Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide POLS 1101
Popular in Political Science or American Government
Popular in Political Science
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Reshetova on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Jeffrey L Lazarus (P) in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 156 views. For similar materials see Political Science or American Government in Political Science at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 12/08/15
Exam 3 Study Guide Primary Election vs General Election Primary an election that narrows the field of candidates before an election for office who get on the ballot A political party nominates candidates for an upcoming general election Different people vote Much more partisan and ideological A lot fewer people vote Requires candidates to be divisive Origins traced to Progressive Movement Organized by parties closed primary only party members vote and open primary all voters can vote Starts in February 9 There is also semiopen primary anyone in political party can vote but can only vote in one primary and Runoff primary a few states hold this between the two candidates with the most votes NPMU PWPE 9 Money Where does political money come from 1 Money spent by candidates direct spending directly controlled by campaign people give donations legal limits 2 Independent Expenditures money that gets spend by groups who are not affiliated with campaign 3 Three sources for money Individuals PACs Party Organizations 4 Money spent by individual groups Super PAC Independent Expenditure group can accept unlimited donations does not donate directly to candidates PACPolitical Action Committee donates directly to candidates channel money from people and groups that want to give money to candidates who want to receive it 5 Public Advocacy Groups NRA NAACP can run independent campaigns cannot air an ad that says Vote for Voters 1 Elect Politicians 2 Turnout 3 How to Vote 4 Who votes people with education higher income age is a factor old people vote political efficacy election level When is turnout high When information is available to voters media advertising Most people vote based on their party Undecided Voters need to convince them My Voters mobilize Her Voters ignore U 99 89 Presidential Elections 1 2 1 9593 0 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 9 NPMU PPPN I 9 10 11 12 Party Convention each party has one in the Fall delegate sent to convention primary election each state hold one General Election Electoral College elects Individual and Aggregate 0 Individual opinions a person holds not stable can change changes as lot a lot of change over time change mind fairly frequently but not everyday Aggregate public opinion tends to be stable there is change change is slow Attitude basic fundamental opinion Ideology broader than an attitude Party Identification how closely you identify with one party or another Approval important part of public opinion how well do you approve or disapprove presidential approval Economy when economy does well people approve of everything more Political Socialization the process by which people acquire their political opinions starts during childhood Other In uences important political events economy Polls choose randomly cell phone make it harder Verbal Opinionrespond to question or voice an opinion Nonverbal Opinionvoting in an election or participation in a protest As you age your political orientation grows firmer Agents of Socialization is what a political socialization process takes place through Divided as Primary and Secondary Agents Primary Agents interact closely with and regularly with the person family Secondary Agents possess a less intimate connection with the person more important later in life work associates What is a party organizations that exist to aid politicians solve problems Maj or frame of referencepartisanship Party Identi cationperson s sense of loyalty to a political party Not formal membership in a party An emotional attachment Twothirds call themselves Republican or Democratic OnethirdIndependent but lean toward one or the other most have a partisan tendency Almost never changed and is highly stable Party loyalty is uid can be in uenced Partisanship affects what individuals see once it is acquired Selective Perception the process whereby people selectively choose from incoming information those aspects that support what they already believe Democratic Partynational social welfare and worker s rights 13 Republic Partyprobusiness and tax reduction 14 Single Member District an electoral district where voters pick one official or representative Interest Group 1 2 9 99 ng A group that is determined to prevent or encourage changes in public policy without trying to be elected Share a want to affect government policy to benefit themselves or their causes Other names include advocacy group lobbying group special interest group pressure group faction or organized interest 1St Amendment protects interest groups Similar to political parties Represent people give people voice however not every voice is heard equally Vary greatly in aims size and tactics Contains likeminded people Can be divided into two groups economic and noneconomic Economic Groups 1 QMPPP seek some sort of economic advantage for their members the most common type of interest group powerful and numerous wellfunded work to win private goods benefits only members of the group will like Four main types of economic groups business groups labor groups agricultural groups and professional associations Business Groups 1 2 3 4 Also most common type of interest group More than half of registered lobbyists work for these groups Some business lobbyists work for a single corporation Create associations with companies from the same industry to advocate all of their interests seek tax cuts regulatory changes and other probusiness benefits 5 Well funded usually 6 Tend to be very in uential Labor Groups 1 Represent unions 2 Deal with employees 3 Mobilize voters 4 Donate Money Agricultural Groups 1 Represent interest of farmers 2 The Grange Movement 3 Farm Bureauwork with large agribusinesses 4 Farmers Uniondo more to protect family farms Professional Associations 1 Make ground rules for the profession 2 Regulate practices 3 Promote standards of conduct 4 Lobby the government on issues related to their profession Noneconomic Groups 1 Citizens Groupanother name 2 Interest groups that fight for causes instead of working for material gain 3 Try to locate public goods collective goods these benefit everyone in society 4 Offer their members selective incentives purposive solidarity informational not material incentives 5 Four main types of noneconomic groups public interest groups singleissue groups ideological groups and government groups Public Interest Groups 1 Say they work for the good of the whole society not just one part of it 2 Possess different ideas as to how to improve society 3 Address a number of related issues 4 Example Greenpeace SingleInterest Groups 1 Work on one issue 2 Strongly driven members passionate to the cause 3 The number of these groups has increased 4 Example National Ri e Association Ideological Groups 1 Contain much broader aims rooted in a strongly held philosophy 2 Frequently work to change cultural norms values and stereotypes 3 Conservative Ideological Groups the Christian Coalition and the Traditional Values Coalition 4 Liberal ideological groups the NOW and the National Organization for the Advancement of Colored People Government Groups 1 Represent interests of other governments Interest Groups Represent 1 Single Issue 2 Demographic Group 3 Corporations 4 Career Incentives S Broad Ideology The Federalist 10 James Madison a wellconstructed union would break and control the violence of faction Factionsnaturally pulled away from the common good Faction a number of citizens majority or minority who are united by some common cause 2 ways to get rid of factions 1 everyone agrees provide everyone with the same interests opinions and passions 2 take away people s rights in government destroy the liberty crucial to their existence Lobbyist professional government in uencer someone hired by a business or a cause to persuade legislators to support that business or cause EX Former members of Congress Key to LobbyingAccess To lobby successfully a lot of money is needed being honest is also important for lobbyists Before lobbying government you have to convince people to join Lobbyists can lobby Executive Judicial and Legislative Branch Freeriding when people want to take advantage of public good but don t want to pay for it when a person expects other people to pay or provide for public good Trying to in uence public policy End Result nobody contributes Overcoming Freeriding Physical violence bribe selective incentives benefits emotional appeals Do you agree or disagree with a congress member Agree work with them 1 Disagree persuade 3 replace 2 very hard bribepersonal gift 4 FactFinding Mission J unket trip paid for by private entity
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