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Exam #4 Study Guide

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by: Lauren Vance

Exam #4 Study Guide ISS 215

Lauren Vance
GPA 3.8

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Social Difference and Inequality
Dr. Kelly
Study Guide
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"You can bet I'll be grabbing Lauren studyguide for finals. Couldn't have made it this week without your help!"
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Vance on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ISS 215 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Kelly in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 259 views. For similar materials see Social Difference and Inequality in Social Sciences at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 12/08/15
Lecture #1 Socioecological Inequality ­the ways in which humans, nonhumans, and ecosystems intersect to produce  hierarchies— privileges and disadvantages— within and across species and space  that ultimately place at at great risk ­no primary source or origin of inequalities ­inequalitites have been produced from capitalism, industrial civilization, racism,  patriarchy, and Western culture •not only the result of capitalism Capitalism ­intersectionality: people and animals are both being discriminated against •cities take up less space ­can walk everywhere instead of drive, so saves energy •factory farm ­mass production of animals for food •sweatshop in China ­make clothes ­workers get low pay Total Liberation ­Emerged as a result of a merging between 3 different factors: •Intensification of socioecological crises and a perceived need to respond to threats to  nonhuman natures •Frustration with the relative ineffectiveness of dominant ecological movement tactics ­these activists think the ends justify the means ­ex.: free animals in a lab •think it’s fine since the animals are being tortured ­Influence from other social movements •ex.: Black Panther Movement  Radicalness ­The only possibility for total liberation is through radical actions ­see the crisis, and see there’s a need to respond to the crisis, take the crisis action into  their own hands because they think no one is doing anything that is effective ­Intensification of the crisis, frustration with ineffectiveness, perceived need to respond to threats ­radical activists lose their white privilege, through behavior deemed as deviant, state  repression radicalizes radical activists as the “other” •considered political radical deviants Total Liberation Goals ­fight speciesism and anthropocentrism, while also fighting racism, sexism, classism,  heterosexism, among other forms of discrimination ­radical activists are attempting to challenge social constructed hierarchies with the goal  of liberating all ­struggle for a more democratic world ­solidarity among movements/intersectionality •ex.: Seattle Lesbian and animal movement ­these groups want to avoid linked oppressions  Environmental Justice and Total Liberation ­Differences: •environmental just ice us a reformist model of social change ­works within the state, corporate, and legal system •Total Liberaton is a radical model of social change ­doesn't recognize the state, corporate, and legal system as legitimate Total Liberation Take Away Message ­Social change is a response to inequalities ­Social change occurs through movements that: •challenge the political, corporate, and legal system — which can happen at multiple  levels ­activist: radical level or welfarist/pragmatist level ­non­activist: citizenship, political policy, private sphere behaviors/consumer  behavior Total Liberation Goals ­the fight for equality for nonhuman animals and nature ­equality NOT sameness ­equality through justice, allow animals to have space: •justice for nonhuman animals can be achieved in different ways ­Wildlife Corridors  •ecoduct in France •Green Bridges in Germany (where land goes onto of bridge) •animal bridge in Montana  •the Netherlands was one of the first places to make bridges for wildlife •wildlife overpass in Washington Guest Speaker: Inequality and Japan Inequalities Exist Everywhere ­radicals don’t see this as a problem •see some inequalities as natural ­do inequalities lead to inequities? •lead into imbalances to changes of our society, imbalances of power Inequalities in Japan ­Minamata Disease •what the boy in the picture in the wheelchair has •helped lead to the modern environmental movement •discovered in 1956 •form of mercury poisoning •caused by a plant in southern Japan, which generated a lot of mercury that was  getting to the ocean •worst sufferers of the disease, are children who were born to mothers who had  Minamata Disease •inequalities and environmental injustice issues •most of the mercury in the bay washed up on the shores ­the people living in the town Minamata, where the mercury plant was located, did  not contract the disease ­the people in the town next to Minamata easily contracted the disease due to the  shell fish 1 bought shell fish and ate the shellfish from the bay, since they were poor and it was cheap since it was a local product and they could afford it 2 inequality since they were poor and the only food that they could afford ­Wanted to get rid of the lowest class (untouchables), so they passes a law to say they  don’t exist anymore •when