History 150C1 Final Exam Study Guide updated
History 150C1 Final Exam Study Guide updated History 150C1
Popular in Europe in the Modern World
Popular in History
This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by juan gomez on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to History 150C1 at University of Arizona taught by Minayo Nasiali in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 180 views. For similar materials see Europe in the Modern World in History at University of Arizona.
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History 150C1 Study Guide Key Terms for Final Exam The Industrial Revolution o Took place from the 18 to 19 centuries o Period during which agrarian and rural societies turned industrial and rural o Transition to a new form of manufacturing processes Conservatism o Emphasis on tradition and precedent o Stabilize the European hierarchical social order o Believed that a monarchy protected political stability and that the nobility were the rightful leaders of the nation o Leaders that believed that the old regime was the best form of government o Believed privileges were passed down through the ages o Social order was respectful of tradition o Idea that quality, liberty could be dangerous to maintaining the best order Liberalism o Stress importance of individual freedom o Main function of government was to protect individual property rights o Proponents of constitutional monarchies o Wanted to extend the right to vote to all property owners, especially the middle and upper middle classes o Opposed voting rights for working classes, the poor, and women o Everyone is equal, but some are more equal than others o Guaranteed liberty is the principle for government o Liberals believed that the best way to promote freedom was a constitutional monarchies o Extend the right to vote to all PROPERTY OWNERS, especially middle class. o Property owners were the rightful participants in government o Believed that property and education was prerequisites for involvement o Were opposed to giving power to women, stated that the proper place for women was the home o Only male property holders could participate in elections o The idea that liberalists believed about equality and unalienable rights, at the same time they worked to limit some of the people who got rights o Very people who are defining liberalism, they are extending privileges to themselves o Promote free trade, domestically and internationally o Economic Liberalism Economic liberalism was a theory promoting ideas about the free market Economic liberal thinkers supported government intervention to protect private property But they opposed government intervention to regulate wages and prices Opposed to systems of regulations Alex Smith proposed the theory of the free market David Ricardo, argued that government limitations in economical markets would slow down economic growth Republicanism o A radical 19 century theory – far to the left of liberalism – that opposed monarchial rules of any kind o Instead proposed that power and sovereignty was vested in the people of the state o Republicanism, like revolution, was a ‘dirty word’ to conservatives and liberals o Republicans supported a government run by the people o Wanted to give people a greater chance at voting The Social Question o Concentration of working class people in working slums and tenements o Effects of industrialization o Questions of sanitation as well as living conditions and working conditions o Liberals debated possible solutions o Emerging political group went to find a permanent solution Early Socialism o A nineteenth century system of thought which was largely critical of the social problems brought about by industrialization o Socialists were a diverse bunch of thinkers and espoused a number of ideas about how best to address the social question o Socialists subscribed to many enlightenment ideas o Robert Owen believed that the best way to deal with the Social Question was to move his workers to a utopian type model society o Set good working conditions for his workers as an example o Flora Tristan travelled around Europe and spoke with workers about the importance of unity o She said that the best way to answer the social question was equality o Flora Tristan and Louis Blanc supported the idea of the rights to vote o Many in Europe looked at the social thinker’s ideas and believed that they could be the answer to the problems ongoing The restoration o Restoration of monarchy in France o There is a conflict of new ideas and the old ideas o 1820s – Charles X actively gives more power to the church and supported the nobility o This group of liberals was incredibly popular o Revolution in July of 1830 o Included radicals, liberalists and a few socialists o LouisPhilippe supported establishing a constitutional monarchy o LouisPhilippe was known as the middle class king o LouisPhilippe reduced taxes, created infrastructure and subsidized industries o LouisPhilippe is popular with the high class but unpopular with the lower class French Revolution of 1830 o Revolt in France on July of 1830 o Attempt of ultraloyalists under Charles to return to the old regime o Provoked