Hist150 Final Exams
Hist150 Final Exams ST 150 - 20
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This 86 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah Tipton on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ST 150 - 20 at Ball State University taught by John Stanley Marsh (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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West in the World Study Guide Chapters 1,2,4,5 Index: Vocabulary Terms Important Dates Map to Memorize Summaries on: Neolithic Age Persian Wars Egyptians Athens Bronze Age Alexander the Great Dark Age The Roman Empire Classical Age __________________________________________________________________ _ Vocabulary Terms: Historical fact: not necessarily true, not necessarily proven… something commonly accepted information among historians Historical interpretation: a conclusion or an opinion based on historical facts (ex. Why we did things) Primary source: a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study… historians view as the original source of history, essentially any first-hand information (ex. Code of Hammurabi, letters, diaries, physical laws written, etc.) Paleolithic (Old Stone Age): period of human culture considered pre-history, no writing, nomadic hunter/gatherers, stone tools, control over fire Neolithic (New Stone Age): period of human history beginning in the Middle East and later elsewhere, farming and domesticated animals, permanent settlements, plow, wheel, sail, pottery, use of copper Polytheism: the belief in or worship of more than one god Mesopotamia: "a country between two rivers” Symbolic languages: a language that employs symbols either extensively or exclusively Phonetic languages: of or relating to spoken language or speech sounds Code of Hammurabi: a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia Pharaoh: a ruler in ancient Egypt Rosetta stone: A stone discovered in Egypt in the late eighteenth century, inscribed with ancient Egyptian, hieroglyphics, and a translation of them in Greek Mycenaean or Bronze Age: Early civilization beings around 2000 BC in the peninsula Mycenaean Civilization: Civilization on the Greek peninsula that peaked between 1400 and 1200 B.C.E. Iliad: The older of the two surviving ancient Greek epic poems, traditionally ascribed to Homer but containing material composed orally over several centuries. It begins with the wrathful withdrawal of the Greek hero Achilles from the fighting in the Trojan War and ends after his return to slay the Trojan hero Hector. Odyssey: The younger of the two surviving ancient Greek epic poems, traditionally ascribed to Homer but containing much orally transmitted material composed over several centuries, and concerning the adventures and ordeals of the Greek warrior Odysseus after the fall of Troy as he struggles to return home and reestablish himself as king of Ithaca. Citizen soldier: army composed of citizens rather than a professional soldier Sparta: A city-state of ancient Greece in the southeast Peloponnesus, A protracted rivalry with Athens led to the Peloponnesian Wars Athens: the capital and largest city state of Greece, in the eastern part of the country near the Saronic Gulf, merchant and naval power, marking steps to democracy Dark Age: Greek civilization has a period with no written record for years Classical (Hellenic Age): Greek civilization revives Humanism: the individual matters// their thoughts, will, and actions can and do make a difference City States: colonies seen as individual nation states or countries with individual government structures that were relatively small Hoplite: ancient Greek infantrymen equipped with large shields and long thrusting spears Barbarian: term Greeks used to refer to anyone who was not Greek or spoke a different language Persian wars: series of conflicts fought between Greek states and the Persian Empire Battle of Marathon: a battle in 490 BC in which the Athenians and their allies defeated the Persians Battle of Thermopylae: The battle of Thermopylae was the first between the Persians and Greeks during the Persian invasion of 480-479 BC. The Greek force was very small but was determined to make a stand against the huge Persian army Athenian democracy: developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city- state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica and is the first known democracy in the world. Peloponnesian war: an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. Socrates: a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy// Socratic Method: series of questions to determine knowledge and beliefs Plato: Socrates disciple, his writings explored justice, beauty, equality, cosmology, along with political philosophy. Founder of Academy of Athens, one of the first places of higher learning Aristotle: a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Credited for early formal logic Alexander the Great: tutored by Aristotle, King of Macedon in ancient Greece he created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from the Ionian Sea to the Himalayas Battle of Gaugamela: Persian King Darrius meets him there with half a million troops// outnumbers Alexander. Alexander picks an elite force to hide in the field to attack chariots, which retreat. Alexander sees the king again, drives towards him, the king backs off the battlefield. Victory at Gaugamela the Persian administration collapses (Macedonians lost about 300, Persians lost 40-300 thousand) Roman republic: began with the overthrow of the monarchy, period with a republic gov’t Consuls: highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, 2 consuls each having veto power, figurative representatives that held very little power and authority, carry out laws 10 Tribunes: an official of ancient Rome chosen by the common people to protect their rights, had power to veto, elected for one year Senate: the deliberative body and influential governing council of Rome made of upper class citizens (patricians). Composed of ex-magistrates with lifetime membership, not legislatures, conducted foreign policy and warfare and authorized public expenditures. Controlled the money so they controlled the power. Carthage: Phoenician city-state, was known to be on hostile terms with Greeks in Sicily and the Roman Republic Punic Wars: series of 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage, likely the largest wars that had ever taken place Hannibal: a Punic Carthaginian military commander, generally considered one of the greatest military commanders in history. Commander during the first