doing a census, they just do not exist ­from the book we read: •how many people came to the country ­a lot went to Purdue and Brazil ­Japan late 80’s­90’s in economic boom, and needed more industrial workers •known for having difficulty allowing foreign people to come into their country, so didn’t like the idea of temporary visas •thought that they could bring back Japanese from Brazil and Purdue ­problem is that they spoke Portuguese and not Japanese ­completely different people, which caused difficulties settling in: 1 liked soccer, not baseball 2 liked sausage and beer, not Japanese food ­race and ethnicity are social constructs, not biological constructs ­in­group: family; people in the community ­out­group: outside family; outside community (governor) ­origin of the handshake:  •don’t touch at first, they first check for weapons by grabbing forearms Lecture #2: Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Movement ­raciest ideologies existed ­exonomic conditions: most African Americans were fully and exploitatively integrated  into the Southern economy ­the political structures: federal government did little to alleviate oppressive condition •Jim Crow laws until 1965 ­result of these was structured inequality  Events leading up to the Civil Rights Movement: ­revolts by slaves against their masters ­the Underground Railroad •effort to escape slavery ­massive growth of NAACP Civil Rights Movement ­Civil Rights Movement began between 1953­1955 with the Supreme Court’s historic  case of Brown v. Board of Education •nonviolent sit ins of college students in the South in the 1960’s •violent protests later in the 1960’s in northern and western cities ­Black Power Movement— a movement with radical political goals Changes in Radical Inequality ­World War I transformed the economy where there was industrialization in urban areas  and less agricultural production ­Migration of African Americans to the North, since manual production of cotton was  decreasing ­African American colleges, churches, and civic institutions provided places to organize,  network, and education ­Migration allowed Blacks to vole and hold office in the North ­Harlem Renaissance encouraged Blacks to take pride in themselves and their cultural  and literally heritage   African American Mobility ­educational attainment has increased ­no significant improvement in the income gap since the 1970’s ­Blacks and class: most men are still working­class, middle class has grown and upper  class can be traced to ancestors who were “free” during the slave era ­education, income, and class all have an impact on residence •residential segregation hiders access and opportunities  Subjective Factors of Status Attainment ­educational research shows characteristics for Whites and Blacks differ: •Whites: performance and ability, high grades are a result of personality and  intelligence •Blacks: self­reliance and ambition; high grades are a result of personality such as  conformity and ambition color is another non­rational subjective factor Civil Rights Movement ­took place between the mid­1950’s and 1960’s ­driven by concerns over inequities in political and economic power, and historical,  cultural, and social conditions shaped its development and form ­in the late 19th and early 20th centuries African Americans had few resources with  which to launch a massive civil rights campaign •racist ideologies discouraged support from Whites •most African Americans were fully but exploitatively integrated into the Southern  economic and political structure 1 there were few economic opportunities that open to the Blacks because of Jim  Crow laws •the federal government did little to alleviate the oppressive conditions under which  Blacks lived ­the North and the federal government did little while Black subjugation and White  supremacy were being systematically institutionalized in the South ­Jim Crow laws made it legal to spend less public money on Black than on White  institutions The Changing Context of racial Inequality ­among the economic changes, was a decline in the centrality of agriculture in the  Southern economy coupled with increasing industrialization of the urban South ­with the decline in immigration there was an increase in demand by northern industry for laborers from the South ­Before and after WWI there was a massive African American migration to the North and to cities to seek employment in industries ­cities provided greater opportunities for Blacks to get organized, to receive more  education, and to lay the basis for an expanded Black middle class ­African American colleges, churches, and civic and fraternal institutions provided  economic resources and a communication network ­the influence of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference during most of the  movement’s career suggests the relevance of religious institutions ­non­violent sit­ins in the South in the early 1960’s •brought financial support from the outside and northern groups ­violent sit­ins in the later 1960’s  •happened in northern and western cities of the south •produced White backlash ­because of violence  ­because of the switch in focus of problems from the rural South to the urban  ghettos of the North ­class and economic factors were implicated in the shifting allegiances to racial  inequality ­racist ideology was still an underlying element in accounting for not only