Diversity II Exam 2 Study Guide
Diversity II Exam 2 Study Guide 211
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Friday April 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 211 at Syracuse University taught by Justine Weber in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 172 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life II in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Diversity of Life II Exam 2 Study Guide NonInsect Invertebrates (Inverts) I Opisthokonts – includes true fungi, metazoan animals and close protist relatives Focus on: differences among (34) phyla, primarily marine and some freshwater major traits of each (morphology, habitat, life cycle, examples, uses and impacts) major groups/selected taxa Porifera (pore bearing, “sponges”) Body plan/Morphology Habitat and Ecology Life Cycle and Reproduction Examples Uses Human Impact Cnidaria (‘stinging nettle’) >11,000 described species Body plan/morphology Habitat and Ecology Life Cycle and Reproduction Examples Class Hydrozoa Portuguese man o’ war (will sting you even if it’s dead) Class Scyphozoa ‘true’ jellyfish; more active, mostly seen in open water Class Cubozoa sea wasps and box jellies Class Anthozoa – no medusa stage includes sea fan (Gorgonian), anemones, corals (hard, brain, soft) Human Uses Impact Bilateria bilateral symmetry 3 germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm extra middle form used in embryogenesis Protostome – first opening of embryo is MOUTH Vs. Deuterostomes – first opening of embryo becomes ANUS Know general information for the following, and any other interesting characteristics: KNOW EXAMPLES OF EACH Platyhelminthes (flatworms) skinnny, flat, nonsegmented Class Turbellaria – 16% of all flatworms Ex. Dugesia Class Trematoda – 1820k species Schistosomes – blood flukes important parasites of animals, including humans (200million infected) leads to chronic liver disease, schistosomiasis Class Cestoda – Tapeworms, over 3400 described species infect humans from undercooked meat, endoparasites in intestines Rotifera (wheel bearer) over 1800species Class Bdelloida (leechlike), ~200species Class Monogonata (90% of species) Life Cycle Life History Nematoda, over 25000 described species but possibly 1million most abundant multicellular animals on the planet Ex. C. elegans, Trichinella spiralis Human uses NonInsect Invertebrates II, Dr. Rundell Know basic body plan, defining characteristics and examples of the following: Group Lophotrochozoa, subgroup of Protostomia Nemertea (‘ribbon worms’, 900species) inversible proboscis with a ‘poky’ spine at the end Body Plan Brachiopoda (~335 Recent/Extant species) Bryzoa (Ectoprocta, 450species) (Ex. Archimedes ) Phoronida (~20species) Entroprocta (180 known species) “Tennis racket” form Ex. Loxosomella vancouverensis – described by Dr. Rundell Gnathostomulida (~80species) Gastrtricha (~450species) Group Annelids (~16,500 species,) segmented worms, highly modified Body Plan Serial Homology body structures with same genetics and development plan that have been slightly altered by altering number of pairs of chaeta for instance Clitellates (earthworms, leeches) Polychaetes (25 orders, 87 families) Pogonophoran – deep sea vent worms Mollusks (>200,000 species) nd nd 2 most diverse phylum (2 only to arthropods) Body Plan Visceral hump – found in back of head, NOT brain area Many different lineages within Mollusca Monoplacophora (ancient lineage, ‘living fossil’?) Polyplacophora (chitons) 8 plates on shell can orient to magnetic north to give them sense of direction by secreting magnetite (see homing pigeons) normally herbivorous, but some are predatory (Placiphorella) Bivalves Ex. Geoduck (pronounced ‘gooeyduck’) sits under sand with tip of siphon sticking out in the water; protected from predators and just lets food come to them Ex. Brechites sp. (“vaginal watering pot”) Ex. Hammer oyster Scallop predator evasive maneuver – clap shelltops together to propel out of harm’s way (e.g. seastars) Gastropoda (snails and slugs) *see leopard slug mating by David Attenborough Different types of shell design: (KNOW THEM) coiling direction (sinistral or dextral) very important – have to spiral in the same direction for successful mating Ex. Motherofpearl Sea Slugs Ex. Melibe leonine, hooded by prey capture, is “lemony flavored” Cephalopoda – squids, cuttlefish, nautilus and octopi (see calamari) Ex. Endoceras, 450MYA, ambush superpredator also see Orthocone, Ammonite (primitive “ballast system” to get around) major predator – Dunkleosteus (giant armored fish) Shared Derived Characteristics Ex. Nautilus belauensis uses mantle to blast water to jet around (mainly move backwards) Squid Ex. Colossal squid – has hooks on suckers for cleaving flesh off prey (80% of southern whale diet) Architeuthis: heaviest invert; total length=18 