Punic War Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus: Gaius Gracchus was a Roman Popularis politician in the 2nd century BC and brother of the reformer Tiberius Gracchus. A pair of tribunes of the plebs from the 2nd Century BC, who sought to introduce land reform and other populist legislation in ancient Rome. Julius Caesar: A Roman statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire Octavian or Augustus Caesar: Great nephew of Caesar, gets control of Rome and stays in power for 40 years and establishes and reforms a roman republic in civil wars into the Roman Empire and rules as their first emperor. Very politically savvy and creates Pax Romana "Five Good Emperors": Rome essentially had five good emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius) "Pax Romana": the peace that existed between nationalities within the Roman Empire Roman culture Law: majorly controlled by patricians (upper class) with some input from tribal assemblies of plebeians, under the roman republic significantly more controlled by an emperor Religion: Rome became a place with many religious concepts, ideas, and stories despite the official state religion that became stale to many citizens. Different types of worship of Gods blended together. Citizens searched for meaning in their life through many ideas. Art: statues, stories, and other art from cultures was utilized by the Romans but changed slightly to be more Roman. For example statues of gods changed to be a Roman version of a god with select different attributes Architecture: built harbors, coliseums for mock naval battles and other entertainment. Styles incorporated domes because they invented concrete but also combined that with Greek architecture with symmetry and form Silk Road: an ancient network of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea Memorize Dates that need to be memorized for the exam CHRONOLOGY (1) Rise of Civilization through the Roman Republic (A full timeline available in exam prep on blackboard or email me and I can forward it to you, but these are the dates to know) c.3500 B.C. civilizations arise in Mesopotamia & along the Nile River 479 B.C. Persian Wars end with Greek victory at Plataea 323 B.C. Alexander dies in Babylon end of Classical (Hellenic) Age of Greece, beginning of the Hellenistic Age 146 B.C. Rome becomes the master of the Mediterranean world with the destruction of Carthage and the conquest of the Hellenistic states 27 B.C. – Octavian (Caesar Augustus) becomes 1st Roman emperor; the republic is ended Be able to items one through 8 on a blank map Timeline to keep in mind _______________________________________________________________________________ Neolithic (New Stone Age) Cities : people obtained special skills (art, physician, and more) Population : agriculture and stabilization led to huge growth Written language : phonetic, easy to learn Rosetta stone: contained writing in hieroglyphics, Egyptian script, and Greek Organized government : People join together voluntarily to accomplish similar goals Conquest// power force over people (military, forced labor, taxing) No democracy (kings/pharaohs) Religion : Polytheistic Religion strong ties to government Religion used to gain control (divine leaders) Want to please the Gods by listening to the instruction they tell your leader Military : Traditionally tied to government Model for early civilizations 1. Polytheistic, Gods active role 2. No democracy 3. Combined religion and government Egyptians Developed without outside conflict basing their lives with emphasis on order and balance relating to the Nile River Pyramids Built by conscripted civilian laborers Made of blocks weighing 2-7 tons each Finishing layer was perfectly smooth, over rough layers of foundation Later dynasties use these stones for building materials Chambers empty King Tut Tomb was overlooked Not significant leader/ ruled in a time of transition Tomb found in the 1920s Mycenaean (Bronze Age) Capable sailors, traders, went to war Society Separated by classes (had kings and nobility) *1860s-1870s Schliemann excavated ruins on the coast of Turkey and found a city that was likely Troy, the Iliad then is based in some truth as in going to war with some city in Asia Minor* Trojan War at the end of this time period Dark Age Greek civilization goes into a period with no written record; Explanations: disease, war, conquest? Classical (Hellenic Age): Known also as the Age of Greek City States or Political Age Literature Homer’s stories tell us what Greeks valued o Strength, athleticism, perseverance in battle, Gods valued, cultural values held at high regard Humans viewed as pawns of the Gods, BUT Greeks eventually acknowledge free will amongst the influence Gods have in daily life The Iliad: written in time of Trojan War, focused on Achilles the greatest Greek warrior. He decides not to fight after losing a great love. Man Killing Hector from the opposing side fight killing Greeks. Finally Achilles’ cousin is killed be Hector so finally he goes out and kills Hector. Humanism: the individual matters// their thoughts, will, and actions can and do make a difference Geography City States: each area was seen separately, essentially its own country or nation state (Ex. Athens, Attica, etc.) Colonies independent Movement towards self-government Athens gets to a direct democracy Sparta eventually limits the kings power Society Barbarians: anyone who was not Greek/ spoke a different language Focus on science, law, drama, democracy, architecture Military Heavily armed infantry (hoplites) Army of citizen soldiers NOT paid Provided their own weapons, food, protection Poor didn’t fight// could afford necessities of war Shared the winning in good outcomes Persian Wars Nearly wiped out Greek civilization Persian Empire Largest in this part of the world Conquered Greek city states on the coast of Asia Minor Greeks rebel in 500BC, Persians crush rebellion by 499BC o Athenians sent 20 ships to assist Greeks // making Athens the new target for the Persian Empire Battle of Marathon Persians plan to march to Marathon to engage Athenians Spartans plan to come assist, come too late// missed all the action Athens takes a vote 6 to 5 in favor of attack o Advance on the Persian camp o Athenians push Persians to their ships even push them onto ships, set some on fire, Persians barely escape Athenians have GREAT victory and want to notify their city of great victory o Persians could come back and attack since they sailed away o Send a runner (26 miles) to tell the city they won and the Persians could be on their way o Army gets there