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Study Guide Test 3

by: Amanda Green

Study Guide Test 3 BPH 206

Amanda Green
GPA 4.0
Introduction To Public Health
Alexis Koskan

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About this Document

Notes from textbook chapters 6 & 7, in class slides, and article posted online about HIV prevention
Introduction To Public Health
Alexis Koskan
Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Green on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BPH 206 at University of Miami taught by Alexis Koskan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Introduction To Public Health in Public Health at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 12/08/15
Study Guide Exam 3 BPH 206 Fall 2015 Readings to prepare Textbook chapters 6 amp 7 article posted online about HIV prevention Non Communicable Diseases 0 What are they how defined and examples 0 Medical condition or disease that is noninfectious or nontransmissible Can refer to chronic diseases which last for periods of time and progress slowly 0 Cancer cardiovascular diseases chronic respiratory diseases diabetes 0 What are some of the causes of noncommunicable diseases 0 Unhealthy eating excess alcohol physical inactivity tobacco use high blood pressure raised blood glucose decreased veggie and fruit intake obesity raised cholesterol 0 Criteria for ideal screening program 1 Disease produces substantial death or disability 2 Early detection is possible and improves outcome 3 There is feasible testing strategy for screening 4 Screening is acceptable in terms of harms costs and patient acceptance Built Environment and Physical Activitv 0 What is meant by the term built environment 0 as the part of the physical environment that is constructed by human activity By one definition the built environment consists of the following elements land use patterns the distribution across space of activities and the buildings that house them the transportation system the physical infrastructure of roads sidewalk bike paths etc as well as the service this system provides and urban design the arrangement and appearance of the physical elements in a community 0 Micromacro level examples of the built environment 0 Micro I Small scale local neighborhood features that can improve pedestrian use of streets 0 Including street lighting signage public transport stops street furniture street trees and traffic calming measures pedestrian friendly streets with high connectivity traffic calming features landscaping lighting benches and water fountains access to full service grocery stores and fresh produce I Highquality local aesthetics may enhance the walkability of local neighborhoods and contribute to social capital and community cohesion 0 Macro l The state and local government policy initiatives and urban planning guidelines that in uence urban development and land use transport systems car usage and broader environmental and sustainability issues 0 Land mix use and transportation infrastructure 0 Facilitate bicycling for recreation and transportation by developing continuous bicycle networks and incorporating infrastructure life safe indoor and outdoor bicycle Study Guide Exam 3 BPH 206 Fall 2015 0 This is particularly evident with objective measures at the microlevel scale that is objectively operationalizing the built environment around an individual respondent s residence rather than at a larger scale eg Census tract city that may or may not be completely applicable to a given individual Whereas many studies purposefully include whole neighborhoods or communities that are most uniform within and in contrast to others objective measures at the microscale also allow for simultaneous evaluation and direct comparisons to perceptions of the built environment around one s residence 0 Sprawl and its effects on health 0 Sprawl has resulted in epidemics of obesity and isolation Their consequences chronic health conditions like diabetes heart disease osteoarthritis and some forms of cancer and loss of social fabric 0 The spread of low density urban or suburban development outward from an urban center I Affects the transportation pollution public health land use economics of an area I Sprawl has resulted in epidemics of obesity and isolation I Promotes physical inactivity people drive cars opposed to walking or biking physical inactivity increase obesity and high blood pressure I Their consequences chronic health conditions like diabetes heart disease osteoarthritis and some forms of cancer and loss of social fabric 0 In what way does the built environment in uence health 0 The built environment in uences a person s level of physical activity I Ex Inaccessible or nonexistent sidewalks and bicycle or walking paths contribute to sedentary habits O The built environment can either facilitate or discourage walking land use systems transportation systems and urban design coalesce to create pedestrian environment that impacts upon peoples decisions to walk 0 Can increase walking encouraging more walking for transport andor encouraging more walking for recreation 0 How can the built environment be enhanced to encourage physical activity 0 Public parks and recreational facilities for low cost I What is a Walk Score 0 Measures the walkability of any address form 0100 Re ection of how easy it is to get around without a car 0 