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by: Hailey Watt

EXAM 2 REVIEW Psych 1000

Hailey Watt
GPA 3.86

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General Psychology
Julianne Ludlam
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hailey Watt on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1000 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Julianne Ludlam in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 12/08/15
Psych 1000 - Ludlam Review Sheet 2 Topics: Sensation and Perception, Learning and Conditioning, and Memory TOPIC 1: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 5.1 Sensation to Perception 1. Sensation: sensory signals 2. Perception: interpretation of sensory signals 3. Transduction: process of turning a stimuli to a signal 4. Psychophysics a. Absolute Threshold: minimum amount of stimuli to be noticed b. Difference Threshold (“Just-Noticeable Difference” and Weber’s Law): Difference in stimuli until it is noticed 5. Signal Detection Theory a. Response bias 6. Sensory Adaptation Our Senses  For each sense, where are the receptors? In other words, where does transduction occur?  For Vision and Hearing, know pathway from initial sensation to the brain. Make flashcards!  Which sense is the only one that bypasses the thalamus? smell 5.2. Vision a. The Eye i. Cornea: color that expands to let color in ii. Pupil (Iris): lets in light iii. Lens 1 Psych 1000 - Ludlam iv. Retina: back of the eye b. Receptor Cells in the Eye i. Rods: detect black and white-low brightness ii. Cones: detect color-brightness iii. Fovea: densely pack cones c. Transmission from Eye to Brain i. Ganglion cells  Optic Nerve  Optic Chiasm  Thalamus  Primary Visual Cortex (in Occipital Lobe) ii. Blind spots (optic disc) iii. Ventral stream: below iv. Dorsal stream: above d. Color Vision i. Trichromatic theory: 3 waves of color ii. Opponent-process theory: seeing the opposite color e. Gestalt principles i. Proximity: ii. Similarity: closely related enough iii. Continuity or Good continuation iv. Closure v. Illusory contours f. Figure and ground g. Face perception i. Prosopagnosia: amnesia that forgets faces ii. Fusiform gyrus: part of the brain dealing with faces h. Depth perception 2 Psych 1000 - Ludlam i. Binocular depth perception and Binocular disparity ii. Monocular depth perception and monocular depth cues (general concept only) i. Size and distance perception i. Ames boxes: shorter at one side longer at the other j. Motion perception i. Motion aftereffects ii. Stroboscopic movement k. Object Constancies (understand the different types generally) 5.3. Hearing (Auditory Sense or Audition) a. Sound wave i. Amplitude: loudness ii. Frequency: pitch b. The Ear i. Outer Ear ii. Eardrum (tympanic membrane): vibrates iii. Ossicles (English and Latin names) in middle ear: 3 bones iv. Cochlea in the inner ear v. Hair cells on basilar membrane vi. Auditory Nerve to Thalamus vii. Primary Auditory Cortex in the Temporal Lobe c. Auditory localization d. Vestibular sense: 5.4. Taste (Gustation) a. Papillae 3 Psych 1000 - Ludlam b. Taste Buds c. Taste receptor cells d. Five basic qualities e. Culture influences taste 5.5. Smell (Olfaction) a. Olfactory Epithelium (receptors inside this lining) b. Olfactory Bulb  Olfactory Nerve  Amygdala/Cortex 5.6. Touch (Haptic Sense) a. Kinesthetic sense: balance b. Tactile stimulation: touch c. Primary somatosensory Cortex in parietal lobe d. Pain – Why is pain crucial? Why is our experience of pain complex? i. Two types of pain fibers (slow/fast) – what makes them slow or fast? What are the different types of fibers for? e. Gate Control Theory of Pain Applying Psychological Reasoning (page 180 and lecture)  Is there evidence for ESP? 4 Psych 1000 - Ludlam TOPIC 2: LEARNING AND CONDITIONING 6.1 Learning 1. Behaviorism: observation 2. Behaviorist Principles (mostly from lecture) o Emphasis on Learning: everything you learned is from experience o Anti-Mentalism: Everything must be observable o No differences between species: everything learned is experience 3. Nonassociative learning: responding the single stimulus o Habituation: getting used to a certain stimuli i. Dishabituation: divorced from habituation o Sensitization: increase in behavioral response-pain 6.2 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning 1. Terms: a. Neutral stimulus: stimulus that gives no response b. Conditioning trials vs. testing or critical trials: 2. Unconditioned Response (UR) 3. Unconditioned Stimulus (US) 4. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) 5. Conditioned Response (CR) 6. 