in time as Persians sail in, so they retreat Battle of Thermopylae Persians plan revenge with an army of about a quarter of a million in revenge (largest fleet of the time) across the Aegean Sea Goal is to conquer and rule ALL of Gre ece Small Spartan force sent out to stop them Greeks often had wars against themselves, those battles set aside and unified First force of 300 Spartans Battle of Thermopylae Road narrow shelf between ocean and cliffs o Several thousand Persians on the road and Spartans phalanx spanned the whole road so Persians lose their advantage on numbers. Wave after wave of troops cut down o Greek navy lead by Athenians holds off Persians in a straight Persians fight for 3 days, only fight in registered phalanx with spears o Kept fresh troops up front/ penalty for breaking phalanx was death because it endangers everyone’s lives around you Persians bribe local goat herd to find a path and get them from behind o Wipe out the Spartans and continue their march Battle becomes inspiring for other Greeks and unifies them (Comparative to the Alamo in American History) Athenians decide they can’t save the city and leave Battle of Platea Persian army defeated on land Defeat on sea Persian fleet is defeated by united Greek fleet *479 BC END OF PERSIAN WARS* What’s significant about the Greek victory over the Persians? (QUIZ Q perhaps) o Stops Persian advance and allows Greek Culture and civilization to survive o One side is servants ordered the other side is citizens fighting for their own way of life First victory of an army of free citizens over an army of ordered soldiers by king o Left its mark for future civilizations // a sort of legacy Tremendous sense of destiny for the Greeks, very inspiring o Greek’s can’t maintain unity, they go back to fighting themselves in a civil war Peloponnesian War o Civil war between Athens (and allies) against Sparta (and allies) o Went on for nearly 10 years then a truce lasting a decade then fighting again. Wrecking Greek society. o At the end of Persian wars Greeks leave themselves open to be conquered Lose political independence o Sparta won most land battles o Athenians rebuilt and thrived at sea Athens -constantly looking back to early Greeks, Roman republic for elements of self- government Athenian Government Most decisions were made in the assembly, adult male citizens o Direct democracy, debating and voting on issues at hand expressing citizen opinions Tax issues, war, policies Counted or verbally expressed views for final decisions Elected military generals, BUT majority of officials were not elected Citizens names were drawn to decide various political offices o Serve for one year, could not serve in that position again After serving citizens return to their previous job Citizens would take a ostracon (broken piece of pottery) with names on them to vote people out of positions and banish them… later comes the term ostracize After the battle of Marathon, Themistocles proposes Athens builds a strong naval base in case Persians come back. The poor who can’t afford weapons are hired to be in the navy, largely funded by taxes. Downfalls of Athenian Gov’t Slavery is a problem Women have very little rights Political factions developed o Times when the assembly made the wrong decision o “mob rule” problem with direct democracy, just cause the majority is for a decision does not mean it is the right idea (After the Persian War Victory the Greeks go back to competing against itself, Athens is growing, Sparta worries about Athens so they build themselves up.) **A number of years go by, then a proposal is made in Athens to start the war against Sparta again** The proposition was to take the entire army to attack a Spartan ally against Syracuse They restart the war, Athenians surrender by 413 BC Athens LOSES their democratic power and is continually ruled by others Philosophy For the Greeks philosophy was the pursuit of knowledge, applying reason to understanding the physical world, technology, arts, etc. Pythagoras- Geometry, mathematics Hippocrates- Hippocratic Oath, studied medicine Socrates- an Athenian, veteran of Persian Wars. Spoke, debated, met with people in the streets. He wrote little down but one of his pupils Plato wrote discussions down. Believed reason was the only proper guide to human life and development, humans should actively build their character, morals, and knowledge. Made people look foolish and was ultimately charged with corrupting minds of children by contradicting common culture and ideas of the Gods o Plato led Socrates defense, but he was convicted o Socrates would have been let go if he agreed to stop spreading his thoughts o Ultimately forced to commit suicide, drank hemlock Plato- grew up during the Peloponnesian war, wrote a book called The Republic Thinks government needs to be done by the just and capable few to be the rulers o Tell people what jobs to do based on tests o Rulers can pick out mates for people *Recognized people would not like this// thought of ways to make people accept it* o Told citizens people were made of different metals that went with certain jobs o Mates picked by lottery, when really officials chose o Children should be taken and raised in a communal setting o Known as the “Noble Lie” o His ideas were NOT used at this time, others interested in these ideas throughout the centuries. Concept of capable few Aristotle- student of Plato, focuses on mathematics, astronomy, logic, poetry, drama, fitness. Established the academy, a place of higher learning Hired to tutor Alexander the Great Very different political views from Plato o Advocated for self-government based on law instead of individuals character o Rationally construct law to be supreme Becomes so well respected that it becomes hard to push against his ideas Art and Architecture Acropolis: Built greatest feat the Parthenon here, where the citizens met and debated, architecture reflected balance, order, beauty in symmetry Greeks discovered created allusions of symmetry Amphitheaters: Greeks learned acoustics, developed along with Greek theatrical culture and dramas Greek Sculpture Blend of idealism an realism o Realism: Greeks do better job of portraying the human form realistically o Idealism: Almost always the perfect human form with beauty and physical fitness Drama Originates with Greece Formally scripted play with defined characters and lines o Tragedy Aeschylus 525-456 BC “Father of tragedy” Wrote The Persians: Hubris(arrogant) of Xerxes, individual in conflict with moral universe Sophocles 496-406 BC Oedipus Rex: fate vs. free will, psychology of the