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First Exam Review

by: Tayler Osborn

First Exam Review PSY

Marketplace > University of Iowa > PSY > First Exam Review
Tayler Osborn
GPA 3.2
Introduction to Cognitive Psychology
Thomas Farmer

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About this Document

The entire first section neatly typed into nice little sections for your studying pleasure (something like that, anyways). It got me an A on the test, so do yourself a favor and get studying!
Introduction to Cognitive Psychology
Thomas Farmer
Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tayler Osborn on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY at University of Iowa taught by Thomas Farmer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 12/08/15
Cognitive Psych Exam 1 Chapter 1 Cognition vs Cognitive Psych o Cognition quothow we getstoreusetransform knowledge 0 Co E to Gnosis D knowing The act or process of knowing 0 Cognitive Psychology The study of processes that allow us to examineinterpret internal and external world and decide how to act 0 Knowledge is always changing because experience changes what we know Speci c topics in Cognitive Psychology Perception Attention Memory Language Action 0 All of these aspects brain body environment consciousness RealWorld Application 0 Design of humanmachine interfaces 0 Humanlike automated phone calls that respond when you call a 1800HELP number Machines that act intellectually Improving how we learn Understandingremediating brain damage Cognitive de cits in psychopathology History of Psychology 0 lntrospection Wundt Looking within to record our own mental lives Practiced speci c vocabulary o No interpretation just reporting Problem Everyone has different experiences and opinions o Behaviorism James Watson Psychology must focus in objective observable reactions to stimuli in the environment Avoided the internal Operationalization of Psychology 0 Operational De nition 0 Precise de nition that speci es how a concept is to be measured 0 Le Didn39t measure attention as the quotmental act of focusingquot measured by organism responding to a stimulus when distractors are present 0 Complete explanation of all behavior in perms of conditionresponse ie language as a conditioned response to noises and reactions to those noises over time rather than internal processes Pavlov CIassicaIConditioning Behaviorist de nitions of learning 0 Change in behavior as a function of change in an environment Depends on association between stimulus and response 0 Some re exes are innate and can be conditioned to react to a separate stimulus 0 Le salivation in presence of food SkinnerWatson OperantlnstrumentalConditioning Relies on re exiveautomatic stimulusresponse pairs Tolman Challenged Behaviorism with Latent Learning Latent Learning 0 Learning not immediately expressed but occurring without obvious or immediate reinforcement Experiment 0 3 Groups of rats in maze based on maze completion o 61 D Immediate reward Given food upon completion reinforcement o 62 D No reward Removed upon completion 0 G3 D Delayed reward Removed upon completion at rst Rewarded upon completion second half Discovered that rats were storing knowledge to use when motivated rewarded Experiment 2 0 Was nature of stored information o Re ex chain Learned to always turn left Memorized sequence of movements 0 Movement caused sensory feedback to trigger another movement contd 0 Place Learning Learned it was in Arm C 0 Evidence for Stored information on environment notiu5t own movements Rats who had to go different directions for food learned more quickly Rise to Cognitive Psychology Human behavior too complex to be so easily explained 0 Studies in Memory couldn39t be explained via behaviorism o Enthusiasm for internally stored knowledge Discovered that memory was altered by previous knowledge 0 Couldn t be explained by reinforcement Interdisciplinary Contributions 0 Computer Science o Linguistics 0 Neuroscience 0 Philosophy Major Contributors Piaget 0 Cognitive strategies change as we age Children explore adolescents use more sophisticated learning strategies Gestalt o Emphasized that humans organize what we see Whole is greater than the sum of its parts ie D face not shapes INSIGHT o Studied how parts t solving for problem Noam Chomsky o quotSyntactic Structuresquot Syntax is separate from semantics The structure of a sentence can be correct whether it is nonsense or not Phrase Structure Rules Syntax described in terms of Syntax Categories 0 Noun verb ect Denotes permissible combinations for a sentence 0 Descriptive theory of internal knowledge people access during language use 0 quotTransformationalGrammarquot Rules governing how sentences transform to convey different things ie Harry had a banana Passive D The bananas were eaten by Harry Active Evidence for Algorithms o Argued for innate knowledge of language structures Alan Turing 0 Algorithms A set of rules that can to transform object a to object b in a de nite way 0 Procedures that 0 Have a speci c number of steps 0 Can be unambiguously followed 0 Will always give the correct output for the input function 0 The brain as quotNature s Computersquot Informa tion Processing Approach INPUT l COGNITION l OUTPUT 0 Process of information being taken in an algorithmically transformed o 2 Main Components 0 Mental processes can be compared to a computer 0 Mental processes can be seen as info progressing through stages 0 Important terms 0 Lowerlevel processing Closer to sensory processing ie hearing a noise 0 Higherlevel Processing More abstractmoved away from sensory ie interpreting noise as a word 0 quotFeeds forwardquot Moving forward through stags to a more rich interpretation 0 quotBottom Upquot Processing by analyzing the sensory information 0 quotTop Downquot Using of previous knowledge to guide interpretation 0 o o o AtkissonShiffrin Model 0 Memory can be understood by discrete steps where information is transferred from one storage area to another External Input 1 1 Lost from SM Sensory Memory Lost from STMJr Short TermWorking Memory 1 Lost from LTMJ wk Long Term Memory o ldealized