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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Shelby Marie

Exam 2 Study Guide

Marketplace > Purdue University > > Exam 2 Study Guide
Shelby Marie
GPA 3.78

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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shelby Marie on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to at Purdue University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.


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Date Created: 12/08/15
CPR  420,000 Americans have a heart attack every year o 90% of people won't survive heart attacks without CPR  Hands only CPR  Females are more likely to drop than males  Heart attack numbers will go up  AED = automated external defibrillator (electric shock to jumpstart the heart)  February is heart month  Every 34 seconds a person in the US has a heart attack or cardiac arrest  Effective CPR with AEDs can result in 80% success rate in reviving patient  CPR involves chest compressions at least 5cm or 2in deep and at a rate of 100 compressions per minute  CPR is to be done on a hard surface  Use the tempo to "Staying Alive" Vaccines  Lady exposed to cowpox from udders of cows who gave first vaccination to child by scraping her hand and putting the dead cells into open wound on boy o Jenner administered it  Iron lung from polio o Negative pressure to help the person breathe because the lungs become paralyzed o Relieving atmospheric pressure o Similar to scuba diving  Childhood immunization schedule o Can't get all vaccines at once due to underdeveloped immune system o Must be involved in the schedule and commit to it since it is so complex  HPV vaccine o Over 40 strains o Cancer of uterus originally -- now they know that men can get cancer from HPV o Vaccine approved in 2006 o Vaccine initiates antibodies again some of the strains thought to induce cancers/growths o Males and females ages 9-26 are now covered by insurance for the vaccine  Controversy with vaccinations o Globally, child dies every 20 seconds from something that can be prevented by a vaccination  Perfect vaccine o No adverse side effects o Fully protective o Lifetime protection o All age groups o Blocks transmission o Easy, inexpensive and painless o Benefits understood  Vaccines that are injected into people are DEAD o Herd immunity is necessary o There are minimal risks with vaccines o Very few people are adversely affected Insects in Public Health  Yellow Fever o Vector: Aedes aegypti  Malaria o Anopheles mosquito  Why is US not a malaria area? o No pathogen  West Nile o Culex mosquito  Communicable disease model o Host o Agent o Environment o If any are missing, the disease won't happen  Chain of infection o Pathogen  reservoir  portal of exit  transmission  portal of entry  new host o Insect comes into play between exit and transmission  Know vectors Toxicology and Public Health  What is toxicology? o Study of adverse effects of chemical, physical, and biological agents on people, animals and the environment o Toxicologists are scientists trained to investigate, interpret, and communicate the nature of those effects  Important role in protection and health of the environment  Toxicology draws from many disciplines o Not just a single thing o Must understand several basic sciences o Not a "grouped" science  Toxicant = any man-made chemical that can produce harm (vinyl chloride)  Toxin = any naturally produced chemical that can produce harm (rattlesnake venom)  Paracelcus = father of toxicology; all things are poison; dose determines the poison o Chimney sweeps and scrotal cancer o Little boys did it since they can fit in chimneys o Soot would gather on their clothes -- they weren't able to shower o Caused scrotal cancer since it was toxic o Percival Pott  Hazard identification o Epidemiological data is the most convincing lines of evidence for human risk o Association -- NOT cause  Toxicology and Epidemiology o Rotenone and Parkinson's Disease o Association between rotenone exposure and increased risk of Parkinson's Disease  Increases risk by 2-3x o Rotenone found in pesticides  Dose-response assessment o Threshold approaches o Dose and effect aren't always linear -- sometimes curved linear o Sometimes people can be very sensitive or not sensitive at all to certain things  Key agencies that rely on toxicological data o Food and Drug Administration (FDA) o Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) o Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) o Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)  Toxicity is influenced by a variety of factors, but dose being one of the biggest factors Mental Health  Mental illness o Leading cause of disability in North America and Europe o 20% of American adults have diagnosable mental disorders during a given year (1 IN 5) o Only 38% receive treatment  The needs of people with mental illness are diverse  Mental health  Mental illness - all diagnosable mental disorders  Mental disorders - health conditions characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior associated with distress and/or impaired functioning  Stress - one's psychological and physiological response to stressors  General adaptation syndrome o Stage of alarm - exhibit a fight or flight response; prepares body for physical activity; decreases activity of immune system so it is suppressed o Stage of resistance/adaptation - body adapts to stressors that it is exposed to o Stage of exhaustion - stress continues for some time; body succumbs to various diseases, illnesses, etc.  