5 Psych 1000 - Ludlam Key Classical Conditioning Concepts 1. Acquisition: initial stage the the response is first acquired. a. Contiguity: conditioning leading up to goal 2. Second-order conditioning 3. Extinction 4. Spontaneous Recovery 5. Stimulus Generalization vs. Stimulus Discrimination Evolutionary Significance and Classical Conditioning 1. Conditioned Taste Aversion 2. Biological Preparedness 3. Rescorla-Wagner model a. Prediction error (positive and negative) Phobias and Classical Conditioning 1. Phobia or Fear conditioning (Watson and Little Albert) 2. Counterconditioning 6.3 Operant or Instrumental Conditioning  What is the difference between classical and operant conditioning? Classical is teaching the association and operant is acting on a behavior  What researchers should be associated with operant conditioning? BF Skinner 6 Psych 1000 - Ludlam 1. Law of Effect (Thorndike and puzzle boxes) Behaviors followed by positive outcomes, are strengthened, and behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened. 2. Skinner Box (Operant Chamber) 3. Reinforcer a. Primary vs. Secondary Reinforcers 4. Shaping: reinforcement to gradually guide an animal 5. Positive vs. Negative Reinforcement 6. Positive vs. Negative Punishment Schedules of Reinforcement 1. Continuous Reinforcement: reinforcing after it occurs 2. Partial (or intermittent) Reinforcement: reinforcing after certain amount of time 3. Schedules (also know examples of 4 combinations: variable ratio, fixed ratio, variable interval, and fixed interval)  Ratio  Interval  Fixed  Variable 7 Psych 1000 - Ludlam 4. Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect: greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement  What schedule is the best for rapid initial learning? Which is associated with the greatest persistence of behavior? Critiques of Operant Conditioning 1. Biological Constraints 2. Learning without Reinforcement a. Latent Learning (Tolman’s classic study) b. Insight Learning Biology of Reinforcement 1. Dopamine 2. Nucleus accumbens 6.4 Observational Learning 1. Observational Learning a. Bandura’s Observational Studies (Bobo Doll) 2. Modeling 3. Vicarious Learning 4. Fear learning through observation 5. Mirror Neurons 8 Psych 1000 - Ludlam 9 Psych 1000 - Ludlam TOPIC 3: MEMORY Attention (from lecture, also on pages 135-136, in Ch 4) Selective attention 1. Change Blindness 7.1 Memory Functions of Memory (Information Processing Model of Memory) 1. Encoding 2. Storage a. Consolidation 3. Retrieval Brain Processes Involved in Memory 1. Equipotentiality and Lashley 2. Long-term potentiation (LTP) a. Hebb’s rule: “Cells that fire together, wire together” b. NMDA receptor c. Doogie mice 3. HDAC (enzyme class that inhibits gene expression and acts as a brake on memory storage) 4. Hippocampus and Medial Temporal Lobes a. Important for formation of new memories 5. Reconsolidation 10 Psych 1000 - Ludlam 7.2 Maintenance of Memories over Time Storage of Memory (Three-Part Model of Memory, or Atkinson- Shiffrin Model) 1. Sensory Memory or Sensory Register a. Iconic and echoic memory 2. Short-Term Memory (STM, Working Memory) a. Duration/Memory span or capacity b. Rehearsal c. Chunking 3. Long-Term Memory (LTM) a. Duration/Capacity b. Long-term vs. Working Memory: Serial Position Effect (What types of memory are likely demonstrated by the following?) i. Primacy Effect: ii. Recency Effect: 7.3 Organization of Long-Term Memory Levels of Processing Model  Since LTM is based on meaning, what is the best way of encoding information so that it moves to LTM? Why? 1. Maintenance Rehearsal 2. Elaborative Rehearsal (or Elaborative Encoding) Cognitive Schemas (mental frameworks for understanding our world) 11 Psych 1000 - Ludlam a. Schemas are culture-bound b. Schemas influence memory Networks of Association (Semantic Networks): Items in memory are linked together by their semantic relationships (their meanings). 1. Spreading Activation model: When one item is brought to mind, the pathways leading to meaningfully related items will be activated as well. Retrieval Cues and Long-Term Storage 1. Encoding Specificity a. Context-Dependent Memory b. State-Dependent Memory 2. Mnemonics 7.4 Long-Term Memory Systems 1. Explicit Memory (and its counterpart, Declarative Memory) a. Episodic Memory b. Semantic Memory 2. Implicit Memory a. Procedural (Motor) Memory 3. Prospective Memory 7.5 Memory Failures Forgetting and Remembering Failures 1. Transience (often associated with decay of memories, but may more often be related to interference) 12 Psych 1000 - Ludlam a. Interference (Proactive and Retroactive) 2. Blocking a. Tip of the tongue phenomenon 3. Absentmindedness 4. Amnesia a. Retrograde b. Anterograde 5. Persistence 7.6 Memory Distortion 1. Memory bias 2. Flashbulb memories 3. Source misattribution a. Source amnesia b. Cryptomnesia 4. Suggestibility and eyewitness accuracy 5. False Memories 13


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