Final Quiz: Review
Final Quiz: Review AHI 101LR
Popular in Survey Egypt To Renaiss
Popular in Art History
This 35 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aimee A. on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AHI 101LR at University at Buffalo taught by Watrous, L V in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Survey Egypt To Renaiss in Art History at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 12/08/15
Teotihuacan, Mexico, 100-650 AD ● Largest city in the new World ● Pyramid of the Sun is shown in foreground, Pyramid of the Moon is in background ● Pyramid of the Sun- Covers the spot where the world was created/Where the twin brothers threw themselves into the pit of fire ● Bonampak tomb- tomb of a warrior/king, tells a story of coming to power Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent, Teotihuacan, 200 AD, Tlaloc and Quetzelcoatl ● Quetzelcoatl- creation god ● Each head was meant to represent each of the 365 days of the year Blood Sacrifice, Teotihuacan, 600 AD Ballgame, Mayan Cup ● Four lords playing the game, wearing elaborate headdresses and gear ● Has both a religious and political significance ● Features in creation stories and also is associated with warfare- captive warriors would be forced to play to spare their lives Serpent Mound, Ohio,1070 ● Believed to be built to represent Halley’ s comet ● Researchers also discovered that it was used as a burial site, possibly for the elite Settlement of Cahokia, Illinois, 1000-1300 ● Major urban center ● Most prominent feature is an enormous earth mound called “Monk’s Mound” ● This mound is aligned with the sun during the vernal equinox ● May have had a special use during planting or harvesting festivals Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, 1200 ● Kiva- meeting place for rituals/ instruction of youth ● Sipapu- hole that looks deep into the ground, often found in kivas ● Stands at the hub of a network of roads, which connects to some 70 different communities ● Abandoned around 1250 due to severe drought Hunter’s Mural, Utah, 1300 ● Petroglyph- writings on rocks ● Hunters draw their bows and mingle with the group of bighorn sheep ● Used as either a sign of a successful hunt or part of a ritual to ensure a successful hunt African Art (recitation) 1) Name two specific uses of African art. ● Used in ceremonies and rituals ● represented different gods 2) According to the video, what happens to an African artwork when it is put in a museum? ● Artwork became useless and lost its traditional meaning and purpose 3) What attracted European artists to African art? ● Provided inspiration due to no longer needing to be “correct”, artwork could be made anyway an artist wanted and still have the piece make sense 4) What changes did African art affect on European art? ● Art became more emotional, shapes became abstract, and cubism became popular (Pablo Picasso was heavily influenced by African Art) 5) Why is the Dogon statue sprinkled with water? ● It is a ceremony which asks for rain Head of a king, Yoruba, 12 – 15th century ● Cast bronze head with scarification patterns (decorations made by scarring) ● Represents a female oni- one who is born of sacred land ● no known use, but may have been attached to wooden figures to represent deceased individuals ● Naturalism of these sculptures contradicted everything European’s thought about African Art Head of an Oba, Benin, 16th century ● Oba- king ● Animistic religion- non human entities possess a spiritual essence ● These statues would be placed on altars along with elephant tusks to represent the oba’s power ● Early statues were small, and grew in size which could represent the growing power of the kind over time Great Friday Mosque, Jenne, Mali, based on 13th century original ● Built out of adobe brick, a sun-dried mixture of clay and straw ● Torons- wooden beams that project out of the mosque that allow for permanent supports for scaffolding for replastering each year ● Traditional houses in the area resemble the mosque African Art: Legacy of Oppression Movie Questions 1) How did Africans use their art? Give two examples. ● Used in ceremonies: represented different gods/ancestors ● Used in war: revenge, scare tactics 2) Why is African art unrealistic? What was it trying to express? ● African art exemplified certain features of people, making certain body parts larger or smaller to add a distinct personality to each piece 3) What attracted Europeans to African art? ● African Art allowed Europeans to get away from realism which they had been so accustomed to 4) How do Africans feel about the display of African art in museums? ● Africans feel that if their artwork is displayed in museums, it loses its importance Four Uses of African Art 1. Royal Art 2. Shrines 3. Spirits 4. Masks Chi Rho Iota page from the Book of Kells, Scotland Late 8th- Early 9th century ● Illuminated Manuscript ● Local barbarian style- interlocking lines, curves, and linear attributes ● decorated gospel book- tool used to convert people to Christianity ● Highly stylized Matthew Writing his Gospel, Lindisfarne Gospel, 720 ● Influenced by Roman Art ● stylized Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Germany, 800 ● Functioned as Charlemagne’s private place of worship ● Central plan is similar to the church of San Vitale ● Chapel of Charlemagne was a return to monumental architecture ● Reflects elements of Islamic architecture Monastery of St. Gall (plan), Switzerland, 819 ● Scriptorium- separate room in a monastery where studying/teaching was performed by the monks ● Located at the center is the