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Final Study Guide

by: Elizabeth Valente

Final Study Guide EXP 4604 U01

Elizabeth Valente

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Contains all chapters covered in class.
Cognitive Processes
Dr. Jacqueline Evans
Study Guide
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Valente on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EXP 4604 U01 at Florida International University taught by Dr. Jacqueline Evans in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 112 views.


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Date Created: 12/08/15
Final Exam Study Guide 12/8/15 5:43 PM Chapter 1: History Father of Psychology • Wilhelm Wundt • Gave psychology the official look and feel of a science • Proposed to study mental processes by INTROSPECTION First Schools of Psychology • Structuralism o Break down consciousness into its most basic elements, discover structure of consciousness. • Functionalism o Consciousness as well as behavior most serve some sort of purpose. The function of the mind. Behaviorism • Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) o Unconditioned stimulus – Unconditioned response (can’t choose what to do) o Conditioned stimulus – Conditioned response (learned association) § Ex: classic dog salivation • Operant Conditioning o Behavior = Consequences o Consequences change the probabilities that the response will be made again. § Good: you do it again § Bad: you don’t do it again • What can’t it explain? o Ethological Principles § Ability without learning § Complex behaviorism in which an animal engages despite very limited opportunities for practice on reward o Language § Why can we say something at a given time? How can you say something you have ever heard of? o Memory § Can’t seem a memory strategy so can’t study them with behaviorism What is Cognitive Psychology? (Information Processing Model) 1. Humans are processors of information like computers and this information processing supports thought and behavior. 2. Representations and processes that operate on these representations underlie information processing. 3. Information processing occurs within largely isolated modules which are organized into stages of processing: o Sensory Memory: Storage system that records information from each of the senses with reasonable accuracy. o Short-Term Memory: Working memory. Holds only small information that you are actively using. o Long-Term Memory: Contains memories that are decades old, in addition to memories that occurred several minutes ago. Who else was historically important? • William James: Theorized about everyday psychological experiences. Influenced by Darwin’s concept of NATURAL SELECTION. o Functionalism: Consciousness as well as behavior must serve some sort of PORPUSE. The function of the mind. • John Watson: Declare psychology as a failure. Too subjective. Focus should be on the relationship between the environment and behavior (stimulus – response – learning). o Behaviorism: Psychology should be the scientific study of overt behavior only. Emphasized the environment: all nature, not nurture – what start as blank states. Controversy regarding free will. Chapter 1: Methods What is science? • A process of inquiry, it is not an outcome. • The process of formulating specific questions and then finding answers. Different Types of Research • Descriptive: Describe a behavior as you find it in the world. Ex: how many? How much? • Correlational: Make predictions. Knowing current behavior or situation can we predict future behavior? Statistic: correlational coefficient – direction and strength (positive or negative). • Experimental: Causal inferences. Different Data Collection Methods • Case Studies: In depth look at one person. Ex: HM (brain surgery) after surgery couldn’t form new memories. • Naturalistic Observation: Unobtrusive observation, wild animals. Plant cameras and view the recording. Wanting to know how people naturally act. • Observation: You know you are going to be part of a study. • Surveys: Course evaluations, self report, etc. What does correlation (not) tell us? • Tells us the direction between the variables. As one variable increases the other goes up. • Correlational research can’t explain why there is a relationship or where it comes from. Does not tell us about causation. rd • There could be a 3 variable that is influencing the relationship. • Just because there is a relationship between 2 variables does not mean that this will tell you the direction that this is going. o Ex: correlation tell you that people who study more get better grades, not how much better they are going to do. o Correlation ≠ Causation Experiments • Control & Random Assignment o Time-order relationship: § Which came first and which came second. Know what happened when. o Manipulation plus control (everything has to be the same). § Manipulate independent variable only. • Independent VS Dependent Variable (only in experiments) o Independent § The variable I am manipulating, cause some change in performance. Ex: note taking = cause. o Dependent. § The performance. Depend on the independent variable. The thing you are measuring at the end = effect. • Internal, External and Ecological validity o Internal § How string my conclusion could be. How confident my results are. Has to do with the study itself. o External § How my results apply to the rest of the world, into other situations. o Ecological Validity § Is your study like the real world? The way you do things in real life. Chapter 1: Neuroscience