individual Euripides 483-406 BC Medea: Passion, vengeance, betrayal Trojan Women: commentary on Athenian slaughter of Melos Strong female characters Irrational forces Humanitarianism, compassion for suffering o Comedy Aristophanes 448-380 BC “father of comedy” The Clouds: pokes fun at philosophical fashions o Plato blamed it for a part of Socrates death Lysistrata: women of Greece trying to stop Peloponnesian war o Played today with pacifist or feminist emphasis Satire Study of History Herodotus o “father of history” o Writings before this was not complete, only propaganda pieces o He gives Persian war history and Peloponnesian war history Gives credit, note secondhand info, opinion, first-hand accounts Alexander the Great of Macedonia NOT a Roman Emperor (Quiz trick) He is a Macedonian Emperor Macedonians say they are Greek, Greeks don’t consider them to really be Greek Kingdom of Macedonia conquers Greek Peninsula His father King Phillip had been planning an invasion to take Persia Alexander tells people this is his plan, a select few know his real plan is to conquer and rule over the entire Persian Empire Goes with 35000 troops Persians have up to a million troops at once o Encounters force of his size, defeats them Persian Emperor greets Alexander’s force at Issus with a much larger force o During battle Alexander spots the Persian King and he and his men wheel towards the Persian King. The king sees Alexander and heads off the battlefield o This turns the battle to Alexanders benefit Alexander swings south and captures a number of cities along the Mediterranean Sea (Persia is multinational, so when Alexander arrived at walled city he offered them surrender and he will not kill// if they resist when he conquers he will wipe them out) City of Tire resists and it takes Alexander 9 months to conquer and destroys them. Kills males and sells the females Alexander is good on his word doesn’t raise taxes or anything just puts in his governors once he gets a reputation Egyptians hail him as a liberator from Persia Gaugamela 331 BC o Persian King Darrius meets him there with half a million troops// outnumbers Alexander o Alexander has to deal with Persian chariots with blades Picks an elite force to hide in the field to attack chariots, which retreat Despite his tragedy the battle goes against him Spots king again, drives towards him, the king backs off the battlefield Macedonians lost about 300, Persians lost 40-300 thousand o Victory at Gaugamela the Persian administration collapses Troops have been out for years, returns to Babylon and plans an invasion to the West (never carries that out because he dies of a fever in 323 BC at 32 years old) Death of Alexander the Great is a point where the classical age of Greece over *His empire does not survive him, his generals divide into various kingdoms* LEGACY: as he conquered he planted cities (Alexandrias) he brought Greeks and Macedonians to settle and encouraged marriage between cultures to blend cultural ideas. Took various philosophers with his troops to document things they came across, perhaps inspired by Aristotle. Brings east & west together. The Roman Empire -Rome begins as a city state and is controlled by Etruscan King, who is overthrown in 509 BC -Rome evolves as a Republic not quite to a Democracy, citizens develop some say so in their government Roman Republic Tribal Assemblies (voting districts) o Adult male plebeians (common Roman Citizens) o Vote on proposed bills from government officials o Elect some officials Senate o Apt patricians (upper class) About 300 members who serve for life o Not elected, self-appointing body from the patrician class o Receive foreign ambassadors o Approve any expenditures from the treasury (control the money//control the power) Consuls o 2, both have to agree to take action as they carry out the laws o Executives with a term of office o 1 elected by tribal assemblies // 1 appointed by senate o During war time one consul could be appointed dictator for 6 months, then system reverts to traditional structure 10 Tribunes o Viewed as being so important to citizens, so sacred they could not be touched because they need to be preserved o Elected by the plebeians for 1 year terms o Veto power> to protect common citizens o A voice for the people *S P Q R – the senate and the roman people, statement meaning they govern together* Family Structure o Sacred starting point for society itself o Emphasized importance of character, chastity, good values, honesty, patriotism (strict morality) and duty to Rome Military o Citizen soldiers (serves without pay, provides his own weaponry and food) o Romans did NOT elect their officers, patricians were appointed o Romans put emphasis on training regularly o Patrician males expected to know how to control and command tactics of a military o Romans often outnumbered, winning because of superior training Fight to preserve independence, control over canals, gradually conquer their neighbors 264 BC Romans have conquered the Italian Peninsula, if people behaved romans were lenient Taxed, put officials in power, a stable base of allies rather than conquered enemies Interest to eastern Mediterranean and wester Mediterranean Fight 3 wars with Carthage for control (Punic Wars-fought between Rome and Carthage) o In the second war the Romans get a scare that last years, Hannibal of Carthage shows up in Italy and destroys Romans… which doesn’t happen often o Hannibal occupies Italy and the Romans live in fear, Hannibal never knocks out Rome o The third Punic War 146 BC Rome destroys Carthage, finished conquest of Hellenistic states, complete rule over Mediterranean World Greco-Roman Culture 146BC Romans busy fighting each other for power// civil wars -a lot of wealth and power to fight over Roman republic not functioning as it once did o Ex: Tribune slaughtered in daylight (can’t traditionally be touched) Julius Cesare: Assassinated by fellow senators, made it clear he was in power Notorious Octavian (Cesar Augustus) –The Roman Empire Great nephew of Cesare Gets control of Rome and stays in power for about 40 years and reforms the Roman government from dysfunctional Roman Republic to an Empire; First Roman Emperor Very politically savvy, didn’t flaunt his power o Took title of first citizen, Princep o Senate still meets, Octavian added ideas o Senate names him Cesar Augustus – “Venerable) During Augusts’ Rule he reforms the offices to work for the Empire to reduce corruption Reforms the Roman Army to a professional paid army, bonuses, retirement plan **Simply reforms gov’t, army, constructs so Rome is now and