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Final Exam Study Guide

by: Summer Boone

Final Exam Study Guide AFST 2100

Summer Boone
GPA 4.0
Introduction to Africana Studies

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Cumulative Final Exam study guide for AFST 2100
Introduction to Africana Studies
Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Summer Boone on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AFST 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Aderibigbe in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 150 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Africana Studies in African Studies at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 12/08/15
AFST Final Exam Study Guide 0 Map quiz link for countries httpwwwilike2earncomilike2learnafricahtml oz 5 geographical regions North East West Southern and Central v Small scale agriculture systems low resource agriculture Use of local resources no exchange of cash Major source of food production employment and income of rural Africa Minimal risk Depend on local knowledge Low cash costs low input High labor lots ofjobs for people Adapted to local culture and environment kt Environmental concerns Deforestation o Leads to a loss of productivity grazing agriculture climate o Not because the Sahara is growing it is not growing 0 Small drought big impact Wildlife conservation 9 Greatest concentration of wildlife in the world 9 Parks and people help Cleared forests and Savannas 0 Soil degradation and erosion Urban Areas 0 More people but no more room 0 Waterpower demands poverty pollution little to no sanitation Slums quot ying toiletsquot no sanitation oz Sports and Games Spear throwing widespread sport in Africa most popular with males Bull ghting amp horse riding promotes inner and intracommunity relations and local tourism Games with rhythmic movements amp singing popular with both sexes ceremonial andor conceremonial based new songs are re ections of cultural activities Wrestling one of the most widespread games in Africa popular with both sexes Fighting with stick games called quotMalsoquot popular with both sexes Sports and games are extremely important because they promote socialphysical growth in children and bring the communities together key value in Africa Proverbs passed down orally share life lessons bring older generations closer to newer generations 60 Most populated country in Africa Nigeria oz Least populated country in Africa Seychelles kt Music Instruments 0 O Idiophones produce sounds from their own bodies example drums Membranophones drums with parchment heads sounds come through the membranes stretched over an opening Chordophones stringed instruments Aerophones wind instruments oz Gender Issues Division of labor unequal distribution women work more than men Gender Discrimination women are considered property of men because of their dowry o Dowry has been shown to help make the marriage more serious and last longer however Status of women in Africa very low compared to men women are often beat by their husbands very common Myths o quotWomen have no voice no power are weak are oppressed are always in the kitchen are too dependent on menquot oz African Traditional Religion religion of the indigenous people no 1 founder made by the people passed down every generation traditional 5 pyramid structure of major beliefs 9 Supreme being 0 Divinities o Spirits o Ancestors 0 Magic and medicine Minor beliefs 9 Life after death 0 Morality o Reincarnation 0 Final judgement oz Major language classi cations NigerCongo at least 1500 languages largest group widest spread largest populated languages highly developed Afroasiatic 300500 languages NiloSaharan 190250 languages Khoisan 3550 languages famous for clicks Austronesian or MalayoPolynesian only 1 language Malagasy in Madagascar oz Reasons for so many languages Trade colonialism western education intercultural communication travel and migration oz Factors affecting a country s choice of a language Nationalism vs nationism Vertical integration Population Acceptability Language development 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 Rural life Dominated by low resource agriculture top of this page Mainly farms and villages 5 leading causes of death HIVAIDS 1 Lower respiratory tract infections Diarrheal disease Malaria Stroke Environmental obstacles to early development of African economies Aridity lack of wellwatered land Poor quality of soil Sleeping sickness inability to use livestock or other animals Diseased environment and malaria Lack of coal for fuel o Forced to use charcoal less hot leads to deforestation 5 major initiation rites Rite of Birth 9 initiating the infant into the world through a ritual and naming ceremony Rite of Adulthood o Performed during puberty stage Rite of Marriage 9 joining of two families and joining of the two missions of the new couple Rite of Eldership 0 Transition from an quotolderquot to an quotelderquot o Elders represent tradition and wisdom of the past Rite of Ancestorship o Passing over into the spirit world Mother continent cradle of humanity Was the center of Pangea Called the quotCradle of Humanityquot because of its features 0 Great Escarpments steep edges 9 Deep rift valleys that show evidence of drifting o Remapping of tectonic plates Geological hazards in Africa Volcanos 9 Many along the East African Rift o Create hazardous buildups if C02 in surrounding lakes also lava ows o Kilamanjaro and OI Doinya Lengai are the