opposition of the middle classes, who wanted more voice in government Great Reform Bill of 1832 o Permitted 1 in 6 males to vote o Excluded women and laboring classes from voting o Restricted the right to vote to property owners o Extend participation to greater numbers in England o Incremental reform o Serious voices from the working class and women to be included o Small percentage of middle class that benefits from this The Chartists o The people’s charter o Want the elimination of the property requirement for voting or running for office o This would allow other kinds of people to run for office o Argued that members of parliament should be paid a salary o Argued for universal male suffrage from a property owner to just a working male o 20,000 workers marched to London in 1838 with a charter containing 6 million signatures o Large police force met the workers to keep order o British workers did not want to make a mass choice of confrontation o Their goal was to show support for their common interest o Only a few people out of the crowd presented the charter to Parliament o 1867 Reform Bill Doubled the franchise Granted suffrage to the “responsible” working classes Karl Marx o Published the Communist Manifesto in 1848 o Stated “working men of all countries unite” o Deeply critical of social conditions in Europe o Workers needed to regain control over the means of the industry o Path to ideal society was not reform, but revolution o Revolution would happen when the working classes would rise up and overthrow the middle and high classes o Believed that this alternative society was inevitable o Believed that the Old Regime system had given way to this new capitalist system o The ones in charge were now the working classes and liberals o Believed revolution was the only way for change, while others believed reform was the way to go o By 1848, every country in Europe had experienced some sort of revolution o Marx believed that his theory of revolution was coming true o When revolution breaks out some time after, he sees that what he believes is true o He then believes that his version of history might come true Nationalism o A nation in the 19 century sense of the word – refers to a large community of people who believe that they have a common homeland and share a similar culture o Believing and imagining a shared community o Belief that people who form this nation should have their own political institution and the interests of the nation should be promoted and protected at all costs o The imagined geographical boundaries of nations do not often correspond to the geographical boundaries of states o Nationalism is seen as the belief in certain myths about the nation o Nationalism as a shared or imagined sense of belonging o True nation extended all the way to the pacific ocean o 19 century nationalists indicated the antiquity of their nations o Claim involved fiction and imagination Haussmannization o Process of urban development o Design principles increased the function o Destroyed numerous traditions o Evicted the poor from the cities o Improvement to the street system in Paris o Modernization of Paris, improvement to cleanliness and revelation of beauty o Paris better regarded as a city The Frankfurt Assembly o Following the 1848 uprisings, representatives from all the German speaking lands meet to discuss various proposals for unification o Delegates mostly middleclass liberals o Draft a Declaration of the Basic Rights of the German People o They are attempting to unify Germany into one state o They recognized the freedom of religion, speech and gathering o Made everyone equal under the law o Universal male suffrage was seen as a dangerous experiment o The government would have an emperor as well as two houses of parliament o They also debated: Which regions are German Which states will be included What are the criteria for being “German enough” for inclusion o Once the Austrian emperor showed support, they decided to take only the German speaking part of Austria. o King of Prussia does not want to be king of this new bigger Germany o King of Prussia later on began to allow incremental changes in Prussia o When King William I came to the throne, he believed that the Parliament was getting a little too much power o Bismarck started to base his decisions on what he thought was best o Later on he decided to use all the power for his own purposes o His commitment was to take over Prussia o Achieved German unification through 3 wars War against Denmark, control of 2 Danish kingdoms AustroPrussian war, created the north German confederation Franco Prussian war, Bismarck invaded France in order to take Rhineland o French suffered in the winter of 1871, which resulted in another revolution o In France, unification of Germany was declared at Versailles o This is when Germany finally becomes unified Ethnic nationalism o Form of nationalism o The “nation” is defined in terms of ethnicity o Central theme of ethnic nationalists is that “nations are defined by a shared heritage o Usually includes a common language, common faith, and common ethnic ancestry British East India Company o Charter established that the company had a monopoly on all