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FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE!! This includes all of the notes from the entire semester!! Study Hard! You can do it!!
Kinesiology 2010
Dr Schmidt
Study Guide
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This 125 page Study Guide was uploaded by aleavick on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KINS 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Dr Schmidt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Kinesiology 2010 in Kinesiology at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 12/08/15
FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE INCLUDING ALL MATERIAL FOR ENTIRE SEMESTER STUDY GUIDE EXAM 1 Chapter 1 Class Notes Top Hat Question : Which of the following is true A. All exercise is physical activity B. All physical activity is exercise No. because things such as showering and tieing your shoes is physical activity but not considered exercise C. Both : Which of the following is NOT considered a physical activity A. Showering B. Running a 10K race C. Texting a friend D. Yawning -Kinesiology : From the word Kinetic or Kinesis= To produce or cause motion : There are various names for kinesiology and have many different departments such as exercise and sport science, to physical education, to sport studies : Is a discipline= a body of knowledge organized around a theme or focus : Human Physical activity is the focus or centerpiece that kinesiology is organized around -Kinesiology Textbook Definition : Voluntary movement intentionally performed to achieve a goal in sport, exercise or some other sphere of life -Movements that are not physical activity using our definition : Not voluntary - Eye blink, coughing, sleep movements shivering, muscle spasms : No purposeful - Fidgeting, gum chewing, aimless movements -Too inclusive definition : “ All movements voluntary, or involuntary performed by humans” -Too exclusive definition : “… bodily movement that is produced by skeletal muscles and substantially increases energy expenditure “ : Voluntary movement intentionally performed for specific purposes, requires a substantial amount of energy -Caveats: 1. Skeletal muscle activity can occur without movement : Isometrics- maintain a position ( Examples- Planks, wall sits) 2. Non-voluntary e-stim can achieve goals -Precise definition : Skeletal muscle activation performed to achieve a goal in sport, exercise or some other sphere of life : BUT- stick to the textbook definition -Two- General categories of physical activity 1. Skilled movement : Requires accuracy of: Direction, force, rhythm, timing : Ex. Hammering a nail A. Motor Skills : General skills mastered during normal development : Ex. Throwing, kicking, running, hopping, crawling : Happen early on in life, building blocks learn when very young and refine them as we get older B. Sport Skills : Build upon basic motor skills : Organized in game contexts : Specific motor skills that you have to learn and achieve : We know how to throw but then when playing baseball you have to refine it to do it efficiently and effectively for the game : Sports- test our motor skills in different ways : Requires practice to master 2. Exercise : Can do exercise with basic movements : Moving body to increase metabolic weight or moving with weights : Can have 3 different types of goals 1. Health-related 2. Training/conditioning for sport, work, recreation 3. Therapeutic (for fun, you enjoy it) : Not the same as physical activity : Exercise is…. : A subset of physical activity : Planned -Having a schedule : Structured -Can be modified by duration and intensity and - Dose of physical activity- how long to do the activity, how many repetitions, amount of weight, : Repetitive - One exercise session once a month- will not achieve in lasting improvements or meet any goals -Repeated over time to induce the physiological changes and maintain these changes : Performed to improve or maintain some aspect of physical fitness Top Hat : List one physical factor or attribute important to someone’s physical fitness? -Weight - Comprised of a lot of different things - Your height -Your muscle - More accurate to say Body Composition : How much fat you have related to your size -Strength : Yes. A Component of fitness -Endurance : Different from cardio endurance : Muscular endurance - How many times can you repeat a certain movement -Or move a certain amount of weight for reptition -Cardio respiratory fitness : Can sustain large body movement for an extended period time : Running a marathon- good cardio respiratory fitness -Heart Rate : indicator of cardio fitness -BMI (Body Mass Index) -Not a great measure -Cannot distinguish between fat, weight, or muscle weight -NFL average weight would be Obese - Body weight builders- by BMI they are extremely obese -Diet : Related to body composition -Muscle Mass : Getting older- start running out of muscle Physical Fitness - Physical factors related to the ability to perform physical activity -5 Major factors include : Muscular endurance : Muscular strength : Aerobic power (cardio respiratory endurance) : Body composition : Flexibility 1.) Muscular Endurance : The ability to sustain Physical activity for extended periods of time without stopping : Ex. Benching 75% of max for a certain amount of reps : Ex Ultra marathons- the north face Canadian death race : Ex. Amount of squats/ push-ups you could do 2.) Muscular Strength : The maximal amount of force produced by a muscle or muscle group : Ex Scott Mendelson- Bench Press- 1030 lbs : Keep in mind related to specific muscle groups : Don’t necessarily need the Scott Mendelson strength but do need overall muscle strength -BONUS learning exercise for the video in class- one week to learn this 3.) Aerobic Power : Maximal amount of oxygen consumed per unit time; AKA- VO2 max : People that can consume more oxygen- cardio resp. strength : Use oxygen to generate energy for muscular work : Higher the VO2 max- the more aerobic fitness : Wouldn’t want to test a swimmers vo2 max on a treadmill- you do it in the water : What sport has the highest