Contemporary Social Problems, Study Guide Test 2
Contemporary Social Problems, Study Guide Test 2 SO 1103
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordan255 on Friday April 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SO 1103 at Mississippi State University taught by Jennifer Cheek in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL PROBLEMS in Behavioral Sciences at Mississippi State University.
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Contemporary Social Problems Study Guide – Test 2 This study guide will cover the notes from chapters 5 – 8. Included is a list of terms to know (with definitions from the book and parts of these terms emphasized in class). Chapter 5: Family Problems 1. Bigamy - The criminal offense in the United States of marrying one person while still legally married to another. 2. Child Abuse - The physical or mental injury, sexual abuse, negligent treatment, or maltreatment of a child younger than age 18 by a person who is responsible for the child’s welfare. a. Sexual, physical, emotional, but neglect is the most common b. Parents are typically perpetrators, often when stress is placed on them 3. Corporal Punishment - The intentional infliction of pain intended to change or control behavior. 4. Covenant Marriage - A type of marriage (offered in a few states) that requires premarital counseling and that permits divorce only under condition of fault or after a marital separation of more than two years. a. Programs and policies i. Education on what makes a relationship work, setting realistic expectations ii. Providing economic opportunities and incentives b. Efforts to Strengthen Marriage i. Encourages forgiveness and reconciliation ii. Implemented programs to educate about divorce and co- parenting iii. Meditation and counseling 5. Cycle of Abuse - A pattern of abuse in which a violent or abusive episode is followed by a makeup period when the abuser expresses sorrow and asks for forgiveness and “one more chance,” before another instance of abuse occurs. a. Stalking or harassment b. Attempt to reconcile c. Often takes several attempts to separate 6. Divorce Mediation - A process in which divorcing couples meet with a neutral third party (mediator) who assists the individuals in resolving issues such as property division, child custody, child support, and spousal support in a way that minimizes conflict and encourages cooperation. 7. Domestic Partnership - A status that some states, counties, cities, and workplaces grant to unmarried couples, including gay and lesbian couples, which conveys various rights and responsibilities. 8. Elder Abuse - The physical or psychological abuse, financial exploitation, or medical abuse or neglect of the elderly. 9. Family - A kinship system of all relatives living together or recognized as a social unit, including adopted people. 10.Individualism - The tendency to focus on one’s individual self-interests and personal happiness rather than on the interests of one’s family and community. 11.Intimate Partner Violence - Actual or threatened violent crimes committed against individuals by their current or former spouses, cohabiting partners, boyfriends, or girlfriends. a. Four types of IPV Contemporary Social Problems Study Guide – Test 2 i. Common couple violence – an argument that results in violence, most common ii. Intimate terrorism – victim is completely controlled, threats of violence, most serious iii. Violent resistance – when victim uses violence to retaliate iv. Mutual violent control – when partners both want control and physically fight for it b. 3 types of abusers i. Sociopathic – violent, lacks remorse ii. Controlling – don’t forgive, are controlling, don’t take responsibility, blame iii. Borderline – mental health resulting in violence, more self- loathing, fragile after abuse, apologetic 12.Living Apart Together (LAT) Relationships - An emerging family form in which couples—married or unmarried—live apart in separate residences. 13.Marital Decline Perspective - A pessimistic view of the current state of marriage that includes the beliefs that (1) personal happiness has become more important than marital commitment and family obligations, and (2) the decline in lifelong marriage and the increase in single-parent families have contributed to a variety of social problems. a. Decline in community interactions b. Incline in drug use 14.Marital Resiliency Perspective - A view of the current state of marriage that includes the beliefs that (1) poverty, unemployment, poorly funded schools, discrimination, and the lack of basic services (such as health insurance and child care) represent more serious threats to the well-being of children and adults than does the decline in married two-parent families, and (2) divorce provides a second chance for happiness for adults and an escape from dysfunctional environments. a. Trials and hardships result in less marriage b. Divorce is acceptable and should be destigmatized c. Argue that family is about function rather than form 15.Monogamy - Marriage between two partners; the only legal form of marriage in the United States. 16.Neglect - A form of abuse involving the failure to provide adequate attention, supervision, nutrition, hygiene, health care, and a safe and clean living environment for a minor child or a dependent elderly individual. 17.No – Fault Divorce - A divorce that is granted based on the claim that there are irreconcilable differences within a marriage (as opposed to one spouse being legally at fault for the marital breakup). 18.Parental Alienation - The intentional efforts of one parent to turn a child against the other parent and essentially destroy any positive relationship a child has with the other parent. 