trade east. o They had free trade in the area around the Indian Ocean o In 1612, the company gained a foothold in India o The Mughal emperor let them make a trade post at the coast o A second post was set at the Southeastern coast of India as well o The Mughal were descendants of the Mongols but were Muslim o Over time, the power of the Mughal empire began to diminish o At the same time several Hindu kingdoms started to be established o They were backed up by the British East India Company o Over the next 200 years, the power of these empires started to decline while the power of the BEIC became that of a massive corporation o Only company that was allowed to trade within all of India o They monopolized trade in India and began to draw political treaties in the area. o The corporation also had its own army and began to take control over India o Local leaders became to lose power while the British East India Company continued to suck resources out of India Indian Rebellion of 1857 o Due to the fact the rifles of the regimens’ rifles had cartridges that were greased with animal products, they refused to shoot these rifles o This made the officials reprimand them o The soldiers started to mutiny o Peasants started to attack and burn state buildings run by the British East India Company o At the start of the rebellion, the English were outnumbered o Some troops stayed loyal to British East Indian Company but could not hold the enemies o Later on, British troops were brought in to quell the rebellion o The British crown later on came in and took control Imperialism o Word with a very long history o Widely started being used in the late 19 century o The process of extending one states’ control over another o Process of creating and maintaining unequal relationships of domination o Newly formed nations such as Italy and Germany, seek to be an empire out of Europe to gain power and prestige in India o India became the source for raw materials o One of the ironies was that imperial expansion was often promoted by liberals in Europe Direct rule o The colonizing nation annexed territories outright, installed their own government and subjugated peoples who lived there o One state takes over another territory and subjugates the people living there Indirect rule o Conquering European nations reached agreements with local leaders and governed through them o Ruling through local leaders o Negotiation with local leaders and ruling the people through them Informal imperialism o A less visible exercise of state power where stronger states allowed weaker states to maintain their independence while reducing their sovereignty o Carving out one of European privilege such as treaty ports in China o Stronger states allow weaker states to continue their rule o At the same time they reduce sovereignty o The stronger state exerts influence on that state The Berlin Conference o 18841885 o Also known as the Congo Conference o Regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period o Coincided with Germany’s sudden emergence as an imperial power The Scramble for Africa o Initiated during the Berlin Conference o Caused many fights for Africa o Began in 1880s and lasted till about the first world war o As the powers began to invade Africa, they were met with resistance o Invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism o 18811914 o Period of rapid colonization of the Africa continent by European powers Battle of Omdurman o Began in September 2 1888 o British troops mixed with troops of Egypt fought against Abdullah’s army of Sudanese troops o The Sudanese troops were outgunned by the British o The British also had support from gunships in the river o Winston Churchill criticized how the British leader gruesomely massacred the Sudanese troops that were trying to surrender o A few kingdoms did remain independent, such as utopia The Civilizing Mission o The moment when France becomes a democracy, is also the moment that France also begins the most expansive campaign begins o They do so by saying that France has the duty of spreading the idea of democracy to other places The Boxer Rebellion o 1900 o The Boxers were a secret society of young men trained in Chinese martial arts o They believed to have spiritual powers o They were antiforeign and antimissionary o They were widespread in northern China which marched into Beijing laying siege to foreign peoples o The rebellion mobilized a global response o It combined the forces of Britain, France, the United States, Germany, Italy, Japan, and Russia in order to repress the rebellion o They then demanded indemnities and new trading concessions The Belgium Congo o 1870s o A new drive into the “untouched” Congo valley was made and this allowed for the International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of the Congo in 1876 for commercial exploitation, especially for palm oil and natural rubber o After the conference in Berlin, diplomats agreed that the Congo Valley would be a state of free trade and commerce o One of free labor that suppressed the older slave trade o This, ironically, led to harsh labor conditions for Africans in diamond mines and plantations leading to hundreds of thousands