stages of Information Processing 0 Detection React when X appears 0 Recognition React when X appears among distractor 0 Response Selection Task Raise right hand for X left hand for 0 So 0 Sensation D Detection D Perception D Recognition D Cognition D Response Select D Action Neisser o Metaanalysis of different areas of the eld 0 Published quotCognitive Psychologyquot 0 First to coin term quotCognitive Psychologyquot Goals of a Cognitive Psychologist Goals 0 Design model of a system that best accounts for RTs across experiments Very slow collaborative process 0 Uses many experiments across time Testing Methods 0 Online vs Of ine Online 0 Processing in real time 0 Methods that capturemeasure processing as it occurs Of ine 0 Processing outcomes of processes 0 Le Sally ew a dogkite Online D how long did it take to process each word Of ine Did sally y something Issues with onlineof ine experiments Granularity o How online is your dependent measure Reaction time isn39t the same as processing time 0 Data isn39t completely correctdirect Ecological Validity o How well does the testing generalize to real world Normally we don39t press buttons when we read 0 Eye Tracker Can be used to measure processing dif culty More ecologically valid because behavior isn39t altered ie we normally move our eyes when we read Measured by Saccades Fast discontinuous eye movements 0 Latency of Saccades gt how long eyes are on one letter Regressive Saccades used to measure dif culty Leftward l to a previous letter 1015 of saccades are 0 Higher dif culty D more regressive saccades Cognitive Neuroscnence Studies structure and function of the brain Similar to Cognitive Psychology because 0 Still uses RT to measure in experiments 0 Collaborative 0 Makes inferences from collected data Neuroscience Technology EEG o Measuresrecords EventRelated Potentials ERP Changes in electrical signals produced as a result of post synaptic activity 0 Uses electrodes on scalp Reading calculated by all electrical activity on an area of scalp caused by the onset of a theoretically relevant event All experiment trials averaged Negative signal graphed going up 0 Goal of EEG Identify components that mark certain types of processes 0 Problems Doesn39t measure single neuron just a groupspeci c area of the brain 0 Doesn39t give us localization 0 Measures magnetic signal produced by neuronal activity Gives good time course information 0 Problems Crude localization Neuroscience Technology for Localization Lesions o Destruction of brain tissue Can be caused by stroke tumor accidents Phineas Gage 0 Railroad spike destroyed frontal lobe TMS o Magnet to brain to inhibit processes ie magnet over occipital lobe can effect hearing Direct Cortical Stimulaton 0 Remove part of skull to mess with cortex Patient is awake and asked how X feels PET 0 Measures blood ow to part of brain with radioactive injection Patient asked to perform task amp see where dye goes 0 Problem Takes several seconds to produce data o If brain activity in area increases and decreases during that period PET only gives an average of activity level Expensive amp uses radioactive chemicals fMRI o Magnetically measures blood oxvgen levelsin different parts of the brain Blood oxygen as a function of brain activity 0 Magnetic elds generate crosssectional images 0 Preferable to PET because Less invasive Can measure activity in about 1 second Allows measurement of time sequence in processing Measures subtle differences 0 Problems Cannot determine sequence of quickly performed tasks ie If measuring reading a word 05 sec visual and motor lights up 0 can39t tell which lit up rst Perception using previous knowledge to gather and interpret sensory stimuli Vision 0 HUGE part of sensory experience 0 Quick accurate and effortless Poses a problem for how we process information 0 We have many good answers Nonhuman primates have similar visual systems so there are years of relevant experiments 0 2 types of Perceptual Stimuli o Distal Stimulus Actual quotout therequot object o Proximal Stimulus The information registered by eye ie image that letter creates on retina Neuroanatomy Rhombencephalon o Hindbrain 3Parts Cerebellum Pons MovementampquotLife FuncUonsquot Medulla Mesencephalon o Midbrain Small tip of brainstem o 2 Parts Superior Colliculus Skilled actions eye movements Inferior Colliculus hearing Prosencephalon o Hindbrain 2Parts Thalamus CerebralCortex o Abt 80 of brain 0 2Hemispheres o 4Lobes Occipital Vision Temporal Memory 0 Speech Audition Parietal Orientation Attention Perception Spatial Representation Frontal Movement 0 Planning 0 Language Processing 0 Decision making Visual Path way Eye 0 Cornea Outer layer 23 of eye s light focusing o Pupil 0 Lens 0 Iris 0 Retina o Optic Nerve Lateral Geniculate Nucleus 0 Part of thalamus o quotSwitchboardquot Function in vision mostly unknown Striate Cortex 0 V1 Senses Orientation Direction 0 Color 0 Spatial Frequency Extrastriate Cortex Object Recognition Recognition o Linking sensory input to representation in memory Le a horse is something cowboys ride not a collection of colorsshapestextures 2 Classes of Object Recognition Theory Template Theories Template Matching Theory 0 Image in head of everyone I ve ever seen When input comes process until we nd a matching template 0 Cons Too high of a processing time Letter A doesn39t always look the same RotationScaling 0 Could be solved by saying we mentally transformrotate images but that would increase processing time StructuralDescription Theories DObjects represented as parts amp relations FeatureAnalysis Theory 0 Each characteristic called a quotdistinctive featurequot Visual system notes presence or absence of each distinctive gure Compares to list in head 0 Eleanor Gibson No matter how quotRquot is written always a curved line amp 2 straight ones Problem 0 All studies done on numberletter recognition 0 Faces too complex 0 Recognition by Components Theory 0 Parts D basic shapes called Geons Cones cubes ect 0 Problems Quicker processing time when seen from a standard viewpoint vs a rotated one Movement distortion


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