final exam study guide
final exam study guide 417
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Goodman on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 417 at Northern Illinois University taught by professor bishop in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see leading and managing change in Business, management at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 12/08/15
Exam Expectations for Final Exam – MGMT 417 Chapter 9 What is a vision and why is it important to have one for a desired change? • a guide for the organization in identifying the appropriateness of particular changes that are proposed • vision is linked to competitive advantage, enhancing organizational performance, and achieving sustained organizational growth. • Lack of vision leads to organizational decline and failure due to the inability to determine where change is needed What are the key characteristics of an effective vision (at minimum reference the four cited by Nutt and Backoff on page 254) – but may include more than that • Possibility: entail innovative possibilities for dramatic organizational improvements • Desirability: extent to which it draws upon shared org norms and values about the way things should be done • Actionability: ability of people to see in the vision actions that they can take that are relevant to them • Articulation: vision has imagery that is powerful enough to communicate clearly a picture of where the organization is headed o Content- what it is and says (257-258) o Context- where it is used and by whom(259-260) o Process- how it is developed and who has input into it(260-261) Nut and Backoff’s 3 processes for crafting a vision: 1. Leader-dominated- ceo provides strategic vision (similar to telling/selling) 2. Pump-priming- ceo provides visionary ideas and selects people or groups within the organization to further develop them within a set of parameters. (similar to testing/consulting) 3. Facilitation- ceo facilitates a wide range of people in a process of developing and articulating a vision (similar to co- creating) ACCORDING TO NUT AND BACKOFF, THIS IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE APPROACH Intuitive approach: (internal focus) imagination and imagery List and prioritize 10 things they want to achieve personally Focus on current reality to identify tension between reality and desired image Provided with support to id and achieve action plans Con: may produce personal visions contradicting core business of org or current/anticipated trends Analytical approach: (internal) visions are closely related to org purpose with a focus on who is served by org what org does where org places most of its efforts why focus is on these particular goals and work how org operationalizes these efforts con: neglects value, guiding logos, and the inspirational element Benchmarking approach: (external) focus on actions and standards utilized by the org’s toughest competitors Asking what comp do well Asking how they can surpass this Quantitative/Qualitative measures that would indicate timing Identifying what it will be like/feel like when this standard is achieve Con: transformational change can alter who competitors are. Rather, orgs should identify who new competitors may be and focus on inventing new categories rather than falling into established ones—increased comp adv What are the problems or mistakes that might be made regarding visioning for change? (see discussion on pages 265-268). Change visions may fail when the objective is: Too specific- it fails to appreciate the inability to control change and how there is always a degree of uncertainty associated with its outcomes Too vague- it fails to act as a landmark toward which various change actions are directed Inadequate- only partially addresses problem Too unrealistic- perceived unachievable for staff Visions may also fail if they are: Blurred- no clear picture of the future Rear view mirrors- pictures of the past, extrapolated into the future Too complex- too difficult to understand Irrelevant- clear picture, not strongly attached to the business Also fail when leaders spend 90 percent of their time articulating it to their employees and only 10 percent of their time actually implementing it ADAPTABILITY OF CHANGE OVER TIME: Whether the original vision of the founder results in a legacy or a hangover is clearly dependent on the original flexibility of the strategy and the later environmental appropriateness. PRESENCE OF COMPETING VISIONS: The collision of multiple and conflicting visions. This can happen where the vision is crafted by org stategists who are convinced about the need for change, but this need is not shared by change implementers or recipients who may still be completing earlier changes already introduced to the organization. This can also occur where there is a gap between managements strategic vision and stakeholders images and vision of the company. Different Philosophies or Techniques for Creating a vision (Table 9.7) VISION TECHNIQUE WHAT IT MEANS WHEN IT IS USED Telling Ceo creates the vision and When involvement is not gives it to the staff seen as important Selling Ceo has a vision that he or When ceo is attracted to she wishes to sell to staff the vision and wants others in the org to adopt it Testing Ceo seeks org feedback wants to see which parts on ideas he or she has of the vision should be about a vision supported Consulting Ceo seeks development of When ceo needs help in vision through creative developing the vision input of staff. Ground rules and parameters set, but discussion is cascaded through the organization Co-creating Creation of shared vision When ceo wants to by ceo and organization. identify shared, Process may involve compatible, hierarchical alignment of visions at visions throughout the org levels including personal, team, and group/departmental Chapter 10 It has been argued that the communication style utilized during a change initiative should correspond to five different stages of change. Explain. P. 307 Styles: Commanding-leaders are performance and results oriented and communication mainly entails directing people toward various tasks Logical- leaders employ strategic actions as a result of discovering the range of alternatives available to them through analysis and reasoning (process of explaining) Inspirational- leader develops a vision of the future and seeks to encourage the cohesiveness of org members around the vision. Communication entails the creation of trust, and getting people to mobilize around a particular change effort. Supportive- the leader is concerned with creating consensus and an open working environment; involvement is the