of deaths o Eventually the scandal in the Congo became publicized o In 1908, Belgium took direct control, turning it into a colony The Boer War o Dutch frames known as the Afrikaners/Boers had settles in South Africa o They set up two republics by 1830 o Gold reserves and diamond mines were found among these republics o Their British neighbors sought to gain control of them o War breaks out in 1899, with an unexpected resistance from the Boers, who tended to fight with guerilla tactics o The British became more brutal, and ended up setting up concentration camps, in which they placed 20,000 Boers o Many African natives also suffered during this war o In the end, the Boers ceded control of their republics to the British Union of South Africa o Both British and Dutch retained their high standards of living, while relying on cheap African labor in a system of racial segregation, known as the apartheid Second industrial revolution o Also known as the Technological Revolution o Phase of the larger Industrial Revolution o Corresponds to the latter half of the 19 century until WWI o Considered to have begun in the 1860s o Culminated mass production and the production line Corporations o Company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity o Recognized as such in law o Emergence of holding companies and corporate mergers o Created larger corporations with dispersed shareholders o Countries began enacting antitrust laws to prevent anticompetitive practices o Corporation were granted more legal rights and protections Labor unions o Formed in order to help workers with workrelated difficulties o Such as low pay, unsafe or unsanitary working conditions, long hours, and other situations o Workers often had problems with their bosses as a result of membership in the unions Mass politics o Situation in which political decisions are are made by a symmetrical aggregation of the actions of a large numbers of individuals o The modern electoral system is an example of a mass political system Socialist parties Women’s suffrage movement o Right of women to vote and stand for electoral office o Limited voting rights were gained by women o Late 19 century o Movement in which women protested in order to gain the right to vote Anarchism o Social movement that seeks liberation from oppressive systems of control o Including to the state, capitalism, racism, sexism, speciesism, and religion Charles Darwin o 18091882 o English naturalist and geologist o Best known for his contributions to the evolutionary theory o Established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors o Alongside Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that his branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process called natural selection o Which is the struggle for existence, having a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding Social Darwinism o Modern name given to various theories of society that emerged in the UK, North America, and Western Europe o 1870s o Claims to apply the biological concepts of natural selection and survival of the fittest to sociology and politics World War I o 19141918 o European war in which an alliance including Great Britain, France, Russian, Italy and the United States, defeated the alliance of Germany, AustriaHungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria o Caused by the assassination of the archduke Franz Ferdinand Spirit of 1914 o Refers to alleged jubilation in Germany at the outbreak of WWI Trench Warfare o Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire o Horrible living conditions o Great slaughter, no gains o Ended mostly in a stalemate, used mainly in WWI The Battle of Somme o July 1,196 to November 18, 1916 o Known as the Somme Offensive o First battle of WWI o Fought by the armies of the British and French empires against the German Empire o Happened near the Somme river in France o Known as one of the bloodiest military battles in history Total Mobilization o Act of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war o Described the preparation of the Russian army in the 19 century o To assemble or marshal into readiness for active service The Versailles Treaty o Germany forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles, which angered the Germans o Created the League of Nations o Forced Germany to assume guilt for the war and pay reparation costs o Reconstruction for Germany became difficult, they did not have enough resources to reconstruct o The war was seen as the war to end all wars supposedly o Treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of WWI o In which exorbitant reparation money was demanded from the Germans o Peace treaty that ended WWI o Ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers o Signed on June 28 1919 o Treaty failed to keep peace in the end The February Revolution o Group of Russian women workers protest over lack of food o Kind of strike or demonstration happened in St. Petersburg o On February 27 , troops were ordered to disperse the protestors o Troops mutinied and ended up joining the protestors instead o Provisional government was set in place which was dominated by the aristocracy o They enacted an eight hour