m, mantle length=5 m Cuttlefish Ex. striped pajama cuttlefish, has excellent adaptive camouflage Octopus Ex. Mimic octopus Introduction to Insects Phylum Ecdysozoa synapomorphy is shedding of exoskeleton Order Panarthropoda – most primitive of arthropod groups, able to spit silk Phylum Tardigrada (Water Bears/Moss Bears) Phylum Arthropoda (jointed foot) vast majority (~8090%) of diversity in here Insecta Characters bilaterally symmetrical paired, jointed appendages hardened, chitinous exoskeleton that needs to molt dorsal, open circulatory system ventral nerva cord with ganglia CHECK FOR SYNAPOMORHPHIES Diplopoda (millipedes) apparent 2 legs/body segments; segments are fused, repeating Chilopoda (centipedes) apparent single pair of legs/body segment Chelicerata Identifying features: Merostomata Horseshoe Crabs Blue blood – extracted without causing death (usually) to be tested (blue because oxygen carrier is Copper, rather than Iron) for bacterial sensitivity ‘Living fossils’ – have existed for over 500millions years Arachnida – Scorpions, possess extreme segmentation telson modified into stinger Pectines – Spider and Pseudoscorpion have two easily distinguished regions Pseudoscorpion (“barking dogs of arthropods”) spin silk, used to grab on to others and get around from silk glands on chelicerae Spiders venom and silk large diversity – jumping, water, crab, and black widow spiders use silk for EVERYTHING (maintain contact with home base, prey capture, protection, reproduction) – has used same strategy for at least 100million years many types of silk used by 1 spider in the same web; spiders can have thousands of silk glands (vary by size, shape, even color) Aggregate Flagelliform Pyriform Aciniforms Spinerettes – finger like protrusions for producing silks thousandths of millimeters thick; twist several threads together to give it strength (disproportion to size, by comparison it is stronger than steel) Water droplets curl silk strands together – give silk in web ability to stretch and flex and prevent breaking altogether Stabilimentum (see in orbweaving spider) diagnostic for telling species apart by web design *even have exotic mating dances (see jumping spiders) Opiliones (dandy long legs) apparent fusion of 2 body segments Acari (mites, ticks) mouth parts found out in front – Gnathosome & Idiosome – Hexapoda (6 legs) Collembola Characteristics of adult insects 3 main body regions Entognathous mouthparts 3 pairs of 6 segmented, jointed legs 2 pairs of wings or wing rudiments Know characteristics of each of the following orders: Ephemeroptera – Mayflies (shortlived/wing) Odonata (tooth) – Dragonflies, damselflies Mating system Orthoptera (straight/wing) – Grasshoppers (locusts), Crickets (*tree these are what you often hear at night, mole, house, field crickets), and Katydids (can use mimicry) How do they produce their sounds? Phasmatodea (apparition or phantom) – Walkingsticks and Leaf Insects World’s longest insects Mantodea (prophet) – Mantids mobile head, only insect able to look over their shoulder raptorial forelegs with grasping spines – excellent predators; also able to move quickly Hemiptera (half/wing) – true bugs, Cicadas, Hoppers, Aphids, Scales, Adelgids (difficult to generalize) largest group of insects that don’t go through complete metamorphosis Heteroptera (hemelytra and scutellum) Bed bugs – no wings, extensible cuticle Auchenorrhyncha (cicadas, tree hoppers) some species emerge in adult form only once every 1317years some jumping plant hoppers use ‘mechanical gear’ structure for leaping around Sternorrhyncha (adelgids, aphids) Coleoptera (sheath/wing) – beetles, weevils thickened forewings = elytra “The Lord must have had an inordinate fondness for beetles.” Diptera (two/wing) – true flies: flies, mosquitos, midges, gnats hind wings are reduced to small, knobby structures for gyroscopes (halters) Ex. Crane Fly Modes of Reproduction Ovoviviparity – Viviparity – Pedogenesis – Lepidoptera (scale/wing) – Butterflies, Moths siphoning mouthparts in adults (liquids, even decomposition), chewing seen in larvae Butterflies have hook antennae, Moths more brushy; Moths more nocturnal, butterflies are diurnal Hymenoptera (membrane/wing) – Sawflies, horntails, wasps, bees, ants Margin with row of attachment hooks Hamuli ovipositor modifications, sawlike or stinger Suborder Symphyta are most primitive have 4 wings (true flies have 2) Suborder Apocrita is more advanced, WHY??? Infraorder Aculeata modified ovipositor into stinger (Chrysididea, Apoidea and Vespoidea) Why is pollination important? (entomophily) The Unfamiliar World of Insects Metamorphosis Instar Molt 2 instar Molt (n instar) Final Molt Adult Stage Hemimetabolous – 13 orders including Hemioptera and Coleoptera Holometabolous – orders considered most advanced Mouthparts and Feeding Adaptations Know what they