19.Patriarchy - A male-dominated family system that is reflected in the tradition of wives taking their husband’s last name and children taking their father’s name. 20.Polyandry - The concurrent marriage of one woman to two or more men. 21.Polygamy - A form of marriage in which one person may have two or more spouses. Contemporary Social Problems Study Guide – Test 2 22.Polygyny - A form of marriage in which one husband has more than one wife. a. Young women are often involved. 23.Refined Divorce Rate -The number of divorces per 1,000 married women. 24.Second Shift - The household work and child care that employed parents (usually women) do when they return home from their jobs. 25.Serial Monogamy - A succession of marriages in which a person has more than one spouse over a lifetime but is legally married to only one person at a time. 26.Shaken Baby Syndrome - A form of child abuse whereby a caretaker shakes a baby to the point of causing the child to experience brain or retinal hemorrhage. Sociological Theories Functional perspective – emphasis on positive aspects of family institutions o Examines how families teach children and how they function in society o Says that divorce is a dysfunction that leads to social problems o Traditional gender roles are functional and positive Helps determine what roles family members uses and decreases fighting Conflict and Feminist perspective o Examines power differentials in families o Feminists critique power differences between males and females Still see effects today – sexual roles, wedding traditions, politics, etc Family and medical leave act – 12 weeks unpaid time off, corporations try to fight paid leave Symbolic Interactionalist perspective o Symbols attached to relationships o Important for children Viewing family violence causes more mental illness, drug use, and future violence Chapter 6: Economic Inequality, Wealth, and Poverty 1. Absolute Poverty - The lack of resources necessary for material well-being —most importantly, food and water, but also housing, sanitation, education, and health care. a. Typically happens in poorer countries, life threatening. 2. Basic Economic Security Tables Index - A measure of the basic needs and income workers require for economic security. 3. Corporate welfare - Laws and policies that benefit corporations. 4. Earned Income Tax Credit - A refundable tax credit based on a working family’s income and number of children. 5. Extreme Poverty - Living on less than $1.25 a day. Contemporary Social Problems Study Guide – Test 2 6. Feminization of Poverty - The disproportionate distribution of poverty among women. 7. Intergenerational Poverty - Poverty that is transmitted from one generation to the next. a. Inheritance b. Lack of jobs c. Tax revenue from cites decreasing as rich move to the suburbs d. Educated women are having a harder time finding suitable partners with higher education 8. Living Wage Laws - Laws that require state or municipal contractors, recipients of public subsidies or tax breaks, or, in some cases, all businesses to pay employees wages that are significantly above the federal minimum, enabling families to live above the poverty line. 9. Means – Tested Programs - Assistance programs that have eligibility requirements based on income. 10.Meritocracy - A social system in which individuals get ahead and earn rewards based on their individual efforts and abilities. 11.Microcredit Programs - The provision of loans to people who are generally excluded from traditional credit services because of their low socioeconomic status. a. Instead of giving large amounts of money that people have no way to pay back, people are given small amounts or items to help them make money, like cows 12.Millennium Development Goals - Eight goals that comprise an international agenda for reducing poverty and improving lives. 13.Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) - A measure of serious deprivation in the dimensions of health, education, and living standards that combines the number of deprived and the intensity of their deprivation. 14.Occupy Wall Street - A protest movement that began in 2011, and is concerned with economic inequality, greed, corruption, and the influence of corporations on government. 15.Political Alienation - A rejection of or estrangement from the political system accompanied by a sense of powerlessness in influencing government. a. Wealthy can spend money on campaigns b. Less wealthy can choose to boycott stores c. Stripping of political rights – DMV’s and voting places closing in poor areas in Alabama 16.Progressive Taxes - Taxes in which the tax rate increases as income increases, so that those who have higher incomes are taxed at higher rates. 17.Public Housing - Federally subsidized housing that is owned and operated by local public housing authorities (PHAs). 18.Relative Poverty - The lack of material and economic resources compared with some other population. a. More people in our society experience this type of poverty 19.Section 8 Housing - A housing assistance program in which federal rent subsidies are provided either to tenants (in the form of certificates and vouchers) or to private landlords. 20.Slums - Concentrated areas of poverty and poor housing in urban areas. a. 1/3 in developing countries live in slums Contemporary Social Problems Study Guide – Test 2 21.Subprime Mortgages - High-interest or adjustable-rate mortgages that require little money down and are issued to borrowers with poor credit ratings or limited credit history. 22.Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program - The largest U.S. food assistance program. 23.Temporary Assistance for Needy Families - A federal cash welfare program that involves work requirements and a five-year lifetime limit. 24.Wealth - The total assets of an individual or household minus liabilities. 