work day Soviet o Disillusioned people getting together in order to reach a solution o Wanted everyone to have the right to say o Soviet is Russian word for council o The Versailles Treaty The Generation of 1914 o Youth cut in two by experience of war o Many young men did not even survive World War I o In some villages, none of the men who went to war had survived. o Seemed an entire generation had been wiped clean o Of the people who did come, they did had returned injured o After the war, the death toll was so high that it did not even seem that the generation even existed. The communist parties o Looked up to the Bolsheviks o Believed that the best way to ensure workers’ rights was through revolution o Many exsoldiers, disillusioned with these older traditions, joined the communist parties in large numbers. Les jeunesses patriotes o They were: Pro military Pro catholic Antirepublican AntiSemitic The Weimar Republic o New German republic after WWI o The Freikorps Anticommunism Against the Weimar Republic o Moment in which Germany engaged in social reforms o Number of socialists and progressives were elected into government o They believed it was time for them to put many of their beliefs into Germany o Moment in which the socialists say that this is their chance to engage in social reform o Work week became 48 hours and health insurance was extended to family who did not work o Health care was also extended to people who did not work all the time Adolph Hitler o 18891945 o Born in Austria, but was a German nationalist o Came to age in Vienna, and decided to become a painter o Believed that it was irrelevant that he was born in Austria, but was still considered a German o He was happy to fight in a German uniform during WWI instead of an Austrian uniform o He ended up leaving the war, after being blinded by gas o He then came to Munich in which he found many unemployed veterans, who he brought together in order to form a group o Jailed in the 1920s o Wrote Mein Kampf in 1925 o Successfully became chancellor in 1933 o Within 6 months, Hitler had established a dictatorship in Germany National Socialist German Workers’ Party o “NAZI” party o Began as an ultranationalist group o Hitler rose as leader of the part o The National Socialistic party believed that there was a third way beyond the liberalist and communist paths o They believed the people grounded firmly within the nation o National socialism ended up losing all meaning o Hitler was put in prison, and in 1925 published Mein Kampf o Nazi party began to work within the system to gain power o To gain more recognition, the Nazi party created universities, labor unions, and crated many other organizations o The greater depression let the Nazi party gain even more power o There was never enough socialists in order to get a majority during elections o By popular vote, Hitler ended up becoming chancellor in 1933 o The German people believed that Hitler’s party was a safer choice than the communist party, therefore they were chosen o Within 6 months, Hitler had established a dictatorship in Germany o All nonNazi organizations were either abolished or forced to become part of the new regime o Many Germans ended up seeing Hitler as a symbol of a strong Germany, for example he created many jobs o Hitler also invested heavily into public works o The unemployment rate in Germany dropped from 42% down to 14%, after a while it even went under 1% o Mass military parades and rallies were used in order to show national strength Nazi Racism o Believed all history was the history of racial struggle o Believed the Jewish had a biological trait o Believed that the Jewish were the enemies o Being Jewish was biological, and within your genes o Dominant thinking drew on the ideas of social Darwinism o “unfit people” were begun to get rid of o Certain groups of people were seen as impure o And was believed that they could not be mixed with the pure race o Hitler built upon the idea that race could be a biological aspect of someone The Soviet Union o A communist nation o Consisting of Russia and 14 other states o Existed from 1922 to 1991 o Soviet union formed in 1922 o Bolsheviks had not thought about what a communist state would function or how it would work o Majority of Russians were peasants o Early Bolshevik Leaders Vladimir Lenin Can’t just go from agricultural society to communist state Have to industrialize first Lenin dies 1924, causes infighting within the Party Nikolai Bukharin Leon Trotsky Hero of Bolshevik civil war Revolution from Above o If the masses can’t make revolution for themselves, we have to make it for them Joseph Stalin o Stood in the shadow of the Trotsky o He had been party secretary, therefore he was able to decide who became part of the party and who got what role within the party o Throughout the 1920s, he built a base of support within the party o Transformed the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state o Took power after Lenin’s death o Collectivization Under control of the state Private village farms run by communist managers Centralized state Would raise the capital needed for industrialization Trained peasants to be modern state employees Peasants