VO2 Max? Cross country skiers -Due to body movement and level of activity : Young healthy people (40) : Unhealthy people (30) : Really athletic people (50) 4.) Body composition : The proportion of fat water, bone and other lean tissue constituents of the human body : 2 methods 1. DEXA -Can see their skeleton- measure bone mineral density -Can distinguish body fat from lean body mass -Total percent body fat - A person lays down and a scanner scans over them - Can do it by a bod pod- fills the chamber with air- and measures body density and determines relative body fat- cant do any of the bone density : “ pea-pod” for baby 5.) Flexibility : Range of motion about the body’s joints : Higher when younger- loose elasticity and flexibility as you age which can be a problem- because you then loose ability to do daily tasks : Injuries and surgeries such as hip replacements, or knee replacements limit your range of motion and PT’s and OT’s help to get this range of motion back : PT’s use a Goniometer to measure the range of motion in a joint TOPHAT : What is the most interesting, challenging, dangerous, or exciting physical activity that you have performed -Three sources of kinesiology Knowledge 1.) Experiential l Knowledge 2.) Theoretical/ Research knowledge 3.) Professional practice knowledge -Experiencing Physical Activity : Direct participation in physical activity : Observation of physical activity * Both important sources of kinesiological knowledge 1.) Primary spheres of physical activity experience : Not mutually exclusive -Ex. Going for a run : Could be apart of leisure, self-expression and health 1. Self-Sufficiency 2. Education 3. Work 4. Leisure 5. Self-Expression 6. Competition 7. Health -Studying Physical Activity : Involves examining Physical activity through research and logical, systematic analyses : Organized within subdisciplines, which have developed into specialized areas of study 2.) Primary Sphere of Schololary study in kinesiology 1. Physiology of physical activity 2. Philosophy of physical activigy 3. History of physical activity 4. Sociology of physical activity 5. Motor behavior 6. Sport and exercise psychology 7. Biomechanics 3.) Primary practice spheres in the physical activity profession 1. Health and Fitness 2.Therapeutic exercise 3. Teaching physical education 4. Coaching and sport education 5. Sport Management -Kinesiology Degrees at UGA - Athletic training : Athletic trainer : Pre- allied Health -Exercise and Sport Science : Pre-Allied Health : Personal Trainer : Sport programmer : Strength coach -Health and PE : Health and PE teacher : Adapted PA teacher : Coaching -Sport management : Sport sales and marketing : Event Management : Facility Operations : Athletic Director TOPHAT REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR CHAPTER ONE: - Additional credit for correct answers 1.) Which of the following components of health related fitness would be assessed by the number of push-ups a person can complete A. Muscular strength- not correct (a way to test this would be one repetition max of as much weight as you could bare) B. Aerobic Power C. Flexibility D. Muscular Endurance 2.) Which of the following is/are NOT required in order for a body movement to be considered Physical Activity? A. It needs to be performed as sport or exercise B. It needs to be performed to achieve a goal C. It needs to make the person breath harder D. It needs to be voluntary Chapter 2 Spheres of Physical Activity Class Notes 1. Spheres of Education : Developmental motor skills : Sport skills : Learning skills : Social interaction - Conflict resolution - How to interact with others - Rules : Character and discipline -A physically educated person 1.) Demonstrates competency in many movement forms and proficiency in a few movement forms : Building blocks in basic motor and sport skills 2. Applies movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills 3.) Participates regularly in physical 4.) Understands that physical activity provides opportunities for enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and social interaction -Physical Education : Daily PE could help to slow he increase in childhood obesity : Activity in children in school or out of school can have an effect on being able to focusing on task, behavior and cognitive benefits : Not being able to get up in move has been to show in inhibit learning or the readiness to learn : Biggest decrease in physical activity is during adolescence : Females, on average, do less physical activity than males : Many high schools don’t require a PE 2. Spheres of Health -Health benefits of regular exercise- Exercise is medicine! : Weight loss- by improving blood lipids : Reduce heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, and stroke risk : Increase in energy and alertness : Strengthens muscles increase muscle mass- lose as we age : Increases Bone density- lose as we age : helps with depression : Reduce risk of breast and colon cancer : Get fitter and improves physical function 3. Sphere of Self-Sufficiency : Self- sufficiency= taking care of your daily needs, so that you can live independently : Physical activity is necessary to care for oneself : 2 categories of taking care of yourself 1. Activities of Daily Living (ADLS) : Basic things to live on your own : If you cannot do them on your own need a caretaker or a facility that provides help like this : Things you need to do all the time : Personal care behavior such as bathing, dressing, transferring, using the toilet, eating and walking 2. Instrumental activities of daily living (LADLS) : More complex, higher order cognitive function than ADLs : Can live on your own- but might need some support : Needed to function independently in a community : Ex. Light housework, preparing meals, taking medication, shopping for groceries or clothes, and using the telephone -Causes of disabilities that limit self-sufficiency : Most common causes of disability in the US are depression, back pain through work, arthritis, heart problems : Aging, Accidents, Lifestyle, congenital -18 million in the US are disabled : Can’t perform everyday function : Increases, as you get older -Role of Kinesiology -Through research and practice, can: 1. Enhance disabled peoples ability to function 2. Prevent or slow declines in their function 3. Improve quality of life among people wit ha disability, and 4. All of the above can help reduce health care costs -Preventing loss of function overtime : This is for everyone- the entire population through physical activity can reduce the risk of disabilities later on and improve their health : The more active you are the higher your maximal functional capacity- but eventually your functional capacity decreases : The more active you are in your lifetime- then the longer the delay in age for you disabilities opposed to those who don’t lead an active lifestyle throughout there life (Graph on slides) 4.) Sphere of Work : Makes up the biggest chunk for most people- spend most of your time in your occupation (graph on slides) : Jobs that require more labor and more active- have lower status : Jobs that are more sedentary- tend to have a higher status : Physical activity, quality of life bonus for those that have jobs that are more active : The heavy laborers met the goals for the physical activity for moderate and vigorous activity : The more technologies, the more sedentary our work lives are going to be : Sedentary occupations : Can adversely affect your health : First study to look at physical activity and health : London Bus Study-1953 -double decker -driver (higher status)- sitting all time -Conductor (lower status)- punching tickets- walking all day -Conductors- 50% reduction in sudden death and reduced heart attack : Recently not just how much physical activity you get but also depends on how much time you are sitting/ sedentary : Sitting has adverse health outcomes -How to improve activity at sedentary jobs : Active workstations : Stationary bike under the desk : Treadmill desks : Standing desks 5.) Sphere of Leisure : Leisure is not synonymous with free time (* Know the difference*) -Free time- doing work, chores, depends on how you choose to use it -Leisure- state of being- something to bring content, makes you feel good : Can be sedentary (video games, reading) : Can be active (biking, hiking) - Leisure time physical activity : Moderate (brisk walk) to vigorous intensity ( jog) : Breathing harder Take home message : 25% of US adults report NO brisk leisure time ( ie. Of at least moderate intensity) : Consistent over past decade : What activities do people engage in - Walking is the most popular activity for exercise (43%) -Gardening or yard work- very common -Strengthening -Jogging - As a whole in the population- team sports are not a way that adults get their physical activity- as we get older team sport are harder to get involved in 6.) Sphere of Competition : Competition itself is not an activity- but an organzing a way to engage in activity in sports : Four main types ** KNOW THESE** 1. Side by Side competition : No direct interaction takes place between the competitors :L Although competing side by side and against each other : Ex. Swimming, Rowing, Track, Bowling, Cycling, Golf 2. Face to Face Non Contact : Ex. Volleyball, Tennis, Baseball, Pickle Ball, Badmittion, All raquet sports 3. Face to Face Contact : Tend to be the most popular for spectator sports : Ex. Football, Wrestling, boxing, and soccer, Hockey, Basketball : Physically trying to manipulate the opponent 4. Impersonal : Compete against records or personal bests : Ex. Marathons, : Changes in sports participation among US. Youth : Overall decease from 44.5 to 40% : Decrease in football- probably due to concussion risk : Can be a problem because this is how a lot of kids get there physical activity : Possible cause- More expensive to play team sports - Families that can afford more, play more -Higher percentage of kids that are playng sports have families with a higher income 7.) Self- Expression : Physical activity key way to express ourselves : Can express verbally- but can convey only so much info by verbal means : Can do it through hand gestures, dance, sports, celebrations, TOP HAT REVIEW 1.) Which of the following is NOT one of the 7 Spheres of PA experience? A. Self-Efficacy B. Health C. Education D. Work 2.) What is an Example of side by side competition? A. Flag football B. Pickleball C. Swimming D. Baseball Chapter 3-Class Notes The Importance of Physical Activity Experiences -Activity Experience : Defined as participation, Training, Practice, or observation of physical activity to increase one’s capacity for physical performance : Differentiated from subjective physical experiences (reactions, feelings and thoughts, these are the focus of the next chapter) -Factors that influence our decision to engage in physical activity : 2 broad categories that influence quality and quantity of physical activity experiences 1. Personal Circumstance -Unique to the individual -Influence their willingness to participate - Some examples of personal circumstances below.. : Geography -Influence on what your likely to do -United states- likely to swim unlikely to play hockey -Where you grow up and what your surroundings are - Given different opportunities depending on where you live : Local physical activity culture -Certain environments conducive to activities where others are not -Ex. Safe routes to school (so kids can walk) -Ex. Walk Friendly communities : Economic considerations - Economic resources influence physical activity experiences and opportunities -There is a higher percentage of kids who participate in team sports that have higher income in their households- see this same trend in adults -Ex. Walking doesn’t cost money except maybe some shoes- why does higher income also do more of this too - Lower income- less time- more than one job -Social support -A safe place to walk - A nice view to walk : Personal attributes -Self-perceptions : Do you see yourself as an active person -Feelings : Ex. Working out hard- some people hate it where as others have to have that runners high -Competency : Feeling like you can do it : Feeling like you are good at it 2. Social environment -Types and amounts of