Examples of local changes in the built environment to enhance PA 0 Develop and maintain mixed land use in city neighborhoods Improve access to transit and transit facilities Improve access to plazas parks open spaces and recreational facilities Improve access to fullservice grocery stores and fresh produce Design accessible pedestrianfriendly streets with high connectivity traffic calming features landscaping lighting benches and water fountains O Facilitate bicycling for recreation and transportation by developing continuous bicycle networks and incorporating infrastructure like safe indoor and outdoor bicycle parking 0 O O O Communicable Diseases 0 What are they How do they differ from noncommunicable diseases Study Guide Exam 3 BPH 206 Fall 2015 Presence and replication of an infectious pathogenic microorganisms agent in the tissues of a host with manifestation of signs and symptoms Contagion the communication of disease from one person to another by close contact For a disease to be communicable or contagious there must be a portal of exit from the infected person or animal a means of transmission and a portal of entry to susceptible host Human pathogen transmission infection caused by airborne transmission infection caused by contaminated water infection caused by contact and feces infection caused by pathogens in blood stream and tissues Infectious disease presence and replication of an infectious pathogenic microorganisms agent in the tissues of a host with manifestation of signs and symptoms 0 Carriers infected but no clinical manifestations 0 Active cases have clinical manifestations 0 Acute infection rapid onset short duration of illness 0 Chronic infection prolonged duration of illness Transmission the transfer of an infectious agent from one person or place to another or the movement of an infectious agent from a reservoir to another host Direct transmission occurs when a pathogen an agent that causes a disease esp a living microorganism such as a bacterium or fungus Is transmitted directly from an infected individual to you For example you could become infected with HBV Hap B virus if you had an open wound that came into contact with a patients HBV infected blood Indirect transmission occurs when an inanimate object serves as a temporary reservoir for the infectious agent For example you could become infected with HBV if you come into contact with equipment that has dried infectious blood on it 0 Definitions pandemic epidemic endemic etc Pandemic an epidemic occurring over a very wide areas several countries or continents and usually affecting a large proportion of the population Epidemic significant increase in the number of new cases of a disease then past experience would have predicted for that place time or population an increase in incidence beyond Endemic disease infection or infectious agent that is prevalent within a population or a geographic area Sporadic random unaware of the cause not predictable can be due to travel or airborne pathogens 0 Natural history of diseases 0 Which social and environmental contributing factors lead to faster spread of infectious disease Population growth lack of resources to support growth feeding more people requires changes in food production and distribution unsanitary conditions Livestock productionanimal trade unregulated cross border livestock trade unhealthy live stock rearing practices small scale vs industrialized poultry farming Urbanization shift from rural to urban area concentrated populations overcrowding close proximity poor sanitation poverty poor education Population movement cross border migration political and economic refuges poor access to health facilities unsanitary living conditions Study Guide Exam 3 BPH 206 Fall 2015 Disappearing international Boundaries borders not effective at stopping CDs rise in international traffic and commerce makes other global issues affect or are affected communicable diseases climate change migration change in biodiversity 0 What are some of the social implications or unintended outcomes of infectious diseases SOCIAL IMPACT Disruption of family and social networks 0 Childheaded households social exclusion stigma Widespread stigma and discrimination 0 HIVAIDS Leprosy Ebola Discrimination in employment schools migration policies Orphans and vulnerable children Loss of primary care givers 0 Susceptibility to exploitation and trafficking Interventions such as quarantine measures may aggravate the social disruption ECONOMIC IMPACT 0 At the macro level Reduction in revenue for the country e g tourism 0 Estimated cost of SARS epidemic to Asian countries 20 billion 2003 0 Drop in international travel to affected countries by 5070 0 Malaria causes an average loss of 13 annual GDP in countries with intense transmission 0 Poorer households are disproportionately affected Substantial loss in productivity and income for the infirmed and caregiver Catastrophic costs of treating illness HUMAN SECURITY 0 Potential magnitude and rapid spread of outbreakspandemics e g SARS outbreak No country or region can contain a full blown outbreak of Avian in uenza 0 Bioterrorism and intentional outbreaks Anthrax Small pox New and reemerging diseases Ebola TB MDRTB and XDRTB HPAI Rift valley fever HIV 0 Review reading in which you completed the homework assignment O O O 0 000000 0 Study Guide Exam 3 BPH 206 Fall 2015 Prevalence of