main communication process. Stages: Planning- focus is on id of what needs to change and a combo of logical and inspirational leadership should be used Enabling- people are selected and trained for the change process, a combo of logical, inspirational, and supportive styles are needed Launching- change commences and entails a series of steps and goals that are best met by logical ad commanding styles Maintaining- people are encouraged to continue with a change effort even in the face of obstacles that confront them. Inspirational and supportive communication styles assist in this regard. What is meant by the Communication Strategy Continuum? What are the different strategies for communication outlined in this model and what are the likely outcomes of each? Spray and pray- showered with wide variety of info. Often cannot depict significant info and feel overloaded however are exposed to extensive info about org Tell and sell- info provided to staff is limited to core org issues. Potential for skepticism and cynicism; employees become passive recipients of change Underscore and explore-engages employees in dialogue about the process and seeks to id obstacles and misunderstandings Identify and reply- id and respond to employee rumors and innuendos as an attempt to help staff make sense of change. Reactive; assumes staff know the key strategic ad org issues that need to be addressed Withhold and uphold- info only released when absolutely necessary and a party line is used to address issues publicly. Info is not open and a bitter staff culture is likely to be the result What is meant by media richness and why is it important in the context of change management? Richness- extent to which the communication style entails interpersonal contact Important because it influences change behaviors and outcomes Non routine, difficult mgmt. problems are best dealt w using media-rich comm sources such as face to face meetings. Good for shaping behavior Routine issues should use “leaner” forms (more impersonal, static media such as emails and newsletters). Good for sharing info Chapter 11 What are the five different modes of listening described by Wolvin and Coakley (Table 11.2)? Type of listening Usage Discriminative Determining significance of auditory/visual messages Comprehensive Striving to understand for later use/recall Therapeutic Helping others Critical Evaluating message Appreciative Involving discriminative and comprehensive listening What is storytelling? Why is it important in the context of change management? People tell stories in conversations to keep the org from repeating historically bad choices and invite the repetition of past successes. What is meant by “selling change upward?” Why is it important and why is it sometimes difficult? New idea for change can be pushed upward through the org from staff and various modes of argument can be used to gain managerial attention in support of change ideas. Myths, assumptions, and beliefs may inhibit employees from trying to sell change upwards. ie: fear of lose of job What is a toxic handler and what role do they play? Toxic handlers skills extend to helping others deal with the org pain that can be associated with change. They take the heat and voluntarily shoulder the sadness, frustration, and anger present within organizations. “intermediaries” What is meant by talking in stages? What re the stages that are referred to in that expression. Give an example of each. Initiative conversation: bring attention to the need for change. An assertion, request, or declaration Conversations for understanding- opportunity for people to gain a greater appreciation of the change issues and problems that need to be addressed. Three elements: 1. Conditions of satisfaction needed for change to be deemed successful (less than 2 complaints per thousand units sold) 2. Enables participation 3. Confirms the interpretations and enables confirmation and sharing of meanings and understandings Conversations for performance: producing actual change required. Action stage where promises are made, obligations are entered into, accountabilities are established, and deadlines are set Conversations for closure: signal competition of the change. May involve acknowledgments, celebrations, and rewards. What are the different forms of imagery in communicating change and why is it important to be careful in the use of imagery? • The use of metaphors influences the images of change. These change images include: – Machine: this is based on the “fix and maintain” view – Developmental: this is based on the “build and develop” view – Transitional: this is based on the “move and relocate” view Transformational: this is based on the “liberate and re-create” view Chapter 12 What are some of the signs that change is (or is not) being sustained? A change has “stuck” means it has ceased from being recognized as change or separate from normal practice. It must become the new normality, accepted as ‘how we do things around here’. Identify/discuss “Actions to Sustain Change” (likely a subset – 4 or 5 of them). Whether or not a change is sustained has a lot to do with the cumulative effect of actions during the change process, not just actions implemented after the change is in place… • Redesigning roles: This is a common outcome of change and is a sign that the change is of considerable importance. • Redesign reward systems: reward systems form part of the culture and changing this is a way to directly influence the core values of the organisation. • Link selection decisions to change objectives: Selection criteria are symbols of whether new ideas and change are being encouraged. • Act consistently with advocated actions: This indicates the permanency of change through adopted practices and priorities. • Encourage “voluntary acts of initiative”: New practices that support the change should be encouraged as the norm at all levels of the organization. • Measure progress: Measures are used as a means to quantify the progress of change and to provide achievable goals. • Celebrate “en route”: It is encouraging for all involved in the change if short term wins are acknowledged and celebrated. This enhances the credibility of the program. • Fine-tune: The change program should be open to remodifications which will improve the change outcomes. Discuss some issues (cautions) that might be encountered in efforts to sustain change (p.p. 367-371). • Expect some unanticipated outcomes • Be alert to measurement limitations • Don’t “declare victory” too soon • Beware escalation of commitment • Recognize “productive failure” (gain knowledge from mistakes/outcomes)
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