biggest The Nile is the largest river brings in a lot of tourism 39The Two Friends39 story quotTwo little boys became friends They never contradicted each other They lived like this sleeping in the same hut on the same mat They reached the age to be circumcised They had not still contradicted each other It was so They reached the age to take a woman They decided to go to Senegal They went to Senegal They stayed through several rainy seasons They returned with some fortune Upon this the rst proposed quotFriend let us marry a womanquot The second quotOne woman for each or one woman for both of usquot The rst quotOur friendship permits no contradiction Therefore let us marry one sole woman for both of usquot The second quotWell so be it Let us proceed according to your wordsquot They married one sole woman The second asked quotHow do we proceed now that the woman is here I suggest that she will sleep one night at the house of one of us and sleep the following night at the house of the otherquot The rst quotNo She will sleep in between us so that neither of us will think of waking up and running away with herquot The second quotI had not thought of thatquot The rst quotNo contradiction between usquot They agreed that she would sleep between the two friends The 39sunny season39 arrived quickly A grand initiation celebration was announced in a neighboring kingdom They decided to go there with the woman They took the path to the kingdom They walked they walked and they walked some more The sun was bitter and the thirst intense There was no water anywhere along the route The woman was exhausted by thirst She could not walk any further The rst man said to the second quotSo puncture one eye of yours and give its water to our wife so that she can quench her thirst The next time it will be I who puncture an eyequot quotAgreedquot said the second He punctured an eye The woman quenched her thirst They set off again They walked they walked and they walked some more The woman complained of her thirst The rst man quotFriend puncture your other eye and give its water to our wife so that she quenches her thirstquot The second man replied quotDidn39t you promise that you would puncture an eye this timequot The rst quotNo contradiction between usquot The second quotIt39s no problemquot The second man punctured his other eye The woman quenched her thirst Then the rst man fashioned a walking stick He gave it to the second man He said as a farewell to his friend quotUntil another assemblyquot1 quotLet39s goquot said he to the woman The second man now blind helped himself along with the stick advancing at random He eventually went off the road All the voyagers passed him All were going to the festival While he was groping around the stick struck against the baobab at the side of the road He examined the tree with the end of his stick He discovered an opening He went within He sat down He thought quotIs this then how the world goes To live with a friend throughout childhood Remaining in friendship throughout adolescence Approaching the threshold of marriage without any contradictions To be betrayed on the distant road in The Savannah Only the Great Taking Ancestor could comprehend thisquot There he stopped his thoughts When 39the earth was divided up39 when in the vase not even the tips of waves would stir all things went silent In those times the Noble Vulture was the friend of the Jinn The Jinn lived in the hollow of the baobab The Vulture traveled the world for subsistence He returned to relate to the Jinn in the baobab39s hollow the new things on the four hills of the earth When the earth was divided up came the Jinn He perched The fruits of the baobab knocked together The Jinn called quotKore Dugaquot The Vulture replied quotGoll quot TheJinn called quotKore Dugaquot The Vulture replied quotGoll quot TheJinn again quotKore Dugaquot The Vulture again quotGoll quot And the Jinn asked quotWhat is going on in the worldquot The Vulture replied quotThere are things above which the people below ignore There are things below which the people above ignorequot Now the earth is cooling off This is the moment for the colloquium of two achieved beings2 quotThese then are the new things of the worldquot started the Vulture quotThe initiation festival has begun in the King s city There is no water The crowd is going to die But there is a subterranean river crossing the city But nobody knows it If they had there a wise being this one would know that the river runs under the Kamari tree at the exit of the village It would suf ce to dig at the foot of the Kamari tree to uproot it The emerging river would ood half the city The royal festival would be at its height That is the rst event in the world Here is the second event Before dying the father of the present king had left an inheritance of a vase of gold and a vase of silver The present king has forgotten the place where they are hidden But the vase of gold and the vase of silver are deposited underground They are covered by an inverted piece of pottery in the washroom enclosure of the king The bath stone is set on top of it So the inheritance is covered with a pottery where the stone sits It would suf ce to remove the stone to lift out the pottery in order to exhume the vase of gold and the vase of silver Here is the third event of the world To the left when leaving the baobab grows the plant that cures leprosy To the right rises the plant that opens the eyesquot The man hidden in the hollow of the baobab heard