forced off their lands and to labor in large farms 1.5 million peasants were stripped of their properties and relocated Many rebelled and were killed, those who were captured were sent to camps Famine spread across the southern region of the Soviet Union About 57 million people died as a result of famine and collectivization Kulaks ( farmers) must give up their property If they refuse there is mass deportation o Industrialization City dwellers embarked on this second step of revolution from above Soviet union must industrialize Series of five year plans Came after enormous human costs Most projects were carried out with prison labor Forced labor based on kulaks Moment of extreme poverty Denouncing became a common practice o Built on the idea that revolution should be modelled by the beliefs of the Bolsheviks o Russian Orthodox persecuted and religion is brought under state control o Responsible for over 20 million deaths o The Great Purge executed Communist Party leaders on false charges of treason o Organized violence against his people The FiveYear Plan o Comprehensive economic plan o Development in five year increments o Designed to industrialize the USSR in the shortest possible time o As well as at the same time expedite the collectivization of farms Benito Mussolini o Son of a socialist blacksmith and school teacher o Became a journalist for socialist newspapers o Was the editor for the Avanti, which was a leading socialist newspaper o In 1914, he broke with the socialist party in Italy and became an ardent nationalist o He started organizing groups called Fasci, consisting of young idealists and fanatical nationalists o After WWI, these groups formed the Fascist Movement o 1922 Mussolini occupied the capital, alongside50,000 of his men o After being reluctantly invited to form a cabinet for his government by the king he began to establish a oneparty dictatorship o State, nationhood, and the military were the three central components to Fascism o Italian politician, journalist and leader of the National Fascist party o Ruled the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943 The Great Depression o Starting with the collapse of the US stock market in 1929, it became a period of worldwide economic stagnation and depression o Heavy borrowing by European nations from USA during WWI contributed to the instability in European economies o There were also sharp declines in incomes and productions as buying and selling slowed down o There was also widespread unemployment, countries even raised tariffs in order to protect their industries o United states ended up stopping the investment in Europe o Lead to loss of confidence that economies were selfadjusting The Spanish Civil War o Spanish republic against the Fascists o When Hitler and Mussolini are helping Franco o Hitler tries Blitzkrieg o Russians support the Spanish Republic, which leads to confusion in thinking that the Spanish are communist Nuremberg Laws, 1935 o Set of laws that stripped Jews of their German citizenship o Jews are made extralegal, meaning not protected by the law o They were legally made into outsiders o Jews were literally rendered stateless o Crystal Nacht –meaning the night of broken glass Jewish homes, shops and synagogues were ransacked by the Gestapo o Most German Jews leave the country o When they try to flee from Germany: Some were able to successfully leave Germany Yet many were unable to get out of the country Many countries were also reluctant to open their doors for Jews to come Lebrensraum o Living space o Additional territory considered by a nation, to be necessary for national survival or the expansion of trade o Any additional space needed in order to act, function, etc. Appeasement o Turning a blind eye to the rearmament of Germany o Turning a blind eye at the ignorance shown by Hitler to the Versailles Treaty o Given permission to occupy The Sudetenland (speaking portion of Czechoslovakia o Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and most others wanted to do anything in order to avoid another war. o Many Germans believed that the terms of the Versailles Treaty were unjust o Still others believed that Fascism was better than communism o Practice of giving in to aggression in order to avoid war The Battle of Britain o August 1940June 1941 o The Blitz (London) o Raids initially targeted factories and military places, but after a counter attack by the British, Hitler ordered bombings on cities with civilians o London was bombed for 57 consecutive nights by the Luftwaffe o Targeting of civilians during their everyday lives o Most London citizens stayed in London and helped as they could o Worked in factories and building bomb shelters o “Keep Calm and Carry On” o Did not succeed in wiping the British military infrastructure o In fact, the military infrastructure increased faster than the German’s military o Hitler decides to postpone the invasion of Britain in 1941 and turns to the east, particularly the Soviet Union o Hitler using the famous blitzkrieg Operation Barbarossa o Invasion of the Soviet Union o Germany sweeps through Baltic states and goes into Russia o 2 major goals Destruction of communism Racial purification o