Mental illness in the US o Nation's most pervasive health problems o More people die of suicide than car accidents o High rates of alcohol, tobacco and drug use  Deinstitutionalization o Discharging of thousands of patients from state mental hospitals o Propelled by economics, idealism, legal considerations and antipsychotic drugs o During the 1960s, JFK administration o Didn't work very well  Experiences of people with mental illness has improved significantly in the past 50 years o Challenges remain:  How to provide services to the homeless  Changing perception that mental illness is linked to extreme violence  Resolving problems of those with mental illness who are incarcerated  Homelessness o 2.1 million adults experience homelessness over the course of a year  80% temporarily homeless, 10% episodically homeless, 10% chronically homeless  About half of all homeless adults have substance use disorders, major depression, and other co-occurring mental illness  Mental illness and violence o Relatively rare in people with mental disorders  Violence risk is more attributable to people with comorbid factors  Mental health in jails and prisons o More than half of all inmates have mental health problems o Correctional facilities are designed to confine and punish -- not treat disease o More likely to commit crime if mental illness is left untreated while in jail  Prevention o Primary - o Secondary o Tertiary  Affordable Care Act 2010 o Medicaid coverage for people with mental disorders grew o Medicare - 65+ o Medicaid - low income Food and Nutrition  Harvey Washington Wiley -- Purdue's first chemistry professor and father of the FDA  Food regulations have evolved beginning in the late 1800's  The Jungle (meant to change labor laws initially and ended up changing the food industry because a worker was ground up in the machine and put into sausages) and Silent Spring (pesticides and their effect on birds)  Nutrition Labeling Act o 1994 o Affects nutrition labels and nutritional health claims  MyPlate o Half fruits and veggies o Low fat or skim milk o 1/4 grains -- 1/2 of the grains should be whole grains o 1/4 protein  National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey o NHANES o CDC program o Collects data to monitor diet and nutritional status of Americans o Provides information for developing food policy and dietary guidelines  Food Security o Definition - access by all people at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life o 14.3% food insecure households in US o 15.8% Indiana residents (1,008,441 people)  44% of children in East Central Indiana are food insecure  Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) o Provides nutritious foods, education and referrals to health care and nutrition education o Vouchers to purchase specific foods  Keeping Food Safe o FDA o CDC o EPA o Agricultural Research Service (ARS) o Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES) o Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Radiation Risk and Dose Limitation  When radiation was first used, it was immediately noted that it caused cancer (late 1800s)  Eban Byers o Got radium poisoning from consuming 1400 vials o Was prescribed Radithor because he was injured during a football game  Radium girls o Radium dial painters o Licked brushes frequently with tongues  Had radium on it and glowed in the dark o Experienced anemia and necrosis of the jaw  Non-Stochastic Effects o Not statistical graph o Based on threshold o Severity and dose  Stochastic effects o Linear and statistical graph o Probability and dose  KNOW THE RISK FORMULA  Contributions from various radiation sources in the US o 1. Radon and Thoron o 2. Computed tomography (CT scans) o 3. Nuclear medicine  Current occupational dose limits o Annual dose limit = 50 mSv per year (or 5 rem/year) o Recommended lifetime limit = Age x 10 mSv (or age x 1 rem)  ALARA o As low as reasonably achievable o Assumes non-threshold, linear dose response o Goal is to reduce doses whenever reasonably achievable Health Communication Alcohol  Know dose of standard drinks  Know difference between gender and dose  How does Purdue compare to rest of country -- we are okay Arithmetic-scale line graphs  Used when plotting something over a long period of time Semi-Log graph  Used when there is too large of a range for data that can't be plotted on an arithmetic-scale line graph Frequency polygon and histogram  Histogram has bars  FP has lines -- same space under line as would be in histogram Nominal  Category with no meaning in between  Ex. sex, race, yes/no Ordinal  Category but with same levels in between  Ex. age, low/medium/high Discrete  Values that are integers  Number of ill people exposed Continuous  Can have any value in between  Ex. time in between meals


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