this conversation He stuck his hand out to the tree on the right He picked the leaves of the plant that opens the eyes He rubbed them over his eyes He recovered his sight When morning had arrived he left the hollow of the baobab He removed his clothes He lled them with the leaves of the tree to the left He lled them with the leaves of the tree to the right Today has not created the world Witness 3 Yes Today has not created the world Today will not end it either I do not like to say lies The man took up the path to the royal city When he arrived the king and his court the assembled people the novices for whose initiation was to be celebrated all of them were dying of thirst The water had disappeared quotI have come for the festivalquot said the man The king replied quotI cannot even offer you the water of welcome because there is no more water in my entire kingdomquot The man said quotIt does not matter Can you nd me some tools for digging quotWithout a doubtquot the King replied The man added quotGather all the young people so that they follow mequot The strongest of the young people were gathered armed with digging tools The man conducted them to the foot of the Kamari tree The man said quotDig at the foot of the tree to uproot it But before the tree starts to wobble everybody should move northward They dug They dug The tree began to wobble They prepared to pull out the tree Those who were wise leapt to the left But those who were full of vanity those who sought after renown those remained on the south side The young men removed the trunk of the tree The water gushed The ood washed away those who were full of vanity There was a cry ofjoy quotThe royal water gushes The water is gushing The water is gushingquot The streams that presently water the earth come from that ood But the world has since been drained Can you see the earth spread out There is nothing more than the rocks that emerged when the world had drained The rocks came together forming solid ground Witness Yes Today has not created the world Today will not end it either Myself I am witness of that You have seen a grand thing After the water had gushed the man asked that they bring him two vases full of water He lled the vase on the left with leaves from the Tree of Vision He lled the vase on the right with leaves from the Tree that Heals Leprosy Then he had the blind and the lepers summoned He cured them The leprous members grew again The eyes of the blind opened After this event the king said to the man quotMy father has died leaving me a vase of gold and a vase of silver lam ignorant of their location I offer you one hundred of all things if you nd them for me No soothsayers have been able to nd themquot quotI see themquot said the man quotThey are in the enclosure Call the young men with the digging toolsquot They dug into the earth They discovered the pitcher upside down They removed it They discovered the vase of gold and the vase of silver Presenting them to the king the man said quotThere you are 0 king this is what I have to do for youquot quotAfter the festivalquot said the King quotI will liberate your wayquot He called his daughter quotThis is your spousequot The festival ended The king called his soninlaw He offered him one hundred of all things He offered him one hundred young captive girls He offered him one hundred young captive men quotMy city is your workquot added he You may go with your wife She is the effect of your beautiful workquot So the young man retraced his path accompanied by all these people They went their way Witness Yes The cursed man and the blessed man were not created in the same stroke You are truthful They encountered the rst man That one was returning from Senegal quotFriend is it really youquot the rst man exclaimed The second replied quotYes it is really Iquot The rst said again quotIs it really you who had two eyes puncturedquot The second quotYes it is really me I who had punctured my eyesquot The rst asked quotHow did this occurquot The second explained quotIt was in the hollow of the baobab that my eyes were openedquot The rst exclaimed quotReally take me to the placequot He punctured one of his eyes He punctured his other eye The second man took him to the hollow in the baobab As the earth was divided the Vulture went to his perch on the baobab TheJinn called quotKore Dugaquot The Vulture replied quotGoll quot The Jinn called again quotKore Dugaquot The Vulture quotGoll quot TheJinn quotKore Dugaquot The Vulture quotGoll quot The Jinn asked quotWhat new things are in the worldquot The Vulture replied quotMasterJinn some things have occurred The water has owed in the Royal City The King39s vase of gold and vase of silver have been recovered The Tree of Vision has been discovered The Tree that Heals Leprosy also All this has it not happenedquot The Jinn approved quotYou are truthfulquot The Vulture continued quotSomeone must have been here that nightquot The Jinn said quotWait I39ll checkquot The Jinn took his iron rod He explored the hollow of the baobab He struck the man He knocked him on the head He killed him If you betray your friend the betrayal will fall back upon you That was what I saw You have seen the vision Today has not created the world Today will not end it either If you betray your friend the betrayal will fall back upon youquot oz Savannah Homecoming Video 2 stories Alice s story o Alice is the mother of a son named Scott and she is also pregnant with another child Her and Scott currently live in an urban city