cloister, an enclosed courtyard around which open all the buildings that are central to the lives of the monks ● conceptual plan- required special/specific architectural planning Reliquary of St. Foy, France, 900 ● Reliquary- container which held the bones of a saint, believed to have divine power ● Held the remains of a teenage girl Christ in Majesty, Church of St. Pierre, Moissac Christ in Majesty, Church of St. Pierre, Moissac ● Tympanum- semicircle directly over the door of a Romanesque church ● visual representation of the Second Coming ● Four winged creatures symbolizing the evangelists frame him on either side- Matthew the man(upper left), Mark the lion (lower left), Luke the ox (lower right), and John the eagle (upper right) ● On either side and below each of the winged creatures are 24 elders The Last Judgment Tympanum, Cathedral of St. Lazare, France **Artist: Gislebertus** The Last Judgment Tympanum, Cathedral of St. Lazare, France Artist: Gislebertus ● Jesus is shown in the middle ● To his right (our left)- Heaven is portrayed, with the Virgin Mary shown as the queen of heaven ● To his left (our right)- Hell is shown along with the devil, capturing sinners ● Inscription next to Jesus states, “I alone dispose of all things and crown the just. Those who follow crime I judge and punish.” ● Two pilgrims are shown on the bottom with a shell and a cross, showing how past pilgrimages will play a role in the judgment, and they will be saved St. Denis, Paris, France, 1140-1144 ● First building to use Gothic design and elements ● Pilgrimage sight ● Clerestory- windows that allow light to flow into a building, this was a major improvement since churches were built entirely out of stone making them very heavy ● Ambulatory- semidome portion of a Church ● Rib Vault- new vault that was designed to help achieve greater height for buildings ● Scholasticism- staff hired by the church who would teach Chartres Cathedral, France, 1155- 1220 ● Sancta Camisa- “sacred shirt” worn by Mary ● This was a sign from Mary herself that after the old church was burned down, that a newer, bigger, and better cathedral should be made to commemorate her ● “Flying Buttresses”- helped stabilize the church and allowed for more windows to be used The Jeweled City: The Cathedral of Chartres 1) What was the medieval Cathedral meant to be a symbol of? ● It was a symbol of reaching out towards God 2) How was the pilgrimage understood by medieval Europeans? ● It was meant as a representation of one’s journey through life 3) Why were the medieval Cathedral and its windows thought of as the “illustrated book of the poor?” ● The windows were an educational tool which told stories for any pilgrim to see 4) How was the role of light understood in the Middle Ages? ● Light was the 1st form of life ● Way to get out of Earth and enter the purity of Heaven ● Glimpse of the perfection of its creator 5) What did the labyrinth at Chartres symbolize? ● The labyrinth symbolized the path to God Altarpiece of St. Francis, Berlinghieri, 1235 ● Virgin and Child Enthroned, Florence, 1280 Artist: Cimabue ● Mary and baby Jesus are surrounded by angels, with Hebrew prophets placed underneath ● Byzantine iconography is used, seeing as Mary is pointing at Jesus, rather than holding him ● hierarchic scale is used Virgin and Child Enthroned, Florence, 1305 Artist: Giotto ● Exhibits greater spatial consistency and sculptural solidity while retaining some of Cimabue’s conventions ● Mary is holding onto Jesus’ leg, rather than pointing at him ● Angels are seen kneeling in front of the throne Mary is sitting on, rather than on the sides Arena Chapel, Padua, 1305 Designed by: Giotto ● Buon Fresco- “Good Fresco”- water based paint which is applied to wet plaster ● Tempera painting- paint applied to dry plaster ● Each scene tells a story from “The Golden Legend”- a book about Jesus which contained stories not found in the Bible Allegory and Effects of Good Government, A. Lorenzetti, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, 1340 ● Depicts the many scenes found in daily life in Siena, we have a city view as well as a country view ● A woman is shown who represents security, who holds a scroll which bids patrons to enter without fear, as she has removed all harm January and February Book of Hours, Limbourg Brothers, 1415 ● Book of Hours- prayer book for wealthy ○ Told when to pray during certain times of the day as well as when during the year ○ Included a calendar of holy days ● January depicts feast/party ● February depicts family on farm, sitting in front of a fire, while other men work outside Merode Altarpiece, Robert Campin, Engelbrecht Family, 1432 ● Symbolic realism- details which have a symbolic meaning ● Triptych- central painting with two sides that fold inward ● Oil painting- allowed for much greater detail than other paints ● Symbolic Realism- ○ lilies- virginity ○ pot with water & towel- purity ○ candle burned out- spirit of god Ghent Altarpiece, H&J Van Eyck, 1432 ● Upper panel: ○ God is shown in the middle, sitting on a throne, with a crown on his head ○ Mary is to his left ○ John the Baptist on the right ○ Adam and Eve are shown on the very end panels ● Bottom panel: ○ sacrificial lamb- Jesus ○ Fountain of life is shown ○ Old testament is shown on the right hand side Arnolfini Wedding Portrait, J. Van Eyck, 1434 ● Shoes off- sacrament ● Dog- loyalty ● Wife- appears to be pregnant and next to bed- maternal duties/ domestic work ● holding hands ● 3 oranges- prosperity ● Chandelier with 4 candle slots- only 1 light- Jesus
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