physical activity experiences you pursue, both as a child and as an adult, are influenced by people with whom you interact on a regular basis -Social Environment key players : Parents : Can’t choose this : Really an influence as a kid : Peers : Don’t value activity or healthy eating- you are likely to become like them : Teachers or coaches : Influence if they encourage you or discourage you and how they make you feel about yourself and the activity -Physical Activity Preferences : Reflect the uniqueness of the individual : Physical activity professionals need to pay attention to the people they are working with, especially their… -Needs -Desires, and : What do the like, what do they feel comfortable doing, their goals -Personal attributes -Task Analysis : Break down a skill or activity into its critical components : Ex. Teaching someone to throw a softball- to someone whose never thrown a softball : Critical for deciding how to design practice and training for maximal effectiveness : The systematic examination of a particular physical activity for the purpose of disclosing its critical component -Skill Development Vs. Performance Capacity : Some activities focus mostly on skill (accuracy, timing, rhythm,) : Ex. Video Gaming- hand eye coordination nothing to do with performance capacity : Some activities mostly focus on Performance capacity y : Require mostly endurance, strength, flexibility : Ex. All performance capacity- extreme (jumping jacks) -Tailoring Activities- Coming up with a plan : Critical component -The aspect of an activity deemed most important for successfully performing that activity : Principal of Quality -Experiences that engage us in the critical components of an activity are most likely to improve our capacity to perform that activity : Ex. Strength, endurance, : Principal of Quantity - Increasing the frequency of experiences that engage us in the critical components of a physical activity will lead to increases in our capacity to perform that activity : Ex. How many reps, how many times a day -4 different circumstances : Appropriate quality, high quantity= optimal progress : Inappropriate quality, high quantity= No progress- possible regress : Appropriate quality, low quantity= little progress : Inappropriate quality, low quantity= No progress -Nature of Improvement in Physical Activity Depends on the Types of Physical Activity Experience Physical activity quality Type of Experience Effect Skill development Practice Learning : Permanent- wont forget : Modifies neurological system : Ex. Riding a bike, snapping your fingers Physical Performance Training Conditioning capacity : Not permanent : Ex. If you stop running and working out for the summer- wont be able to still run your five mile run -Skill, Practice, and Learning : Motor Skills -Physical Activities in which performers try to attain goals by executing efficient, coordinated motor response : Practice -Physical activity experience that involves cognitive processing and leads to skill improvement : Learning -Permanent alteration in the functioning of the nervous system that enables performers to achieve predetermined goals consistently -TOP-HAT 1. Which of the following would NOT be considered part of an individual’s social environment A. Geography B. Peers C. Coaches D. Parents 2. Physical training results in…. while practice results in……… A. Strength, skill level B. Conditioning, learning C. Health, Abilities D. Learning, Fitness -Why are motor skill changes relatively permanent? : Muscle Memory- happens in our brain : New activity- not been programmed- neural pathways haven’t been made : When the activity has been repeated enough times, a neural pathway is established : It then feels like second nature- the neural pathway becomes a physical pathway in your brain so that is why it is permanent : Ex. Riding a bike, playing the guitar, typing without looking -Improving Motor Skills : Appropriate practice : Quantity vs. Quality : Closed vs. Open -Closed : Eliminating things on how the activity really exists : Soccer practice- dribbling through cones -Open : Dribbling through people with other people and obstacles -Physical Performance Capacity, Training, and Conditioning : Physical performance capacity -Aspects of physic activity developed through training : Training -Physical activity carried out ro the purpose of conditioning one for performance in an athletic or other event - Needs to be the right training for certain goals : Conditioning -Temporary end state of training reflected in the performer’s possessing adequate strength, endurance, and flexibility to carry out desired tasks -“ Use it or loose it” - Not permanent have to keep up the training to maintain Performance Experience and Physical Fitness : A physically fit person -Can perform the essential activities of daily living at a high level -Has sufficient energy remaining to pursue and active leisure life, and - Can meet unexpected physical demands that emergencies may impose : Type -Motor performance fitness -“ The ability to perform daily activities with vigor” -Health-related fitness - Having developed, through physical activity experience, the traits and capacities normally associated with a healthy body -5 components (endurance, flexibility, strength, body composition, cardio) -Components of physical fitness - Chart in the book -Case Study : Recommended tests : Mandatory fitness gram : Goal is to assess health-related fitness : What component(s) of fitness are being assessed? -Push up (muscular endurance) -Trunk lift (flexibility, lumbar strength) -Curl up -Sit and reach -Skin fold (body composition) -Pacer Test ( cardio respiratory fitness) -Use of fitness gram in Georgia : Not Georgia’s strong point -Physical Activity Experience to Maximize Improvements : Intelligently and systematically planned physical activities : Physical activities that engage the individual in the critical components of the activity as frequently as possible -Heredity and Experience : Abilities as building block for experience: genetic predispositions : Have genetic potential but without putting in the work- you will not have success – no one is just a natural- still need training : Interaction of experience and abilities -Underachiever -Overachievers : “Heart” -Ex. Miracle on Ice Chapter 4 Class Notes From Video -Subjective Experiences : How we feel, think, and react to physical activity rather than the actual performance itself : Derived from physical activity -Emotions -Cognitions -Dispositions -Knowledge -Meanings : These experiences can have a strong influence on us before, after and during the activity -Subjective experience varies greatly among individuals : Some people like to exercise while others avoid it at all cost : These likes and dislikes of activities (hiking, running, etc) depend on each persons subjective experiences : Most people engage in sport and exercise because of the unique objective experiences -Fourth truths about sport and exercise 1. They are always accompanied by subjective experiences 2. Subjective experiences are unique 3. People often do physical activities without ever asking why or understanding the purpose 4. They will not be meaningful unless they are enjoyable -Why subjective experiences are important : Physical activity supplies us with unique forms of Subjective experience not available in other daily Activities. : They help clarify the bases of career choices : They help develop our skills as physical activity professionals : They determine whether we will make that activity part of our lives -The nature of subjective experiences : Immediate subjective experiences -“ Instant” emotional and cognitive impressions - Your best game - A “bad” day -Ex. Marathon- immediate sensations- including heightened mental focus on your movements to maximize your speed and performance and push through the burn, pain and discomfort -Look online for the web study guide of this chapter : Replayed subjective experiences (self-reflection) -Do you remember the feeling? -Replay the experience in your mind including visual kinesthetic, auditory impressions -Putting experiences into context -Ex. Remembering the way you felt during a basketball game, the sounds, the excitement, the happiness you felt when you stole a ball - Clear evidence that these subjective experiences can have lasting effects - Reflecting on these experiences months or years later can help us put them into a more meaningful frame of reference -Ex. Looking back on those basketball games you see the bonds you developed with team mates, physical limits of your body -Components of Subjective experience : Sensations inside your body and outside your body : Take these sensations and put them into perceptions- give rise to emotions- that we associate with physical activity : Emotions and emotional responses : Knowledge and subjective experience -This knowledge is not the type where you learn facts and theories- “rational knowledge” -The knowledge we get from subjective experiences is intuitive : Psychoanalytic self- knowledge -Motivations for engaging in activity -Deep-seated desires : Mystical knowledge -Knowledge about the different dimensions of reality -Experience time as slowing down as we become “ in the zone” -Accompanied by a sense of exhilaration -Rare and special -Peak experience : Socratic self-knowledge -Knowledge of personal performance capabilities -Limits of our abilities -What we know and what we don’t know -Example- Which knowledge is this? : Long Long runs in the mountains : Like the pain and discomfort : Gets a “runners high” : Takes more than one run to get here- but once you get to a certain point your body can overcome the pain signals by sending out endorphins – at this point you don’t feel pain- feel like you can conquer the world -Intrinsic and Extrinsic Approaches to Physical Activity : Extrinsic approaches -Valuing physical activity because of the benefits that come from participating : Ex. Friendship, salary by the physical activity we do at work, health benefits : Intrinsic approaches -Valuing physical activity because of the subjective experiences embedded within the activity itself -Helps keep us engaged in activities for the long term -Ex. Playing pickle ball because it makes you feel good : Most cases approach physical activity from both of these approaches : Activities- esp., those connected with sport and exercise- are more likely to become personally meaningful to us if we are attracted to the subjective experiences of the activity itself : Do a lot of the activities we do for extrinsic meaning- but almost all of us will have some activities that have a deep meaning for us -Internalization of Physical Activity : Progression from merely enjoying an activity to becoming engrossed in it : Incorporate it into our beliefs, attitudes, and personal identities and it becomes internalized : The intrinsic value of the activity guides and controls our behavior : Ex. Mr. Schmidt- Walking outdoors, built into daily routine, week, weekday or vacation, he NEEDS it. : Ex. Tim, Biking- social group around his biking activities, and free time arranged for biking time, -Factors affecting the enjoyment of Physical Activity : Evenly matched challenges -Challenges of activity match our abilities : Clear goals and feedback : Competition : Ex. Pickle ball -Clear goals= hitting the ball where opponent cant return it and feedback= score -Evenly matched= wouldn’t play people you beat 11 to nothing every time- that wouldn’t be fun -Factors related to the performer : Dispositions (temporary or situational) - Perceived Competency -Absorption -Perceived Control : Attitudes toward physical activity’ -Relatively stable mindsets that can be favorable or unfavorable - 6 Specific attitudes that appear to influence people’s preferences for particular form of PA -More info in the textbook -Social Experience -Health and fitness -Pursuit of Vertigo -Aesthetic experience -Cathartic experience -Ascetic experience -Factors related to the social Context -Alone versus with others : Running vs. Aerobics class -Environment : Ex. Treadmill vs. outside trail -Sense of perceived freedom : Feeling forced- less enjoyable -Importance of Subjective Experiences : Physical Activity involves emotions, thoughts, and reactions : Physical activity professionals help people appreciate physical activity : Subjective experiences are gained by participating or watching physical activity : Our enjoyment of an activity is one of the greatest determinants of whether we continue to engage in that physical activity Chapter 4 Reading Notes ( Chapter 4 wasn’t covered in class) The Importance of Subjective Experiences in Physical Activity -Four Truths about Sport and Exercise 1. Physical Activity is always accompanied by subjective experiences : When we think of experiences we think objective (something we can observe-physical movements) : Experience can also be subjective (things you cant observe- feelings, emotions, thoughts, memories, dispositions, knowledge- that we derive from physical activity) : Personal and unique to each individual : Most likely determine our participation level in the activity 2. Subjective experiences of physical activity are unique : Unique to each person : Also unique in that subjective experiences differ from one activity to the next 3. We may not pay attention to the subjective experiences of physical Activity : Sometimes we overlook these feelings and thoughts : Becoming so involved in activities and competitions- loose sight of the subjective experiences : Subjective experiences are what’s important because they are what makes you enjoy and want to come back to that sport 4. Physical activity will not be meaningful unless we enjoy it : Physical experience- raw material : Subjective experience- why you return to the activity : When we allow ourselves to think about the subjective meaning- experiences become more meaningful -Subjective experience : Focus on internal dynamics (emotion, cognition, disposition,) : 2 General kinds of subjective experiences 1. Immediate Subjective Experience -Movements create immediate emotional and cognitive impressions -Sensors known as proprioceptors send signals about where our body is relative to its position in space and our movements -Also have signals in the circulatory system -All of these signals are sent to the nervous system -These signals cab then be translated into perceptions, feelings, and knowledge - Be open to the emotional and cognitive impressions provided by these signals from the physical activity to get the full experience 2. Replayed Subjective Experiences : You might not see the subjective experiences right away but then later has produced a lasting effect : Self-reflection -Re-experiencing the subjective part of a physical activity that happened in the past - The experience can be visual, kinesthetic, auditory.. etc : Real-life example- to boost confidence before a game you might replay the subjective experience of winning last years state competition -Components of subjective experience : Sensations and perceptions -Sensations are what you physical feel through your sensory organs : Ex. Increase heart rate, muscle fatigue : Can have sensations outside the body see, hear, smell -Perception is how you interpret these sensations : Ex. Perception of fatigue- deciding when to stop : Emotional Responses - Perceptions during the activity can bring upon many kinds of emotions -Ex. Impression on the quality of our performance, outcome of an event - Can bring on emotions such as anger, happiness, motivation, disappointment etc. : Knowledge and subjective experience -Rational Knowledge : Facts, Scholarly knowledge from books, Formulas etc. -Intuitive Knowledge : Derived from subjective experiences : Recognize without conscious reasoning : Personal- about yourself : 3 Types of intuitive personal self knowledge when participating in an activity A.) Psychoanalytic Self- Knowledge : Knowledge about our behaviors, incentives, and deep desires : Relates to the why we pick the activities we do and the way we pursue them. : Ex. Young poverty stricken woman who grew up in a disadvantaged background -If she decided to play golf- this could reflect her trying to deny her social upbringings B.) Mystical Knowledge : “Zen Self-Knowledge” can happen only to experienced performers in uncommon and extraordinary circumstances : Common type= peak experience -Involuntary -Unexpected -Time slows, other things stand out (environment, special features) - “Being in the zone” - “Flow” : No knowledge about yourself : Some have said can bring a extensive and inclusive world opening C.) Socratic Self Knowledge : Knowing performance limits : What we can and cannot do : If go too far can lead to injury : If you don’t test your limits you will never improve either- need to do so in a safe and gradual process -Approaches to Physical Activity 1.) Extrinsic Approach : Choose to participate for other reasons other than the subjective experience of the activity : Valued for what we get out of it that’s not subjective : Ex. Health benefits, paycheck for activity at work, character building, returning to normal function after an injury 2.) Intrinsic Approach : Choose to participate due to subjective experience : Ex. Sports- enjoyable, fun : Extrinsic factor may be the reason you started the activity- but intrinsic, subjective reasons are the reason you keep coming back- you enjoy it : Ex- start running because of the benefits but then find you really love it and it becomes part of your daily routine -Internalization of Physical Activity : Internalization -Gradual process - Takes on intrinsic value - 5 Stages to this process 1. Just aware of the activity 2. Respond to activity with positivity 3. Go out of your way to seek it 4. Conceptualize and organize its importance- Value 5. Internalization=behaviors indicate commitment and you integrate you beliefs and attitudes -Factors that affect our enjoyment of PA (Physical activity) 1. Factors related to the activity A. Balance : Between the challenges of the activity and abilities of the performer : Ex. Cant perform the challenge- frustration : Ex. Too experienced for the challenge- boredom B. Clear Goals and feedback : Attempting and succeeding : Striving to obtain difficult goals : Knowing how you are doing in relation to the goal C. Competition : Organizes a physical activity that gives it a