do, what they look like, and which orders use them Chewing Sponginglapping mouthparts Cuttingsponginglapping Piercingsucking Siphoning What are some examples of insect/human interactions? Food resource Competition for food/Agricultural Entomology Stored Product Pests Locusts (group of grasshoppers) 1874 – Rocky Mountain Locust swarms along Great Plains Competition for fiber/Forest Cultural Applications Insect and Disease/Medical Entomology Biology of Aquatic Insects Dr. Neil H. Ringler What contributes to the success of insects? Exopterygotera Endopterygoptera KNOW THE FOLLOWING: Parts of Insect Leg Form of metabolism Form of reproduction Significance Defining Characteristics used for Specimen ID Ephemeroptrera – Voltinism = ??? Most aquatic insects are __________________________ Semivoltine – generation time is more than one year Habitat Partitioning between larvae Genitalia used in species identification Odonata 2 suborders, Anisoptera and Zygoptera Prereproductive period, <3weeks sheltered from water and wind Plecoptera Stone flies “Pleated wing” neopterans (able to fold wings into body) EPT – water quality and habitat assessment Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera Exuvium – means adult has hatched eggs can be used for ID Trichoptera – Caddisflies larvae construct case made from environmental materials for protection (even used in jewelry) Social Insects Video Lectures – Dr. Scott Turner Primarily found in Orders Hymenoptera (wasps, ants, bees) and Isoptera (termites) What are some characteristics of social insects? Compare and Contrast the principles of the social colonies seen in Hymenoptera vs. Isoptera Why doesn’t altruism agree with the ideas of natural selection? Inclusive Fitness – Kin Selection Explain reproductive breakouts Explain how “control of reproduction relates to control of development”. What are some characteristics of a ‘superorganism’? How can eusociality be a driver of evolution? Symbiotic interactions? Noninsect Invertebrates V– Arthropods Commonly Shared TraitsTraits Focus on: major traits of each (morphology, habitat, life cycle, examples, uses and impacts) major groups/selected taxa Subphylum Crustacean (70,000species, twice as many amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals combined) Morphology Habitat Class Brachiopoda (“gill foot”) Morphology Habitat Life Cycle and Reproduction Examples and Human Uses Daphnia (Water fleas) Artemia (sea monkeys, brine shrimp) Eubranchipus (fairy shrimp) Polyphemus Leptodora Invasives – Cercopagis, Bythotrephes Class Ostracoda (‘shell’), 68k described species (many of them are from fossils) Carapace covers the animal (‘seed shrimps’) Class Copepoda ~8,50014,000species Body plan Ecology most abundant herbivores on earth (phytoplankton consumers) Life Cycle and Reproduction Infraclass Cirripedia (‘hairy foot’) Over 1000 species Barnacles Body plan Habitat Ecology Life Cycle Ex. goose neck barnacles (consumed as delicacy in Japan, Spain) Class Malacostraca Contains 6075% of crustacean species amphipods (‘scuds’), shrimp, lobster, crab Body Plan Habitat Ecology Ex.Mantis shrimp, common in tropics and subtropics *Don’t cross these guys, very powerful Ex. Euphausia superba – krill, dominant in Antarctic vital component for polar seas ecosystems Ex. Penaeus (pink shrimp) Ex. Crayfish – omnivorous, some show maternal care for eggs (carrying, even brooding offspring) Ex. tropical freshwater shrimp – useful in nutrient cycling in aquatic rivers Ex. banded shrimp Ex. blue crab – found in NYS, more common in Chesapeake region; predators and scavengers Ex. Uca fiddler crabs (M has 1 small claw, 1 large claw) Ex. Pagurus – hermit crabs (will find and inhabit shells to use) Ex. Eremitus – mole crab, burrow into sandy beaches Ex. spider, decorator and king crabs (huge) Ex. Isopoda, aquatic and terrestrial – potato bug, slater, and pill bugs (Armadillidium), sea lice Ex. Gammarus – sideswimmer or scud Deuterostomes – share same type of embryonic develplemnt radial cleavage Phylum Echinodermata (spiny skin) General Characteristics Body Plan pentamerous Life Cycle Class Crinioidea – sea lilies and feather stars Class Asteroidea – sea stars, starfish Ex. Acanthaster (crown of thorns) starfish that eat coral polyps *El Nino event has led to one the worst bleaching events seen in the Great Barrier Reef in several decades Class Ophiuroidea – brittle stars and serpent stars (1900 extant species) Class Echinoidea – sea urchins, sea dollars Class Holothuroidea – sea cucumbers Human Uses Phylum Hemichordata (~120 species) marine worms Phylum Chordata Subphylum Urochordata (Tunicata) – tunicates, ~12502000species Ex. Oikopleura – lives in mucous hose, creates current by beating its tail (often 35mm) Body Plan Habitat and Ecology Subphylum CephalochordataAmphioxus
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