Localization • Where in the brain does a process happen? • Made possible by methods that can look at brain • Damage (lesions) o Can be from many causes: stroke, infection, operation, disease, etc… o The idea is to see what is the consequence of the damage o There might be some personality change, poor decision making, etc (depending on which part of the body gets hurt) • Activation o Looking to see what part of the brain is active at a particular point in time • Brain damage o If brain are X supports cognitive process Y, brain area X will be active during process Y • Brain activation o If brain area X supports cognitive process Y, brain are X will be active during process Y CT Scan (Computerized Tomography) • Cannot seem anything active. Structured images. Good for locating tumors/damage. Will not tell you what part of the brain is active. PET Scan (Positron Emission Resonance) • Measures blood flow to parts of the brain area is more active, it needs more oxygen to do its job. Blood delivers oxygen to the brain. Where the blood is located is where the brain is more active. fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) • Just structure. Sharper image than CT Scan. No activity information. EEG (Electroencephalograms) • Measures the electrical activity of all the neurons right below the sensors. Great with temporal resolution, bad with spatial localization. They can measure down to the millisecond. Exactly where the reaction happens. ERP (Event – Related Potentials) • Use EEG data t get ERP Brain • Cerebral Cortex: Outer layer of the brain. Approx. 3 mm thick. • Cerebral Hemispheres: o Left: language. Verbal processing: language, speech, reading, writing, etc. o Right: Spatial recognition. Nonverbal processing: spatial, musical, visual recognition. Chapter 5: Long-Term Memory Factors that Help Encoding Deep • Greater degree of semantic involvement. Elaboration and distinctiveness. Thinking about what it actually means. Shallow • Less semantic involvement. Elaboration and less distinctiveness. Processing something, but not thinking about what it means. Encoding Specificity Principle • Better recall when there is a closer match between the encoding context and the retrieval context. • This could go under “retrieval” instead of “encoding”. The key is that they are not fully independent from each other. • Ex: If I learn information in Spanish, it is better if I get tested in Spanish rather than English. Self-Reference Effect • You are better remembering something if you relate it to yourself. The words we remember the best are the ones we apply to ourselves. • Depth of processing o “Decide if this word can be applied to you” • This new instruction leads to the best recall. Especially if the word does apply to you. Factors that don’t help encoding • Intention to learn: Depth of processing studies indicate memory is not affected by effort to learn, as tested with INCIDENTAL memory tests è subject not told they will be tested. INTENTIONAL memory tests inform subjects that they will be tested. • Hyde and Jenkins (1973) o Depth of processing study procedure. Participants saw a list of words, asked to process § Shallow ú Determine whether the word had a letter “a” or “q” in it § Deep ú Rate the “pleasantness: of the word ú Afterwards, the participants were tested § Intentional memory tests ú Informed subjects that they will be tested § Incidental memory tests ú Subjects not told they will be tested on materials they’re dealing with Implicit vs. Explicit Memory • Implicit o Effects of previous experiences affect your normal behavior, even if you are not actively trying to remember something § Remember without consciousness • Explicit o Conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information § Ex. remembering the time of an appointment or recollecting an event from years ago Recall vs. Recognition • Recall o Reproduce what was learned earlier. Having to come up with the information on your own. § Ex. short answer on test. • Recognition o Identifying something you learned previously and is therefore stored in some manner in memory. § Ex. taking a multiple choice test requires you to identify material you learned and not necessarily “recall” information learned previously. § Ex. have you seen this before? Flashbulb memories • Remembering something traumatic o Ex. Sept 11 attack False memories • A reality monitor, looking at the list of words we probably thought of “sleep” because it relates to the rest of the words. Misinformation • Goes along with source confusion o Experiment of an event with misinformation. § Ex: Stop sign vs. yield sign. Instead of reporting what they saw, they reported what they read. Recovered Memories • Evidence if it really happened o Ex: Police report, medical, witness • If the person failed to remember at the time it happened, but then remembered the rest. • For some reason the person pushed the memory away, did not want to remember it. Source Monitoring • When we mistake our thought for an event o Ex: What if you thought you heard it from CNN but it came from TMZ? • Whenever we don’t remember when an event occurred Reality Monitoring • Did an event actually happen or am I just thinking that it happened in real life? Autobiographical Memory / Episodic Memories • Memory for events and issues related to yourself (episodic memory) • Higher in ecological validity (the study resembles the real world) Schemas • General knowledge/expectations distilled from your past experiences. o At the time of encoding, it helps us to solve problems that are going on at the moment. o At