larger purpose : Comparing performances to others or a standard : Problem= can become the end all be all (When winning takes the priority over playing your absolute best- the enjoyment is lost) : Enjoyable- when perfecting your skills 2. Factors related to the performer A. Dispositions : Someone’s inherent qualities of mind and character : Can be affected by a host of external factors : Three main dispositions that affect our enjoyment of PA 1.) Perceived Competency : Self- efficacy- how capable we feel to perform the task or activity in this case : Enjoy activities when we feel that we are competent 2.) Absorption : “ In the zone” or “ Going through the motions” : Enjoy activity more when we become absorbed because we aren’t thinking so much about it and what we are doing and loose our self- consciousness 3.) Perceived control : Feeling in control of our environment= more enjoyable : Ex. Control the basketball while dribbling, control your opponent in wrestling, control your body in gymnastics : Sensation-seeking activity -Ex. Ski diving, cliff jumping -Control forces through training etc. - A degree of risk and uncertainty is necessary in all sports and exercise B. Attitudes : The way you think or feel about something : 6 Main attitudes towards PA 1. Physical activity as a social experience : People who enjoy high levels of social interaction seek out activities that maximize that experience : Ex. Team sports, Exercise classes 2. Physical activity for health and fitness : Feeling in shape, being able to meet daily physical demands, boost confidence, overall enhances well being : Many people pursue the feelings “runners high” after a vigorous activity 3. Physical activity as the pursuit of vertigo : Presents an element of risk or thrill : Vertigo- the thrill that comes from disorientation of the body in various activities 4. Physical activity as an aesthetic experience : Some activity for performers/ spectators seen as artistic/beautiful movements of the body : Ex. Ice skating, Dance 5. Physical activity as a cathartic experience : Vigorous activity can lower anxiety and produce relaxing and calm feelings 6. Physical activity as an ascetic experience : Pain, Sacrifice- discomfort of hard training and vigorous activity can be an attraction for some people 3. Factors Related to the Social Context : Presence of others, hype before the contest, relationship between the opponent, media, coaches, : Ex. Running when its cold and rainy vs. running when its sunny, working out alone or working out with people : These changes can be good or bad all depending on personal preference : Style of exercise leader, and social environment- can majorly affect enjoyment : Enjoy activities more when we choose them rather than being forced, or feeling obligated -Watching sport as a subjective experience : Watching of sport keeps rising and becoming more and more popular : Sport spectacles -Attract the most attention -Staged competitions -Designed for an audience -Bring a huge range of emotions due to their drama, grandeur, and scale -Professional, collegiate or international events -Attract large numbers of observers -Usually have bands, cheerleaders, officials, Media -Both the performers and spectators take on roles associated with the competition : 2 Ways of watching Sports A. Vicarious Participation : Spectators engage in the competition through powers of imagination : Ex. Tensing up when a player gets hit, leaning to try and avoid a tackle that’s happening on the field : These fans usually –identify with a player, have a stake in the competition, Fans- have favorite teams (when they win you are happy, when they loose you are disappointed) B. Disinterested Sport Spectating : No great emotional investment : Don’t really care about the outcome : Ex. Between two teams we aren’t familiar with.. etc -Factors affecting Enjoyment/involvement of Sport 1. Game Knowledge : Game spectator knowledge -Knowing players, strategies, rules of the game, - Only if we know fully about the game and players- then we can appreciate the game - Knowledge can come from- reading, watching, participating.. 2. Feelings Toward Competing Teams and Players Ex. -Favorite team (happy when they win, sad when they loose) Ex. - Most hated team (want them to do bad) 3. Human Drama of sport competition : Drama, Suspense, Uncertainty : Ex. Two equally matched teams, an underdog winning : Rough, and aggressive play- found to increase enjoyment STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 Chapter 5 Philosophy of Physical Activity Class Notes Top Hat : How many steps per day are recommended for health benefits? Answer= 10,000 -Key Learning Objectives: 1. To describe main goal of philosophical study of PA and 4 major issues it addresses 2. To describe the 3 philosophical reasoning process 3. Discuss relationship between rules and skills in sport 4. Understand key values promoted by physical activity -Goals of Philosophy of Physical Activity in Kinesiology 1. To understand the nature and value of health and PA, particularly in the form of exercise sport, games play and dance 2. To understand how confident we can be about our claims in kinesiology 3. To understand the most important values of PA and its contribution to QOL (quality of life) 4. To learn how we ought to behave in sport and in our professional lives as kinesiologists : Big ethical issue , fair sportsmanship, rule breaking, -Reflection : Tools of the Trade -Logic -Speculation -Imagination -Thinking : Philosophic methods typically do not include the gathering of data from controlled experiments, but the results can still be valid and reliable -*Research Methods* : Inductive reasoning -Begins with specific cases to develop broad, general principles -Ex. Observing exercise activities, what aspects make it exercise vs. other types of activity -Begin with specific and try and get broad principles - Use this in science all the time, get a specific result and ask does it reflect the general population -Critical to scientific method in general : Deductive reasoning -What Sherlock holmes is known for -Begins with broad factual or hypothetical premise