social and  economic inequality in the South but also reactions to Black attempts to eliminate it ­both economic factors and racism played roles in the dynamics of racial inequality and  reactions to it ­migration to the North meant a greater probability of voting but also led to Blacks  holding political office in many major cities ­governmental policies continued to underrepresent the interests of Blacks ­federal loans became available as a substitute for local ones, which made Blacks less  dependent on local White funding institutions ­WWII made changes to the situation of Blacks •unionization of Blacks was less difficult than a decade earlier •employment conditions has improved •discrimination was still prevalent ­Harry Truman (1948) when running for president had to present a platform that showed  a strong desire for civil rights if he wanted to defeat his opponents •he ordered the desegregation of the military ­late 1940’s “cold war”  •Union used “red baiting” •White supremacists argued that communists were behind the movement for Black  equality A Brief History ­Brown vs. Board of Education •declared segregation in education to be unconstitutional •stated need for education facilities to be integrated between Blacks and Whites ­ 1960’s sit­ins  •protested segregation of public facilities •sit­ins in lobbies of motels, swim­ins at pools, play­ins at recreational areas, kneel­ins  at churches, read­ins at library ­1961 the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)  •advocated direct nonviolent means of protest •organized freedom rides from Washington DC to New Orleans ­1963 most violent demonstrations occurred in Birmingham, Alabama •Eugene “Bull” Connor came down violently on protestors •his violent response was seen on TV by millions •officials used dogs, high­pressure hoses, cattle prods, clubs, and a police tank to beat down the protestors ­changes that had occurred that helped alter the nature of the Black movement: •the slow approach of the federal movement to the problems experiences by Blacks on a day­to­day basis, coupled with the patient nonviolent method of MLK, convinced  some in the Civil Rights Movement of the need for more drastic action on their own  behalf •the focus of the civil rights movement had been on the South, but the migration of  many Blacks into the cities of the North and West led to a shift in goal emphasis  within the movement •violent riots occurred during the “long hot summers” of the 1960’sin many major cities  (Chicago, Clevland, Milwaukee, Dayton, San Fran, Detroit, Newark,  Boston,  Buffalo) Mobility and the Attainment Process Among African Americans ­there’s no significant reduction in the income gap between White and Black families  since the mid­1970’s ­class distribution •most Black men are still in the working class since they don’t have upward mobility •if Blacks do move up, it’s most likely to an adjacent category rather than an upper  non­manual position •Black middle class has grown in recent decades •factors have been linked to the middle­class growth, including industrialization,  urbanization, increased education and collective action, and occupational  differentiation Race and the Status Attainment Process ­Blacks themselves feel that their path to occupational attainment is made more difficult  by the lack of decent available jobs for which they are qualified, the concentrated  poverty of their neighborhoods, and their lack of social contracts in the inner city •they believe that luck, connections, education, help from those who have made it, and being from the right neighborhood make all the difference ­Black women had flatter and lower earning trajectories over their lifetimes than White  women The Women’s Movement Feminism and Women’s Rights ­Hurst uses feminism and women’s rights interchangeable, stating two general but  contrasting goals: •women be treated the same as men •women are different and deserve social protection  ­A hot­button word that makes people take a stance ­TIME magazine proposed banning the word in 2015 Feminism ­calls for women to be visible in society ­does not mean all genders should be the same ­embraces difference •has a multitude of viewpoints and beliefs ­not “men vs. women” ­equity for ALL genders ­not just women’s rights, is gender equity History of the Women’s Movement ­women’s movement is the U.S. has gone through several phases •began in the late 1700/early 1800’s •push for women’s rights have never died, but ebbs and flows in the public eye •phases related to current structures within society ­Feminist movement began in mid 1800’s ­after the 1800’s the women’s movement and the feminist movement became  interrelated Early Efforts ­women joined abolitionists and worker’s rights movements •1830’s •banned from joining unions or considered unqualified for leadership positions •not allowed to attend antislavery meetings ­Soujourner Truth was a women’s rights activist •gave the speech “Ain’t I a Women” Women’s Suffrage ­since women were not allowed at meetings of many kinds, women created their own  organizations •1st women’s rights organization meeting demanded equality ­recognized men dominated in religion, political life, family life, and in employment  opportunities ­demanded the right to vote ­demanded control over property ­demanded the right to a divorce ­demanded rights over children  Waves of Feminism ­3 significan