the time of retrieval, it helps us to recall “typical information” • Consistency bias o Over time, we tend to assume that we have been fairly consistent. Chapter 6: Strategies and Metacognition Self-Reference Effect • Deep level processing, thinking about how something relates to us. Generation Effect • When we generate something on our own, we are more likely to remember it. Testing Effect • Everyone reads an essay o Group 1: read it again o Group 2: recall task (write as much as you can) • Tested either 5 minutes “study/study” best (small difference) • But after 2 days, and after 1 week: “study/test” much better than “study/study”. Desirable Difficulty • Challenging (but possible) practice o Applies to learning physical activities too. The more we challenge ourselves, the more we get out of it o If you practice the same thing over and over again, the better you are going to be at it. Mnemonics (thinking about thinking) • Memory strategies • Key word methods: link “new” word with related word. • Use organization: o Come up with some structure (requires deep processing) o Chunking (combine multiple small units into a larger unit) o Hierarchy (classification system or an outline) o First-letter technique (provides a retrieval cue) o Narrative technique (maybe include images) Prospective vs. Retrospective memory Prospective • Remember something in the future • Usually to do something (difficult!!) • External memory aids o Set an alarm, wear a watch on the other arm Retrospective • Recalling information from the past Metacognition (thinking about thinking) • Ex: What strategies work best for me on essay exams? Metamemory • Knowledge, monitoring and control of your own memory • How likely you are to remember something • Individual items o Item by item memory we normally do pretty well, we remember the ones we missed § Ex: Looking back at quizzes and remembering the questions we got wrong • Overall o Overconfident that you know something really well, and therefore you know that you know it really well. • Foresight error o Immediately after you learn something, you are not great at estimating how likely you will be able to remember it. o Process that we go through as to how likely we are to remember something in the future. o The sooner you do something, the better it is to retain that information (short-term) Metacomprehension • Knowledge of your comprehension of the material • Thoughts about language comprehension (reading, or not) o Ex: SAT; real several paragraphs, answers questions while paragraphs are still present. Tip-of-the-tongue Effect • You know you know it, but can’t retrieve it. o Can’t bring it out to words • Can come up with words that sound like it (can recognize it) Foresight Bias • People are often overconfident about how they will perform in the future. o Try to predict how easy it will be to remember X in the future. o This prediction is going to be based on how easy it is for you to remember X right now. o Don’t ask yourself “will I remember?” or “do I understand?” o Ask “can I explain it?” Chapter 2: Perception What’s Perception? • Is hard è Ambiguities • Interpretation è Assumptions, previous knowledge Visual Indeterminacies • Inverse Projection Problem: The problem of receiving 3-dimensional shape from 2-dimensional projection, like the projection on the retina. Visual system must deal with indeterminacy in shape and orientation. • Surface Features: The visual system must deal with an object’s surface features (color, how dark or light it is). • Size and Distance: Indeterminate in a 2-dimensional representation. Depends in perspective. Assumptions To Resolve Ambiguities • Orientation è We used gravity based frame of reference. However, it can be overridden by a purely visual frame of reference. • Light source è We assume light source is above • Uniform color è We perceive the picture of the sand (example) as black and gold, but sand of a uniform color, highlighted in shadow • Occlusion è When objects overlap, the occluded one is perceived as behind the full one • Linear Perspective è Convergence of lines assumed to be parallel in reality provide a distance cue • Atmospheric Perspective è Objects in the distance look fuzzier. Hazier and somewhat bluish because dust and water particles in the air scatter light. Top-Down Processing • Our conceptual knowledge aids us in making (usually) correct interpretations. Prior experience of how words are spelled, how letters follow other letters. Bottom-Up Processing • Conceptual knowledge and assumptions are important. If we are trying to understand what we are looking at, the actual shapes we are using should matter. Theories of Object Identification • Template Theory: An older theory. A simple template matching theory saying that you compare what you see to templates stored in memory. Problem is you need a tremendous number of templates. • Feature-Analysis Theory: Memory representation of an object is a list of distinctive features. Neuropsychological discovery of seeming “edge” and “line” detectors. Disadvantage è Problems with natural objects and some transformations (rotations, etc). • Recognition By Components Theory: Using geons. 36 basic shapes that act like a visual alphabet. They are easily distinguished, in large part by combinations of line intersections. Still doesn’t really explain how we handle rotations/transformations, and there are still objects that cant be broken down into geons. How Are Faces Special? • Holistic vs. Feature based • Overall structure, how parts are related to each other. • Gestalt. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. • We are bad at recognizing upside-down faces, and brain responds differently to them. Prosopagnosia (Face Blindness) • Cant recognize human faces (though can recognize other objects). Speech Perception • Imposing boundaries on words. Break in between the words we speak. • Recognizing phenomes (basic unit of spoken language). • Filling in “blanks” (phonemic restoration) • Top-Down Processing: using knowledge of language and visual cues. Visual cues è McGurk Effect (Gagaga- Bababa) • Hard to study. Humans are the only ones who do it. General Mechanism Approach (more supported) • No “special mechanism” needed. • Similar responses in brain to music and speech. • Use of visual cues. Speech-Is-Special Approach (less supported) • Humans have a special “phonemic” “module” • Categorical perception for speech only (but…nope) Chapter 3: Attention What is Attention? • Mechanism for continued processing è Some preliminary processing has taken place. Attention must take place for further processing to occur. • Ability to “focus in” on one or more inputs and “tune out” others è A gatekeeper. • Is limited. We cant pay attention to everything. • Concentration of mental activity that allows you to take in a limited portion of the vast stream of information available. Attention is Limited • Bottom-Up: Attention captured by something in the environment. Ex. a loud noise behind you Attention is Selective • Top-Down: Decide to pay attention to something in particular. Ex: Listening to the professor instead of the conversation next to you. Automaticity • Automatic Process: A process that takes a few or no attentional resources and that happens without intention. • While some tasks can proceed with attention, other tasks or processes require attention. • Ex. Stroop test è Written color is different to the actual color of the word. • Phobia affects é Visual Search • Disjunctive: In a visual search task, the target differs from distractors on just 1 feature. • Target has something different from distractors. • Easy (pop-out), PARALLEL search, automatic, Bottom-Up. • Conjunctive: In a visual task, target differs from distractors on two features. • It requires a conjunction of 2 features. • Hard, SERIAL search, requires attention, Top-Down. Orienting Attention Networks • Visual searches • Shifting attention trough spatial locations • Parietal lobe è Damage: unilateral spatial neglect PET SCANS. • Develops early. Executive Attention Network • Tasks with conflicts (inhibit automatic response –like stroop-) • Mostly top-down • Prefrontal cortex • Develops later. • Helps you learn new ideas. Feature-Integration Theory • Continuum from “DISTRIBUTED” to “FOCUSED” attention. • Distributed Attention: Process the whole “scene” at low level. Automatic and parallel. • Focused Attention: Process individual items, sequentially. More demanding (conjunctive search). • Visual search. • Illusory conjunction (binding problem). Consciousness = Awareness • Outside world and “internal” world. • Generally more associated with focused attention. • May be conscious of output of cognition but not the process itself (introspection doesn’t work). • Mind wandering and mindless reading. • Blindsight è Sight without awareness. Damage to visual cortex. • Thought suppression è Keeping things out of consciousness. Ironic processes of mental control (white bear study – rebound effect). Chapter 11: Problem Solving What’s a Problem? • Any situation in which a person has a goal and that goal is not yet accomplished and it isn’t clear how to reach that goal. Ways to Represent a Problem • Diagram: Vem diagram. • Matrix: Grid with all possible combinations. • Symbols: Equations. Algorithm/Exhaustive Search • Aka è Brute force search. • Systematically go through all options. • Sometimes feasible (game show example, crossword where you are missing one letter). • Sometimes NOT feasible. Heuristics • Rule of thumb that is usually correct. • A shortcut. Types • Hill Climbing: One searches for a move that will take you to a state in the problem space that appears to be closer to the goal than you are. BUT: Many problems require that you move AWAY from the goal in order to reach it. • Working Backwards: One begins at the goal state of the problem and tries to work back to the starting state. Useful when the goal state is known but the initial state is not. [Hill Climbing and Working Backwards have a limited range of application] • Means-Ends Heuristics: Divide the problem into sub-goals. Decide how to reach each sub-goal (which may require setting more sub- goals). When striving to reach a sub-goal you may end up going farther from your end goal. Analogies • Surface Similarity: Whether two problems share similar elements. • Structural Similarity: Refers to whether two problems share content that allows them to be solved by the same strategy. [Studies indicate that people rely on surface similarity and fail to see structural similarity] Background Knowledge/Expertise • Be better able to classify the problem and understand its critical components. • Automatize some of the problem-solving steps so that they do not demand as much attention. • Allows for top-down processing: Our concepts/expectations/knowledge influence how we see the problem. BUT: Too much Top-Down Processing • Functional Fixedness: One is fixated on an object serving its typical function, and one fails to think of an alternative use of the object, even though it would be quite useful in the problem. • Mental Set: Find a way that works and stick it even when there is a better