25.Wealthfare - Laws and policies that benefit the rich. 26.Working Poor - Individuals who spend at least 27 weeks per year in the labor force (working or looking for work) but whose income falls below the official poverty level. Chapter 7: 1. 3D Printing – A revolutionary manufacturing technology that involves downloading a digital file containing a design for the product. A printer reads the file and shoots out the product (Made of specialized plastic or other raw materials) through a heated nozzle. 2. Automation - The replacement of human labor with machinery and equipment. 3. Behavior-Based Safety Programs - A strategy used by business management that attributes health and safety problems in the workplace to workers’ behavior, rather than to work processes and conditions. 4. Capitalism - An economic system characterized by private ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods and services for profit in a competitive market. 5. Chattel Slavery - A form of slavery in which slaves are considered property that can be bought and sold. 6. Child Labor - Involves a child performing work that is hazardous, that interferes with a child’s education, or that harms a child’s health or physical, mental, social, or moral development. 7. Compressed Workweek - A work arrangement that allows employees to condense their work into fewer days (e.g., four 10-hour days each week). 8. Corporatocracy -A system of government that serves the interests of corporations and that involves ties between government and business. 9. Economic Institution - The structure and means by which a society produces, distributes, and consumes goods and services. 10.Family and Medical Leave Act - A federal law that requires public agencies and companies with 50 or more employees to provide eligible workers with up to 12 weeks of job-protected, unpaid leave so that they can care for an ill child, spouse, or parent; stay home to care for their newborn, newly adopted, or newly placed child; or take time off when they are seriously ill, and up to 26 weeks of unpaid leave to care for a seriously ill or injured family member who is in the armed forces, including the National Guard or Reserves. 11.Flextime - A work arrangement that allows employees to begin and end the workday at different times so long as 40 hours per week are maintained. 12.Forced Labor - Also known as slavery, any work that is performed under the threat of punishment and is undertaken involuntarily. Contemporary Social Problems Study Guide – Test 2 13.Free Trade Agreement - A pact between two or more countries that makes it easier to trade goods across national boundaries and that protects intellectual property rights. a. North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement – Americas b. TrasPacific Partnership agreement – Asian countries c. The agreements can cause us to lose jobs as companies move overseas for less regulations 14.Global Economy - An interconnected network of economic activity that transcends national borders and spans the world. 15.Industrialization - The replacement of hand tools, human labor, and animal labor with machines run by steam, gasoline, and electric power. 16.Job Burnout - Prolonged job stress that can cause or contribute to high blood pressure, ulcers, headaches, anxiety, depression, and other health problems. 17.Job Exportation - The relocation of jobs to other countries where products can be produced more cheaply. 18.Labor Unions - Worker advocacy organizations that developed to protect workers and represent them at negotiations between management and labor. 19.Long-Term Unemployment Rate - The share of the unemployed who have been out of work for 27 weeks or more. 20.McDonaldization - The process by which principles of the fast-food industry (efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control through technology) are being applied to more sectors of society, particularly the workplace. a. Efficiency b. Calculability – qualitative data c. Predictability – same throughout time and location d. Control through technology – attempt to reduce cost and make it easy for customers 21.Offshoring - The relocation of jobs to other countries. 22.Outsourcing - A practice in which a business subcontracts with a third party to provide business services. 23.Post industrialization - The shift from an industrial economy dominated by manufacturing jobs to an economy dominated by service-oriented, information-intensive occupations. 24.Recession - A significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy and lasting for at least six months. 25.Socialism - An economic system characterized by state ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods and services. a. We live in a mixed economy b. Europe also has a mixed economy, but has more socialist qualities c. Capitalism is based on a free market economy d. Socialism has the government running and regulating economic institutions e. Socialism is being viewed in a more positive way today – 40% 26.Sweatshops - Work environments that are characterized by less-than- minimum wage pay, excessively long hours of work (often without overtime pay), unsafe or inhumane working conditions, abusive treatment of workers by employers, and/or the lack of worker organizations aimed to negotiate better working conditions. Contemporary Social Problems Study Guide – Test 2 27.Telecommuting - A work arrangement involving the use of information technology that allows employees to work part or full time at home or at a satellite office. 28.Toxic Workplace - A work environment in which employees are subjected to co-workers and/or bosses who engage in a variety of negative, stress inducing behaviors such as intimidation and workplace bullying, gossiping, and “backstabbing.” 29.Transnational Corporations - Also known as multinational corporations, corporations that have their home base in one country and branches, or affiliates, in other countries. 