Viewed Russians to be racially impure, basically subhuman o Hitler did not view Russians as collaborators or source of long term labor o Hitler believed that most slobs should be removed from the land in order to make the land useful o Massacred entire villages o Cleaned of undesired elements Collaboration and Resistance o German occupation raised questions about resistance and cooperation o Denmark –population was united and engaged in acts of resistance against the Nazi o Danish fishermen hid their Jewish neighbors in their boats o Collaboration – letting German soldiers stay in a hotel or serving them in a café RassenKampf o Racial struggle o Was in the Darwinian sociology of the 19 century o Used to the conflicts between social groups in history as social processes to explain The Warsaw Ghetto o Largest of all Jewish ghettos in Nazioccupied Europe during World War II o Established in the Polish capital o It contained over 400,000 Jews o Death toll from this was estimated to be at least 300,000 The Final Solution o The Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler (Holocaust) o Global plan during World War II to systematically exterminate the Jewish population in Nazi occupied Europe through genocide The Holocaust o Genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler’s regime and its collaborators o From around 1941 to 1945, Jews were systematically murdered in a genocide The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising o 1943 o Act of Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto o Located in Germanoccupied Poland during World War II o Opposed Nazi Germany’s final effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to the Treblinka Extermination Camp o Uprising started on April 19, 1943, and ended in May 16, 1943 o The German SS burnt down the Ghetto, block by Block o Killing 13,000 Jews died o Largest single revolt by Jews during World War II The Cold War o Conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union o The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield o Many deadly threats went on for years o Political and economic struggle between the capitalists o Democratic western powers and the communist block after WWII o Marked by massive military build ups, intensive economic competition and diplomatic relations North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) o An alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country o United States, England, France, Canada, and Western European countries o Intended to protect the West from communism o Warsaw pact was also created in response to NATO mutual defensive military alliance The economic miracle o Informal economic term o Commonly used to refer to a period of dramatic economic development o Entirely unexpected or unexpectedly strong o Japanese post war economic miracle The welfare state o Concept of government o State plays a key role in the protection o As well as the promotion of the economic and social wellbeing of its citizens o Roosevelt focused on creating jobs for the masses of unemployed workers o Roosevelt also backed the idea of federal aid for poor children and other dependent persons o By 1935, a national welfare system had been established for the first time in American history The teenager Postcolonial migration o 1950s and 1960s Europe had a labor shortage o Governments recruiting migrants from North Africa to work jobs where there was shortages o Many migrants brought their families while looking for a better life and chance to settle o By the 1980s and 1990s, the European countries started to impose strict quotas on migrants o Under the Schengen treaty, established in 1985, getting a visa became more difficult o Many younger people decided to look for different ways of entering Europe o Many people started to risk their lives and died after this The Warsaw pact o The treaty of friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance o Sometimes also known as WarPac o Collective defense treaty among eight communist states of central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War o Included the Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria o They were led by the USSR o Established in 1955 o Albania was expelled in 1962 o In 1990, Germany left the pact and reunited with west Germany, who was part of NATO o When Poland and Czechoslovakia obtained noncommunist governments in 1990 and 1991, the end of the power of the Warsaw pact was established o In March 1991, the pact was dissolved, and in July 1991 the last meeting took place. The nuclear arms race o Competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare o Conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union, alongside their respective allies o During this period of time, other countries developed their own nuclear weapons o Yet no other produced warheads at the same scale as the superpowers o Began in August 1945, after the atomic bombs were dropped in Japan o In 1952, America tested the first Hydrogen bomb (thermonuclear), beating the Russian’s “Super Bomb” o The soviets had the Soviet atomic bomb project o America had the Manhattan project
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