way. Too much top-down processing when selecting a problem solving strategy. Insight Problem • A problem in which the solver feels that the answer comes all at once in a moment of illumination. • Aha! Moment. Creativity • Ability to come to a solution that is both NOVEL and USEFUL. • One measure is divergent production. • Extrinsic Motivation: External. Hurts creativity. • Intrinsic Motivation: Internal. Helps creativity. Chapter 12: Decision Making What’s a Decision? • A situation in which a person is presented with two or more explicit courses of action, with the requirement that he or she select just one. Rational Decisions • Internally consistent (transitivity) • NOT about there being a “right” choice. • Description Invariance: People will consistently make the same choice regardless of HOW THE PROBLEM IS DESCRIBED to them as long as the basic structure of the choices is the same (how it is presented shouldn’t matter). • Procedure Invariance: A requirement of rational decision making, it is the idea that people will consistently make the same choice regardless of HOW THEIR PREFERENCE FOR THAT CHOICE IS MEASURED. Framing Effect • The manner in which a decision is described (framed) affects the choices people make. • Positive Framing: Using positive words. People tend to go with that option. People are not willing take risks due to a good outcome. • Negative Framing: Using negative words. • In both scenarios the effect is basically the same. Expected Value Theory • The best choice is the one with the biggest financial payoff. • Predicts we will always choose the highest expected payoff. • We aren’t good relying on expected value. Expected Utility Theory • A normative theory of choice in which the best choice is the one that offers the reward with the greatest personal value to the individual, not necessarily the greatest final reward. Normative Theory • A theory of choice that describes a set of rules by which some choices are better than others and one choice can be said to be optimal. Algorithm vs. Heuristics • Algorithm: An often complex rule of procedure that always produces the optimal answer if followed correctly. “The long way”. • Heuristic: A relatively simple strategy or rule of thumb that may or may not produce the correct answer. A shortcut. Doesn’t always get you to the right answer, but it usually does. Representativeness Heuristic (Labels) • We judge the likehood (probability) of something belonging to a category. • How we decide what label to put on something, what category to place it in. • Example: Our mental representation (schema) of what it means to be “random”. Availability (How Common) • When people make estimates of likehood of an event occurring (or how common it is), their estimates are influenced by the ease with which relevant examples come to mind. • But, the ease with which we remember examples is not perfectly correlated with objective frequency. Hence, errors may arise when using this heuristic (familiarity). Recognition (Recognizing) • Must compare frequency of two categories. • If you have heard of one, you assume it’s bigger. • This is usually a pretty effective heuristic. Anchoring and Adjustment (Making an Estimate) • Used to estimate probabilities/values in which the person starts with initial probability/value (ANCHOR) by doing a partial calculation of the problem or by using a probability/value stated in the problem and the ADJUSTING that initial estimate upward or downward based on other information in the problem. Satisficing • To select the first choice that is satisfactory rather than evaluating every choice and selecting the best of those. • We satisfice, we don’t make optimal decisions. Information We Ignore • Base Rate: The frequency of an event in the general population. When judging the likehood that an event occurred, people tend to ignore the base rate if they are given any other information about the event. • Baye’s Theorem: Describes the probabilities of an event, based on conditions that might be related to it. • Sample Size: Number of things in a group that you are evaluating. Larger samples are better. Is crucial in determining probabilities of events. Formal Logic • Deductive Reasoning: Problems to which one can apply formal logic and derive on objectively correct solution. Conditional Statements/Reasoning Tasks • A logical form composed of 3 statements: o 1 statement è “If…” Antecedent. o 2 ndstatement è “Then…” Consequent. rd o 3 statement è Conclusion. Syllogism • Logical form composed of 3 statements of fact. • In valid syllogism, the third statement (conclusion) follows logically from the first two (premises). • Doesn’t matter if it’s true in the real world. Just, is it a valid conclusion based on the premises. Affirming the antecedent è VALID Denying the consequent è VALID Affirming the consequent è NOT VALID Affirming the antecedent è NOT VALID Why Do We Struggle? • Confirmation Bias: Switching the rule around in order to confirm that it is being followed. People don’t look for information that the rule is being violated (example with the cards). • Belief Bias: Reject the syllogism as false if the conclusion is false (yet logically valid). Looking at the conclusion and deciding whether it is true or false, instead of deciding if it’s valid or invalid. • Abstract: People tend to struggle with abstract content. Better if concrete/familiar. • Conversion errors: An error in dealing with a syllogism in which a person converts or reverses one of the premises. 12/8/15 5:43 PM 12/8/15 5:43 PM


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