Empire** Roman Empire now at peace internally but expanding boarders, peace continues on for about 2 centuries “Pax Romana” the great peace of Rome o Taxes relatively low (continual conquest), a lot of trade, plenty of wealth Trajan’s Column Trajan, one of the 5 good emperors Column depicts conquests Under Pax Romana: Legal System Roman justice not perfectly fair Women had some rights In theory right to hearing and justice in court Economy/ Life Relatively stable currency; economic mobility Safe travel Fresh water in the cities through aqueducts; Most water through pipes under the ground to fountains of fresh water Built coliseums (gladiator battles, mock naval battles, entertainment) and theaters For conquered slaves Rome is not an easy going life o Some cases people were happy to be ruled by Romans less taxes easier rule o Others felt the oppression of tyranny Religion Polytheistic, Gods take fairly active role in life Official state religion became fairly stale; Basically made into a bureaucratic institution Despite statues, temples, ceremonies… many people did not think it was very fulfilling o People begin to search for other ideas and concept, religious ideas/concepts/stories prevalent throughout the empire Isis, Goddess originally from Egypt o Worship of Isis, viewed as a mother figure Sabazius, originally from eastern part of Roman Empire o Combined with roman view of Dionysus (god of wine) Mithra, originally a Persian god o Worship popular amongst soldiers o Viewed as a savior god who saved humanity o Worshippers met in small congregations, code of ethics, ate a sacred communal meal regularly, to join you were baptized o Believers promised eternal life after death o Celebrated birth of Mithra, December 25 Rome ruthless to those they conquered that did not listen to them Romans cast concrete domes with a hole at the top to let in light and also equal force around a ring Romans adopt Greek science, theatre, literature, architecture… but Romanize each Exam 2 Study Guide Index Fall of the Roman Empire Islam Monotheism The middle ages Christianity Renaissance & Reformation Vocabulary: Constantinople: capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, later renamed Istanbul Akhenaten: Pharaoh who attempted to radically change Egypt’s religion with the first large scale implementation of monotheism. He founded his own capital city and built his own temple to Aten Moses: the beginning of Judaism, Moses raised in Egyptian royal court even though he was an Israelite. He was said to have gone to Mt. Sinai to receive the Ten Commandments Israelite Kingdom: ancient Hebrew nation, especially in the period from the Exodus to the Babylonian Captivity. They believed there is only one god and he is everywhere, moving from many gods in certain locations. The Israelites focuses less and less on places and more on the written word of God to connect to God Torah: (in Judaism) the law of God as revealed to Moses and recorded in the first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures Destruction of the 2Temple in Jerusalem: The Second Holy Temple stood in Jerusalem for 420 years and in the Second Temple era the Jews were subject to foreign rule: by the Persians, the Greeks, and eventually the Romans. After the Jewish rebelled against the Roman Empire, Roman legions under Titus retook and subsequently destroyed much of Jerusalem and the Second Temple Historical Jesus: refers to attempts to "reconstruct the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth by critical historical methods", in "contrast to Christological definitions ('the dogmatic Christ') and other Christian accounts of Jesus New Testament: the second part of the Christian Bible, written originally in Greek and recording the life and teachings of Jesus and his earliest followers. It includes the four Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, twenty-one epistles by St. Paul and others, and the book of Revelation. Paul of Tarsus: was a Jew who had Roman citizenship and tried to stamp out Christianity until he had a vision on the Road to Damascus Influences of Judaism & Greco-Roman world on Christianity: Appeal to those seeking religion fulfillment. Christians dying in the arenas become martyrs that inspire people to know why they believe so strongly for persecution to have an effect it has to have a growing cause. Classic ideas of logic and reason influence Christian thought. Use of Latin & Greek languages and Greco-Roman cosmopolitan/ universal society Christianity vs. Classical Humanism: Faith (Christianity) v. Reason (humanism) Saint Augustine - City of God: (Roman Catholic Church) one of the great Fathers of the early Christian church; after a dramatic conversion to Christianity he became bishop of Hippo Regius in North Africa Code of Justinian: Roman laws (some inspired by Greek influence) in order to reorganized Eastern Orthodox Church: foundation in the code of Justinian, Comes from Christian religion of the Byzantines. A religion of a minority, or not the official religion where church organized along national lines Byzantine architecture: Characterized by domes, high rounded windows, bright colors, half domes, turret like structure connected. Ex. Hagia Sophia in Istanbul Muhammad: Arab founder of Islam, known as the chief prophet of God. He was born in Mecca and Muslims believe that the Koran was dictated to him by an angel sent from God. Qur’an (Koran): the Islamic sacred book, believed to be the word of God as dictated to Muhammad by the archangel Gabriel and written down in Arabic. 5 Pillars of Islam: hahada (confession of faith), salat (prayer), zakat (almsgiving), sawm (fasting, especially during the month of Ramadan), and hajj (the pilgrimage to Mecca) Sunni: one of the two main branches of Islam, commonly described as orthodox, and differing from Shia in its understanding of the Sunna and in its acceptance of the first three caliphs. Shiite: an adherent of the Shia branch of Islam. Jihad: a war or struggle against unbelievers Golden Age Of Islam: Under the Abbassids, Islamic culture became a blending of Arab, Persian, Egyptian, and European traditions. The result was an era of stunning intellectual and cultural achievements. The spoils of conquest was significantly funding their advances. Muslims absorbed the wealth and cultural material from their conquered lands Fundamentalist or Radical Islam: Idea that Islam must be one united nation (uniting all of the Islam states) Islam should be the dominant world power, Sharia law should and needs to be the law of the land. Dark Ages, Middle Ages: The Dark Ages is a historical