waves of the feminist/women’s rights movement •4th wave is happening right now 1st Wave of Feminism ­1848­ mdi1960’s (longest wave) •argued that women were equal to or morally superior to men •women and men rallied and protested to allow equal opportunities for both sexes in  public spheres ­voting, education, and employment ­women didn’t want their worth to be based on their beauty or morals ­class and race divisions •largely middle and upper class •ignored subgroups ­after the Civil War…. •women told not to take focus away from Black rights 2nd Wave of Feminism ­1960’s­1990’s ­2nd wave was more in tune with broader social issues •women still not given status in Civil Rights Movement •Eco­feminist introduced ­implied that women are closer to nature ­1980’s •political, economic, and social conditions created strong anti­feminist  countermovement •feminists portrayed as anti­male, lesbian, humorless, politically correct •Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) (1848­present day) ­proposed in 1823 ­basically the 14th ammendment for women, but is not in the constitution 3rd Wave of Feminism ­1980’s­1990’s •younger generation •refusal to think us vs. them •celebrated ambiguity and diversity •personal empowerment instead of political actions •difficult to categorize because 3rd wave is anti­categorization Global Feminism ­feminism is now a global movement •not just middle­class white women •still splintered •many different ideas and definitions Where are we now? ­Equal Rights Amendment or similar in some states, but not all ­continued fights over access to birth control and pregnancy terminations ­gender equity is still a problem Lecture #4: Wild Cats Why study Jaguars? ­animals and sociology ­think animals and nature in disadvantaged populations ­wild animals vs. domestic animals •sociologist point of view 1 natural habitat is harder to live in than a domestic habitat 2 wild animals are the furthest from us (interacting­wise) 3 thought of cats since they are nocturnal and barely anyone interacts with them  ——> brought her to thinking of jaguars Trophic Cascades and Rewilding ­key stone predators (wales, wolves, etc.) are vital to maintain ecosystem balance Wild Cats ­most iconic creature on the planet ­many wild cat species are heading toward extinction •killed and skinned •loss of habitat ­Main threats towards extinction: •hunting •habitat loss ­livestock communities have taken over land •hunting of prey ­ex.: jaguars and deer; if there is no deer then the jaguars will not survive  ­jaguar has 89 prey species (but a lot of them are endangered) ­if the wild cats disappear we will lose a main part of our ecosystem ­Panthera •program that is trying to save big cats •work with the human communities to try to save the big cats ­tiger conservation in Thailand •it is not too late to save the big cats Jaguar Corridor Initiative ­in Cost Rica ­Lisdon National Park is a corridor •least population of people ­biological corridors goals •will link Mexico all the way to South America •help the people in the communities to co­exist with jaguars and pumas 1 people are scared of them, but there is no facts to prove that they attack people  without being provoked 1 only attack when injured and cant find their own food ­mountainous terrain, which is hard to get around the corridors ­she interviewed and observed farmers who’s livestock was attacked •Ticos­ native Costa Ricans ­eco­tourism is centered around a river with many rapids Hunting Embedded in Masculinity and Tradition ­hunting culture is not focused solely on jaguars ­it is a “survive off the land as our ancestors have” tradition ­Why the people in Costa Rica hunt wildlife: •“The mentality is my grandfather and father did it back then because they needed  money and meal but now we do it to keep tradition” Feline Skins for Sale ­depends on age of the animal •younger jaguars have nicer fur ­$5,000 for the skins on the Blackmarket ­when killing a big cat, there is a feeling of power •inter­relates with masculinity ­usually people who kill jaguars/pumas are very poor and need the money Felines as Food ­8 of 38 Cabécar mentioned eating felines ­ages ranges from 90 years old to a man in his mid­20’s ­eat wild cats as “mountain meat” Biological Corridor Groups ­groups of people meet the try helping save the jaguars/ big cats ­children are even getting involved, which will hopefully lead to them not killing the big  cats Panthera ­14 of the 24 ranchers Panthera attended to during their four year program were part of  my 131 sample ­cow ranchers were not big to begin with, but now with global economy they are  attempting to raise cows to sell their meet ­0 success rate of relocation of jaguars/pumas Wild Animal Sovereignty ­human responsibility to wild animals is determined by norms of justice between human  and wild animal communities ­placing “animals into the broader category of nature of nature of ecosystem” dismisses  their individuality as a nonhuman being •biodiversity throws every animals into the same category (not a good way to  categorize; have to think of them individually) ­wild animals have territory free from human colonization, invasion, exploitation, and  management • sometimes farmers have to accept that they will see a wild cat walk through their  property and there is nothing that they can do about it


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