HIV in adults aged 15 to 49 percentage of the population Presence of HIV in lower parts of Sub Sahara Africa increased rise in Russia The greatest impact men who have sex with men MSM among racialethnic minorities women and of cases attributed to heterosexual transmission and injection drug users Info from class discussion most at risk populations for HIV in 1980s and 1990s Myths and facts about HIV class discussion Myth 1 I can get HIV by being around people who are HIV positive Myth 2 I don t need to worry about becoming HIV positive new drugs will keep me well Myth 3 I can get HIV from mosquitos Myth 4 I m straight and don t use IV drugs I wont become HIV positive Myth 5 If I m receiving treatment I cant spread the HIV virus Myth 6 My partner and I are both HIV positive there is no reason for us to practice safer sex Myth 7 I could tell if my partner was HIV positive Myth 8 you cant get HIV from oral sex Preventing HIV traditional and biomedical forms of prevention 0 Ensuring HIV infected individuals are in HIV care 0 Traditional I ABC Abstain Be faithful Condomise substance abuse and mental health screening I Bio medical prevention intervention Male circumcision Antiretrovirals for prevention Chemoprophylactic treatment of herpes simplex virus 2 HSV2 Microbicides gels foams or creams that people can use in the vagina or rectum during sex to prevent HIV Vaccines currently there is no vaccine to prevent HIV This would be the best long term hope for ending HIV National HIVAIDS Strategy for the United States 0 Strategy vision I The US will become a place where new HIV infections are rare and whe they do occur every person regardless of age gender raceethnicity gender indentity or socio economic circumstance will have access to high quality life extending care free from stigma and discrimination I Strategy Goals Reduce new infections Increase access to care and improve health outcomes for people living with HIV Reduce HIV related health disparities and health inequities Achieve a more coordinated national response to the HIV epidemic Understanding viral load and CD4 T cell count 0 CD4 cells often called Tcells or THelper cells are a type of white blood that play a major in protecting your body from infection They send signal to activate your bodys immune response when they detect intruders like viruses or bacteria Once a person is infected with HIV the virus begins to attack and destroy the CD4 cells of the persons immune system HIV uses the machinery of the CD4 cells to multiply make copies of itself and spread throughout the body This process is called the HIV life cycle Study Guide Exam 3 BPH 206 Fall 2015 0 When the amount of HIV in your blood is lowered by ART it allows the CD4 cells to reproduce and increase in number The higher you rCD4 count the better able you are to fight HIV and other infections 0 Depending on your health status your HIV care provider may switch to every 6 to 12 months once treatment has increased your CD4 levels to higher levels and your viral load I ssurpressed If your CD4 count reaches normal levels and your viral load remains surpressd your HIV care provider may not check your CD4 count unless there there is a change in your health or viral load VaLines 0 Why are they important 0 Vaccines save tens of thousands of US children every year Vaccines wipe out deadly diseases Vaccines prevent chronic diseases including certain cancers Vaccines save billions of every year Vaccination prevents millions of cases of death and disease Getting vaccinated is better for a person and their community than treating an illness Vaccines will save even more lives in the future especially if we continue to invest in them OOOOOO around the world 0 0 What do they do 0 Inactivated dead and live vaccines attenuated live can often stimulate the body s own antibody production 0 Live vaccines utilize living organisms that also stimulate cell mediated immunity and produce long term protection that more closely resemble the body s own response to infection 0 What is herd immunity 0 No one immunized contagious disease spreads through population 0 Some of the population immunized contagious disease spreads though some of population 0 Most of population gets immunized spread of contagious disease is contained 0 The term quotherd immunityquot refers to a means of protecting a whole community from disease by immunizing a critical mass of its populace 0 Why have people opted NOT to vaccinate their children 0 Believe children get too many shots 0 Fear their children could have serious side effects 0 Have concerns about autism 0 How vaccine exemptions decided 0 All states provide medical exemptions and some state laws also offer exemptions for religious andor philosophical reasons State laws also establish mechanisms for enforcement of school vaccination requirements and exemptions 0 How did vaccines get a bad rap 0 1830s invasion of privacy and bodily integrity 0 1821 England Direct governemtn assault on communities by working class 0 1905 US Jacobs v Mass Need to protect public health through compulsory smallpox vaccination outweighed individuals right to privacy 0 1998 US Wakefield study Study Guide Exam 3 BPH 206 Fall 2015 I crohn s diseases caused by persisting measles Virus infections vaccine I linked new syndrome of autism and bowel disease to MMR vaccine


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