in order to determine more specific conclusions that follow from them : Descriptive reasoning -Begins with one example of some phenomenon and describes its essential qualities. Then varies different aspects of the phenomenon - Ex. Interested in Basketball – sport (what’s involved, dribble pass shoot, can’t hit others, cant run with ball- certain qualities) - What makes it basketball? Think about if you changed something or one of these qualities would it still be basketball? -What if we put more contact in basketball, or what if we could jump on peoples backs and score, wheel chair basketball, is all this still basketball? -What makes basketball different from other sports, at what point do you lose essence of the sport – what is critical to make basketball- basketball TopHat : Is Texas Hold’em a sport? A. Yes B. No -Use deductive reasoning : Major Premise: Sport requires the use of physical skills to solve it’s game problems : Texas hold em is a game : Minor premise: Texas hold em does not require physical skills to win hands : Therefore: Not a sport : Flaw with deductive reasoning-depends on what premise you assume to be true Philosophic claims about values in physical activity : Different levels of validity to assign to the claims 1. Truth assertion : Confident that its truthful, wont be able to prove it wrong : Ex. Walking burns more calories than sitting 2. Probable Assertion : Considerable amount of evidence to support truth or not truth, but not certain may be exceptions or knowledge we don’t know about yet : Science is mostly this type of assertion : Ex. Cross country skiers have the best aerobic fitness- can pull up vo2max , may be other data out there not collected yet 3. Speculation : Hard to support with evidence : Ex Michael Jordan was a better player than Lebron James, not provable because played at different times stats may differ, no truth, 4. Personal opinion : Not much validity- just what you think : Ex. Football is the best sport ever- subjective only : Article - Guilting middle-schoolers into exercising may not increase activity, new study finds it may decrease the exercising Sports : Games in which motor skills are tested - If no motor skills is involved its just a game : Have rules which specify a goal to be achieved and limit the ways participants can reach goal : Rules make the game possible -Without rules it wouldn’t be a game- determines what motor skills may be important : Ex. Volleyball -Can’t hold the ball -Only hit 3 times before it goes over -Land within the boundaries : Can be competitive or non-competitive depending on the purpose - Most sports are competitive -Significance of skills : The rulebook of each sport indicates the set of motor skills that the game is designed to test : A set of motor skills provides each sport with idiosyncratic characteristics that make it unique : Motor skills represent the standards of excellence by which players evaluate their performance -Sport specific motor skills- don’t transfer over to other sports, they are too specific - Motor skills are how we assess performance and excellence in sport -Key roles and motor skills for this sport : Australian Rules football -Kicking through the main 2 posts – 6 points -Other two posts are one point -Have to punch the ball to pass it -Can kick -Can only run a certain distance- have to bounce of ground to keep running -Only tackle above the waist - No stoppages- don’t have set plays, a lot of action, unless ball goes -out of bounds or someone’s - Face to Face Contact Competition : Object of game? -Score the most points- many more points than American football : Important motor skills? -Kicking -Catching -Bouncing -Tackling -Running -Lots of specificed kicks because its so important (helicopter etc) : How can players move the ball : Passing with the specific hand toss : Running while bouncing : Kicking : How to stop others from moving the ball : Tackling : Intercepting ball or stealing the ball -Competition : The attempt to determine athletic superiority : A shared test in which participants commit themselves to surpassing each other’s performance : Values excellent play. The process of competing in the game is valued as the outcomes that result from the play - Trying to better the competition - Trying to win- but not the only thing - About pushing your self and improving your performance - Most important thing is excellent play - Play the best competition- and improving their performance- play Is elevated- everyone giving it their all -Play and duty in Sport (PA -Dutylike : Participation is justified by the beneficial effects of the sport (utility) : Viewed as something that we must do because of what it does fro us (improving health, etc) -Extrinsic approach, only doing it for the reward aspect - Winning is the reward -Don’t want to make it something that we must do- want it to be fun -Ex. : Friday night tikes- minor league pewee football- follows family practice and coaches- very very intense- forget its not all about winning – and take a dutylike approach -Playlike Sport : Participation is justified by its intrinsic value : Focused on what we are doing for its own sake and nothing more - Intrinsic value, do it because you enjoy it and you want to do it -Two Potent Combinations : The combination of physical activity (sport) and play is a powerful incentive to get us moving : Physical activity (sport) and play PLUS competition can be even more powerful to get us moving -Its best when there is a combination- having fun and pushing yourself -PA values : Values are conceptions about the importance of things (can be moral or non moral) -Moral= Character, how you feel you should behave, humanistic behavior, how you should treat one another : Values promoted in Kinesiology -Health related physical fitness -Knowledge about the human body, physical activity, and health practices -Motor skill -Activity is related to pleasure or fun : These four values are not mutually exclusive -Sport ethics : Formulating defensible standards or behavior : Impartial, consistent, and critical : Follows a universal m


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