30.Underemployment - Unemployed workers as well as (1) those working part- time but who wish to work full-time, (2) those who want to work but have been discouraged from searching by their lack of success, and (3) others who are neither working nor seeking work but who want and are available to work and have looked for employment in the last year. Also refers to the employment of workers with high skills and/or educational attainment working in low-skill or low-wage jobs. a. We often don’t count underemployment in our stats. 16% are underemployed 31.Unemployment - To be currently without employment, actively seeking employment, and available for employment, according to U.S. measures of unemployment. a. 6% unemployed young people have 12% unemployment b. 40% unemployed are long term 32.Union Density - The percentage of workers who belong to unions. 33.Worker Cooperatives - Democratic business organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting their policies and making decisions; also known as workers’ self-directed enterprises. 34.Worker’s Self-Directed Enterprises - Democratic business organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting their policies and making decisions; also known as workers’ cooperatives. 35.Workforce Investment Act - Legislation passed in 1998 that provides a wide array of programs and services designed to assist individuals to prepare for and find employment. Sociological Theories Functionalist – Macrolevel. Economic institutions are among the most important. o Looks at how institutions affect each other o Economic institutions are dysfunctional when social inequality and lack of benefits are rampant. Conflict – power difference between politicians, owners and workers, etc o Says that rich influence politics, making it harder for the working poor to have a say o Looks at government cooperate assistance Symbolic Interactionalist – Work is a master status. We are influenced by those we work with Chapter 8: Contemporary Social Problems Study Guide – Test 2 1. Alternative Certification Programs - Programs whereby college graduates with degrees in fields other than education can become certified if they have “life experience” in industry, the military, or other relevant jobs. 2. Bilingual Education - In the United States, teaching children in both English and their non-English native language. 3. Bullying - Bullying “entails an imbalance of power that exists over a long period of time in which the more powerful intimidate or belittle others” a. 46% have been bullied, 16% have bullied b. Indirect – rumors, reputation c. Direct – physical or direct personal contact 4. Character Education - Education that emphasizes the moral and ethical aspects of an individual. a. Students that have character education cheat less on tests 5. Charter Schools - Schools that originate in contracts, or charters, which articulate a plan of instruction that local or state authorities must approve. 6. Cultural Imperialism - The indoctrination into the dominant culture of a society. 7. Earning Premium - The benefits of having a college degree far outweigh the cost of getting one. 8. E-Learning - Learning in which, by time or place, the learner is separated from the teacher. 9. Head Start - Begun in 1965 to help preschool children from the most disadvantaged homes, Head Start provides an integrated program of health care, parental involvement, education, and social services for qualifying children. a. Evidence says this program truly helps when the child is younger, but has mixed results as the child progresses 10.Integration Hypothesis - A theory that the only way to achieve quality education for all racial and ethnic groups is to desegregate the schools. 11.Multicultural Education -Education that includes all racial and ethnic groups in the school curriculum, thereby promoting awareness and appreciation for cultural diversity. 12.Parent Trigger Laws - State legislation that allows parents to intervene in their children’s education and schooling. a. If a school is in the bottom 5% for a certain period of time, the parents can vote to close the school 13.School Vouchers - Tax credits that are transferred to the public or private school that parents select for their child. 14.School-to-Prison Pipeline - The established relationship between severe disciplinary practices, increased rates of dropping out of school, lowered academic achievement, and court or juvenile detention involvement. 15.Self-Fulfilling Prophecy - A concept referring to the tendency for people to act in a manner consistent with the expectations of others. a. Often happens in school with teacher-student interactions 16.Stereotype Threat - The tendency of minorities and women to perform poorly on high-stakes tests because of the anxiety created by the fear that a negative performance will validate societal stereotypes about one’s member group. a. When faced with discrimination, marginalized students do worse Contemporary Social Problems Study Guide – Test 2 17.Value-Added Measurement - VAM is the use of student achievement data to assess teacher effectiveness. Sociological Theories Functionalist – education system provides important roles for society. Problems affect other institutions o Provides instruction, socialization, sorts individuals into statuses, childcare Conflict – examines inequalities in education. Says that education allows solidification of our social hierarchy o Poor people get less/worse education o Money distribution is unequal o Indoctrinates capitalization o Education only allows 1 view of history and culture Symbolic Interactionalist – looks at interactions in school o Student-teacher interactions – self-fulfilling prophecy o Teacher preconceptions
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