gas exchange Inhaled Air: high in oxygen low in co2/ diffusion of gas Blood in caps: low in oxygen high in co2/ diffusion of gas Exhaled air: high in co2 low in oxygen +Exhaled air follows same pathway in reverse Alveoli→ Bronchioles→ Bronchi→ Trachea/Larynx→ Pharynx→ Internal Nares→ Nasal Cavity→ External Nares Diaphragm Involuntary smooth muscle organ Large muscular organ Separating thoracic +abdominal cavities Inhalation Diaphragm contracts and moves/pulls down expanding chest cavity Lungs are expanded, pulls air in Passive movements of air into lungs Exhalation Diaphragm relaxes and moves/pulls up Rib cage compresses lungs and “expel” air, passive air movement Urinary System Ch. 49 Waste disposal (ions, urinary wastes) Filtering of the blood Water is very important in all organisms Water movement through cells and body via osmosis +Osmoregulation: Regulation of salt and water bowls of bodily fluids/cells/tissues Change in ion concentration redistribution of water via osmosis Red blood cells placed in fresh waters swell +H + Secretion Maintain ph +Excretions of Nitrogenous wastes Gains of Water Human % Losses of water Drinking 48% 60% Urine Free water in food 40% 34% Evaporation (skin/lungs) Metabolic water 12% 6% Feces ❖ Nitrogenous Wastes: Vertebrates Ammonia: breakdown of proteins, easily release in water, toxic when stored, fish mostly released Urea: primary in amphibians and mammals, can be released with minimal amount of water Uric Acid: breakdown of nucleic acid, paste form, found in reptiles and birds Urinary System (conti.) +Kidneys Largest organ of urinary system In the vertebrates animals, come in pair In fishes, simple structures More complex in mammals, birds, reptiles, the more active the animal is the more advanced +Metanephric kidneys Most advanced kidneys Drained by a ureter, lots of nephrons, filter at much higher pressure +Ureter Tubes draining from the kidneys to the urinary bladder +Urinary Bladder Stores and expands +Urethra Tube releases waste from bladder to outside body +Nephron Functional Unit of kidneys In humans 18L of blood is being filtered and cleaned through kidneys/ Around 1 million units +Composed of: Renal Corpuscle (Glomerulus + bowman's capsule) Renal Tubule Renal Corpuscle Blood is being pushed through capillary beds the Glomerulus, filtering and forcing things out to the Glomerular Filtrate Bowman’s capsule recives the Glomerular filtrate Renal tubule is where the filtrate is recived from Bowmans and is transported 1. Proximal tubule 2. Lower Loop 3. Distal Tubule 4. Collecting duct 3 Stages +Filtration: Glomerulus/ Bowman’s capsule, cleaning process +Reabsorption: removing goodies out of the tubule to keep in the body, proximal tubule (60%) +Secretion: distal tubule, forcing waste ions into the tubule Goals: remove as much waste as possible, conserve water, and keep goodies
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