periodization used originally for the Middle Ages, which emphasizes the cultural and economic deterioration that supposedly occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire. Charlemagne: the grandson of Charles Martel, Charlemagne conquered various barbarian tribes. By 800 he conquers France, part of Germany, Austria, and part of northern Italy. He made peace between the pope and the Roman people and was later crowned Holy Roman Emperor Treaty of Verdun: signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, the son and successor of Charlemagne. Vikings: any of the Scandinavian seafaring pirates and traders who raided and settled in many parts of northwestern Europe in the 8th–11th centuries. Feudalism: the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villains or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection. Chivalry: the medieval knightly system with its religious, moral, and social code. The combination of qualities expected of an ideal knight, especially courage, honor, courtesy, justice, fair fight, and a readiness to help the weak. 3-field system: Under this system, the arable land of an estate or village was divided into three large fields: one was planted in the autumn with winter wheat or rye; the second field was planted with other crops such as peas, lentils, or beans; and the third was left fallow, in order to allow the soil of that field to regain its nutrients Crusades: a medieval military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. Norman Conquest: The overthrow of the government of England in 1066 by forces of Normandy, a province of northern France, under the leadership of William the Conqueror. William proclaimed himself king of England after defeating the English King Harold at the Battle of Hastings. Magna Carta: a document constituting a fundamental guarantee of rights and privileges. Made when nobles worried about their freedoms when King John of England was not popular with the other members of nobility. Members of the nobility made him sign the document in an agreement they would stop revolting against him Medieval art, architecture (Gothic, Romanesque) Gothic: characterized by stained-glass windows, gargoyles, flying buttresses, tall spires, ribbed vaults, and pointed arches. A lot of natural lighting from the larger windows Romanesque: characterized by round arches and vaults and by the substitution of piers for columns and heavy stone walls Bubonic plague, Black Death: A widespread epidemic of bubonic plague that occurred in several outbreaks between 1347 and 1400. It originated in Asia and then swept through Europe, where it killed about a third of the population. Renaissance: The cultural rebirth that occurred in Europe from roughly the fourteenth through the middle of the seventeenth centuries, based on the rediscovery of the literature of Greece and Rome. Humanism: an outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters. Humanist beliefs stress the potential value and goodness of human beings, emphasize common human needs, and seek solely rational ways of solving human problems. The Prince: written by Machiavelli to his ruler, a collections of his theories as to how government should be run. Good government meaning gov’t in control, stable, country not threatened, ruler cannot be totally virtuous but should appear that way (the noble lie) Leonardo da Vinci: an Italian polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics Printing press: Created by Gutenberg. Invention of movable metal type. Revolutionized the expansion of knowledge Guns: gun powder invented in China spread to Europe through the Silk Road. Guns could pierce metal armor ending the knight. Cannons could topple castle walls ending castles for means of protection Renaissance art - techniques, subjects: invention of oil paints (more colors, layering, easily manipulated, glazes, more depth), sculptures more lifelike, overall more accurate representation of human form Reformation: a 16th-century movement for the reform of abuses in the Roman Catholic Church ending in the establishment of the Reformed and Protestant Churches. Martin Luther: a German friar, priest, professor of theology, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Initially an Augustinian friar, Luther came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Selling of indulgences: essentially pay for forgiveness of your sins, church uses this to get money to expand, some misuse it to continue construction of coliseums Peace of Augsburg: a treaty Germany made to end bloodshed and warfare between Catholics and Protestants John Calvin: an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism Edict of Nantes: signed probably on 30 April 1598, by Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was, at the time, still considered essentially Catholic. Inquisition: an ecclesiastical tribunal established by Pope Gregory IX circa 1232 for the suppression of heresy. It was active chiefly in northern Italy and southern France, becoming notorious for the use of torture. In 1542 the papal Inquisition was re-established to combat Protestantism, eventually becoming an organ of papal government. King Henry VIII & English Reformation: the Pope initially honored Henry for repressing protestant ideas, then Henry asked the Pope for a favor repeatedly in hopes he would be granted an annulment from his wife who had not given him a male heir. When his requests were denied he split and created the Church of England and divorced his wife Counter-Reformation: the reform movement in the Roman Catholic Church following the Reformation. A reformation designed to counter the effects of a previous reformation. Dates to Memorize: c.1250 B.C. – Israelites invade Canaan c.84 B.C. Birth of Jesus of Nazareth 476 A.D. the fall of the Roman Empire in the West c.610 Muhammad founds Islamic religion c.1445 Gutenberg invents printing press 1517 Martin Luther begins the Protestant Reformation Fall of the Roman Empire (Generally referring to the fall in the West) 1. Pressures on the boarder Raids by groups outside the empire, none of which should overwhelm Rome Rome must continually keep forts along the boarders fully equipped with continual funds into defense upkeep 2. Decline in the army Not in the numbers, but decline in the caliber, training (tactical edge), skill, and loyalty of the army The Roman army is now composed more of conquered people, very few Romans choosing to serve in the army anymore The idea of city life was a greater incentive People now fighting for the Romans because they’re getting paid, have a retirement plan o If