in Africa however she wants her new child to be born in the rural village that she and Scott were born in Alice says that if you do not have a village of your own then you don39t belong to anywhere She loves the city but feels like her new child needs a background and a culture to call its own She travels a long way to her village with Scott and gets ready to birth her new child While there she catches up with her family and old friends and she begins missing the city very much She has her baby in the village and stays there until she is strong and healthy again But soon she is ready to go back to the city because she feels that that39s where she belongs lt was very emotional for her to come home but she knew that it was needed for her new child to have a heart set place in one village She thinks the cities are great but they are also a combo of many different cultures and can get confusing at times She doesn39t ever want her children to forget where they came from Flora39s story 9 Flora on the other hand lives in a super rural village very far away from any city She actually was born in the city and that s where her whole family is but she left with her husband to go live in a village to live a quotsimplerquot life After a while though Flora really begins to miss the city Her husband is always gone nding food and so Flora is left alone to care for their son most of the time Things get very stressful for her when she39s alone and she starts to miss her mom a lot In their village they don39t have running water a steady supply of food and they have to make anything they need by hand Flora plans a trip to go to the city to see her family for the rst time in 11 years they don39t even have communication or technology in her village Flora ventures into the city by herself and reunites with her family It39s very emotional but they are all very glad Flora starts to miss the city so much while she39s there and seriously starts considering bringing her son to the city so they can live there instead of the village But her love for her husband takes control and eventually her homecoming is over and she goes back to her village These 2 stories show how different rural life is from urban life in Africa and how many differences there are within the same country kt Hawa Video from my summary The couple is moving The woman is being mentally verbally and physically abused by her husband but she is most upset about the fact that she does not and cannot have a child Her husband has a sperm disease She gets extremely depressed over this because her one dream in life is becoming a mother One day she tries talking to her husband about this and he hits her for talking back about the issue This hurts her a lot so she starts to distance herself from her husband and realizes how unhappy she is with him In the midst of all of this she gets feelings for her dance instructor She starts to see him more than just a friend She thinks of him sexually and this puzzles her but also gives her some relief from her depression There is one scene from this video with her in the bathroom where she nds herself getting so much pleasure from thoughts that she creates in her head of the dance instructor This is the turning point where she starts to take action to nd her own happiness This is slightly uncommon with Africans because in most instances the woman only gets happiness if her husband is happy Things stir up so much that one day the husband actually catches his wife and the dance instructor together Disgusted by this he leaves his wife Although this seems like a terrible thing the wife is actually very relieved and nds peace in being without him She is no longer abused in any way and she can nally get what she wants out of life This is just one example of how much African women must go through to gain even some sort of gender equality 0 Monday39s Girls Video rite of passage for girls turning to women from my summary The girls who undergo this ceremonial transition are called lriabos and there were many of them going through the transition together in this video including a girl who had just returned from the city To start off the rite of passage the girls spend ve weeks in a room called the quotfattening roomquot Here they spend all this time sitting in a room being pampered and fed way more than usual The purpose of these ve weeks is the plump the girls up and turn them into voluptuous women It is said that after these ve weeks the girls will have the bodies of women and be ready for marriage After the ve weeks of fattening the actual ceremonies begin On the rst day the old ladies of the village paint the girls39 bodies with indigo seed shave their hair and sprinkle powder all over their bodies On this day the girls will show their breasts to Monday and the rest of the village to prove that they are not pregnant and are still virgins If the girls are not virgins they are disgraced by the whole village After all of the girls were approved of being virgins they receive a certi cate and are considered women Expensive clothing bought by the girls39 families are wrapped around their bodies for the last ceremony This is where men of the village can meet the new women and the search for husbands and wives begins In this Nigerian village everyone takes pride in this rite of passage ceremony The girls all look forward to the day that they are nally considered women and the entire village is very prideful of their girls


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