army doesn’t get paid they’ll revolt o Lacking loyalty 3. Empire split into East and West Administratively hard to govern Initially one emperor over the two section Then an emperor in the West at Rome and one in the East as Constantinople West deals with more boarder problems, financial problems etc. The East then doesn’t want to deal with the problems the West is having 4. Empire stopped expanding // no revenue Without expanding Rome losing tax income from new territory Expense of government and army then have to be paid for from within the empire Empires that are not economically healthy internally, MUST expand to make up funds When you no longer go out in the field taking conquests you set a mentality… Hadrian’s wall: when you build a wall and stay behind it some see that as weakness or fear 5. Social and moral decline Their moral fabric, social and family structure fell apart No longer raising children with ideas of honesty, character, virtue etc. People less moral and more corrupt… government follows If it hadn’t been for the moral fabric decaying maybe they could have solved their other problems 6. Religious disruptions There is not a lot of loyalty to the empire itself so people look for their meaning in life outside of the empire Having many religions is NOT the problem In essence for many people their connection to their religion was important NOT their connections to Rome or any nationalism 7. Government growth and oppression Government will gradually grow, more and more officials, more laws… more expensive Officials that aren’t in the fields that need to be paid Government upkeep drains money from the economy So… Romans increase taxes which is a loss from the productive economy Government produced more money causing inflation, which took down the value of the money they did have Inflation hits the poorest the hardest with price increases that incur o As prices go up and their income does not they fall more behind Government increasingly oppressive Ex. In certain skilled trades, children were required to follow in that trade 8. Economic problems Paying the army Pressures from outside Lots of waste in the government Difficult to defend the boarders when you can’t squeeze more money out of the population that inflation is taking a toll on, amongst other oppressing forces on citizens ***So far in history we don’t have ANY democracies that decided they had gotten too big and started downsizing. *** By 300 AD Rome is getting into huge trouble in the West, situation gets gradually worse. In 410 AD the city of Rome itself is sacked by the Visigoths In 455 AD the Vandals attack Rome and cause further destruction 476 AD is considered the end of the Roman Empire in the West o The Roman Emperor at the time Romulus Augustus is thrown from power Monotheism Akhenaten (1370-1353 BC) Pharaoh According to Akhenaten there was only one god represented by the sun disc Everything comes from this god Attempted to radically change Egypt’s religion Founded his own capital city, build his own temple to Aten First large scale implementation of monotheism Attempted to shut down worship to other gods o Interpretations: Gain more power and control with no competition from temple priests Dramatic change to be remembered Administratively simple Wealth Unify people through similar worship May really believe this is the ONE god When he dies, later pharaohs install again traditional religion o Destroy the city that he built o Scraped his name from stone walls and papyrus o For scholars the beginning of Judaism is Moses, the point to when we track Israelites o This story of the founding of a child in a river is a somewhat common story Gives someone a distinctive characteristics Moses raised in Egyptian royal court even though he was an Israelite It is possible Moses was raised in Akhenaten’s court At the end of prayers Egyptians said amen rah Hebrews said amen at the end of prayers o Not scholarly agreement on exodus… when large groups wanted to leave Egypt they became their own people… went in all different directions o We do KNOW when Israelites arrived in Canaan they did not arrive as a helpless rabble of beggars, they arrived as a capable army that could take on walled cities… they can be connected to ancient cities that had been captured and overtaken o The conquest of Canaan was around 1250 BC o They succeeded in conquering area in Israel and build a kingdom from around 1000-900 BC it was thriving King David and his son Solomon Northern part of the kingdom hit by the Assyrians and that part of the kingdom falls away and is conquered by 722 BC The lower part of the kingdom is conquered by the Babylonians by 586 BC After being conquered and scattered they did NOT disappear as a people or as a religion (Jews did NOT disappear, unusual) The first temple of Solomon was destroyed and rebuilt The western wall: all that is left of the second temple, used through Roman times… the second temple was destroyed later on and people scattered. To the right is all that’s left which was the outer retaining wall of the temple. Jews currently go there to pray and worship Even when scattered believed God still with them, still connect to him Judaism 1. Monotheism: worship of one god Concept of monotheism does not spring at the beginning The covenant or agreement with god is that the people will not worship any other god; many gods and goddesses recognized by other people Religion is tied to the land itself, with sacred rivers and sacred mountains etc. For the Israelites, Moses goes to Mount Sinai to get the ten commandments because that is where God resides There is only one god and he is everywhere, moving from many gods in certain locations 2. Focus on the Word of God The Israelites focuses less and less on places and more on the written word of God to connect to God Need to somehow connect to what God wants and what God needs you to do How to act, prophesies, how they should interact, etc. written in the Torah Stories and prophesies 3. Codes of Conduct How to treat others Dealings with fellow men Foods they could eat Important days of the week 4. Linear views of time According to the Jews there was a beginning to time when God created everything There is a clear past We are here at a certain point in time There are prophesies for the future There is a certain end in time o Adopted by Christianity and the Western World o Ancient world viewed time as cyclical 5. Equality before God Everyone treated the same in the eyes of God, law is the same for all classes 10/1 Christianity Jesus Jesus, agreed he was an actual person born between 8-12BC died 30-33AD (historical fact) Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John tell the stories of the life of Jesus Other sources of his life: additional Christian gospels from the Nag Hammadi library, included is a gospel of Phillip, Thomas, and Mary which add to the life of Jesus Josephus a Jewish scholar writes about a teacher by the name of Jesus who acquired a following and was reported of doing miracles, reports from others on Jesus from another perspective Passing reference in Roman writing referring to the execution of Jesus, not complete agreement on that Most of the information still from the 4 gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) o His message resonates in the Roman world The Religion Spread very slowly in the initial years after the death of Jesus Apostles receives the word of Jesus’ resurrection from Mary Magdalen Christianity viewed as another sect within Judaism First followers of Jesus were Jews themselves who saw him as the Mosiah Peter and Paul o Paul key player in the religion of Christianity o Paul was not an original follower of Jesus in his lifetime, saw a vision and was told to spread the word of Christianity o Has ideas different than original followers Christian message for everyone, not just Jews Don’t have to be a Jew to be a Christian o Tension between Paul and other disciples o Paul’s message was the life and the message Jesus brought was essentially the most important thing that trumped everything else People didn’t have to follow kosher laws etc. to reach salvation o Paul plants churches in the places that he stops o Converts people, moves on but keeps in touch with congregations he forms o Makes a mark of what it means to be a Christian Other apostles did spread Christianity through the Empire, just not the same widespread impact that Paul had Christianity is a product of two things o Judaism: Monotheism Old Testament narrative, prophesies Codes of conduct; particularly the 10 commandments Equality before God Concepts of resurrection (not new concept) o Greco-Roman Culture: Appeal to those seeking religion fulfillment Christians dying in the arenas become martyrs that inspire people to know why they believe so strongly For persecution to have an effect it has to have a growing cause Easy spread> roads, seas Latin & Greek languages Cosmopolitan/ universal society Periodic persecutions Becomes official religion 392 AD Logic/reason, classical thought impacts Christianity Cultural elements > holidays, languages, and rituals Christians begin destroying things like pagan temples, no martyrs on the other side 3 Challenges of Early Christianity 1. What is the nature of Christ? God? Man? Both? -Some say he is not God but a man delivering God’s word OR a God who looked like a man OR both a man and a God… Group of religious leaders meet to try and decide. Council of Nicaea decides Jesus is BOTH a man and God 2. What books should be in the New Testament? -Long selective process 3. What to do with Greco-Roman philosophy & knowledge? -Some Christians said get rid of philosophy burn it (burning library of Alexandria) totally abolish OR ignore it OR just because philosophers came before Jesus does not mean they are bad or wrong as long as it’s not in opposition to Christian belief -they never settled the debate, many different perspectives still present today Classical Humanism (Greco-Roman) Inherent individual worth, You are a distinct rational thinking being and that gives you worth Cyclical view of time Intellectual and moral Christianity excellence IN ONE WORD: reason Worth because of God, Humans Linear view of time (from are made in the image of God, Judaism), end is when Jesus that makes us unique comes back Salvation IN ONE WORD: faith When we collapse the Roman Empire in the West, we go more toward Christianity. The middle ages is an age of faith… we address disease or political problems with faith In the Renaissance there is a shift and re-emphasis on classical humanism Eastern Roman Empire Capital at Constantinople When the western Roman Empire falls, the Eastern Roman Empire is becomes known as the Byzantine Empire Byzantine Empire Christianity Church and state closely tied together Justinian was the emperor and wore a crown or halo shows position as protector of the Christian church The empire will shrink down until its final collapse in 1453 Emperor very engaged in defending the city, can’t get enough people to guard the walls People consumed in religion did not have time to man the walls In that year it is not much bigger than Constantinople itself, and at this point Constantinople conquered by Turks The Byzantines preserve, refine, collect, and organize a lot of Roman knowledge but add little new perspectives or ideas to it Code of Justinian o Roman laws (some inspired by Greek influence) o Reorganized Byzantine scholars copy and recopy writings of philosophers Becomes the foundation of the Eastern Orthodox Church o Comes from Christian religion of the Byzantines o A religion of a minority, or not the official religion o Church organized along national lines Greek Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Church, etc. **Christians in modern day Syria and in Northern Iraq who have recently faced persecution from ISIS** Byzantine Architecture o Characterized by domes o Half domes, turret like structure connected o Hagia Sophia in Istanbul After the fall of Constantinople, the city was renamed Istanbul Today considered to be a museum, no longer used for worship 19 Century Neo-Byzantine style in Russia o Churches with similar look but built in the 1800s o Very ornate o Bright colors, high rounded windows, domes Interiors elaborately painted with biblical scenes Painting, flat representations, NO STATUES o Seen as idols o Graven Islam The third of the Abrahamic monotheistic religions, trace their narrative to Abraham th Begins in the Arabian peninsula in the 7 century AD o In Arabia previously included was polytheistic with various sacred places and sites, sharing similar beliefs in tribal settings, each tribe had different areas of focus o In cities along the route you may find Judaism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism (monotheistic religion from Persia not Abrahamic) Origins of Islam tied to the prophet Muhammad born in 570 AD died 632AD Around 610AD when Muhammad was in his 40s he saw the arch angel Gabriel and received revelations These revelations were collected and written down, the Quran, the holy text of Islam For the majority of Islam they would not depict Muhammad in pictures The
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