UNIT 4 STUDY GUIDE
UNIT 4 STUDY GUIDE BIOL 103 - 03
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BIOL 103 - 03
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Spees on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 103 - 03 at University of Indianapolis taught by Nelson H. Kraus in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Anatomy in Biology at University of Indianapolis.
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Unit 4 Study Guide Chapter 19 Blood Vessels Arteries Carries blood away from the heart Veins Carries blood toward the heart Capillaries Exchange w systemic cells and exchange with air sacs in or lungs SEEquot Two types of circulation in CVS Pulmonary transports blood from the right side of the heart to the alveoli of the lungs for gas exchange and back to the left side of the heart Systemic transports blood from left side of the heart to systemic cells of mg the body for nutrient and gas m Vi Lj i 1 WOW exchange to the right side of the Ir 3i heart Basic Pattern of Blood Flow 1 Right Side of Heart 2 Lungs S iiigiii ie il w 3 Left Side of Heart 39 Systemic Cells Basic pattern of blood flow D Right side of heart Lungs Left side of heart Systemic cells Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display rifleei39ri39i quot39 Blood vessels Systemic cells Systemic circulation vi tartar K 4 I I39V 39 yilrs l s I with air sacs 730494 in the lungs Artery carries blood away from the heart Vein carries blood u r toward the heart Capillaries V exchange with I systemic cells gig4 Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Fibrous pericardium Parietal layer of serous pericardium Pericardial cavity contains serous fluid Visceral layer of serous pericardium epicardium Fibrous pericardium Pericardial Parietal layer sac of serous pericardium Visceral layer I of serous I pericardium epicardium Diaphragm Superior vena cava Branches of right 39 pulmonary artery 39 39 Right pulmonary veins Right auricle Right atrium Right coronary artery in coronary sulcus Right ventricle Right marginal artery Inferior vena cava Branches of right pulmonary artery Right pulmonary vein Right auricle Right atrium Right coronary artery in coronary sulcus Right ventricle Right marginal artery Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display V Descending aorta a Anterior view McGrawHill EducationPhotos and Dissections by Christine Eckel Ascending aorta Aortic arch Ligamentum arteriosum Left pulmonary artery Pulmonary trunk Left pulmonary veins Left auricle of left atrium Left coronary artery in coronary sulcus Circumflex artery in coronary sulcus Anterior interventricular artery in anterior interventricular sulcus Left ventricle Apex of heart Ascending aorta Aortic arch Ligamentum arteriosum Left pulmonary artery Pulmonary trunk Left pulmonary vein Left auricle of left atrium Left coronary artery in coronary sulcus Anterior interventricular artery in anterior interventricular sulcus Left ventricle Apex of heart Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Aortic arch Descending aorta Superior vena cava Left pulmonary artery Right pulmonary artery Left pulmonary veins Right pulmonary veins Left atrium Coronary sinus in coronary sulcu Right atrium Inferior vena cava Left ventricle Right coronary artery in coronary sulcus Posterior interventricular artery in posterior interventricular sulcus Right ventricle Apex of heart Aortic arch Superior vena cava Right pulmonary arteries Left pulmonary artery Left pulmonary veins collapsed Right pulmonary veins Left atrium collapsed forms base of heart Right atrium Coronary sinus inc ona s Icus Le ven ric e Inferior vena cava Right coronary artery Posterior interventricular artery in posterior interventricular sulcus Right ventricle Apex of heart b Posterior view McGraw Hill EducationPhotos and Dissections by Christine Eckel Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Superior vena cava Right pulmonary artery Right auricle Pulmonary trunk Right pulmonary veins Interatrial septum Fossa ovalis Pectinate muscle Opening for coronary sinus Right atrium Pulmonary semilunar valve Right AV valve Tendinous cords Papillary muscles Right ventricle Inferior vena cava a Epicardium outer layer Myocardium thick middle layer Endocardium inner layer ll Ascending aorta Aortic arch Left atrium Left AV valve C E M Tendinous cords Left ventricle Pericardial sac Simple squamous epithelium endothelium nquot q39 Areolar connective ssue 1 s I l I Endocardium Myocardium 5 cardiac muscle 393 Pericardial cavity Ligamentum arteriosum Lett pulmonary artery Left pulmonary veins Aortic semilunar valve Trabeculae carneae Interventricular septum Simple squamous epithelium Areolar connective tissue and adipose connective tissue Epicardium visceral layer of serous pericardium Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Ascending aorta Left atrium Left coronary artery Right atrium Circumflex artery Anterior interventricular artery Branches of left coronary artery Right coronary artery Posterior A Branches of right interventricular artery v Coronary artery Right marginal artery 39 Right ventricle Left ventricle a Coronary arteries Coronary sinus quotL Middle cardiac vein Great cardiac vein Small cardiac vein b Coronary veins c Polymer cast of coronary vessels 0 Ralph HutchingsNisuals UnlimitedCorbis Coronary Circulation Circulation of blood in the blood vessels Inter ventricular artery posterior descending artery supplies posterior wall of both left and right ventricles Anterior inter ventricular artery left anterior descending artery supplies both anterior wall of left ventricle and most of inter ventricular septum Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Tunica intima Endothelium Subendothelial layer Tunica media Elastic laminae Tunica externa Vasa vasorum s l Lumen H cap39nary bed Lumen Artery Vein Endothelium Basement capillary membrane Chapter 20 3 Tunics gt Layers of vessel walls Tunica Intima basement membrane and endothelium Tunica Media smaller lumen Tunica Externa larger lumen Artery gt thicker tunica media and relatively smaller lumen Veins gt thickest layer is tunica externa larger lumen larger veins have valves Capillaries gt only tunica intima with basement membrane and endothelium but no sub endothelial layer Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Ascending aorta Pulmonary trunk artery Elastic artery Superior vena cava 39 Veins Large vein Tunica intima Inferior vena cava Tunica intima Valve Tunica media Tunica media Tunica externa Descending aorta Small to medium sized vein Tunica intima Valve Tunica media Tunica intima Tunica media Internal elastic lamina External elastic lamina Tunica externa Tunica externa 39 Tunica intima Tunica intima Tunica media Tunica externa Tunica media Tunica externa Basement membrane Endothelium Capillary Elastic Arteries Largest Conducting Arteries Heart to smaller muscular arteries Vast arrays of elastic fibers in tunica media Muscular Arteries Distributing Arteries distribute blood to specific body regions and organs Tunica media with numerous layers of smooth muscle flanked by elastic laminae Arterioles Smallest Less than 6 layers of smooth muscle in tunica media Artery Lumen diameter Narrower than vein lumen General wall thickness thicker than vein Thickest tunic Tunica Media Elastic and Collagen Fibers in Tunics More than in vein Valves none Blood flow Transports blood away from heart to the body Blood Oxygen levels Systemic arteries carry blood high in Oxygen Pulmonary arteries carry blood low in Oxygen Vein Lumen diameter wider than artery lumen General wall thickness thinner than artery Thickest tunic tunica externa Elastic and collagen fibers in tunics less than in artery Valves present in most veins Blood flow transports blood from body to the heart Blood oxygen levels Systemic veins carry blood low in oxygen pulmonary veins carry blood high in oxygen Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Coronary sinus Sinus A modified vein that has very thin walls and no smooth muscle Supported by surrounding tissue Coronary sinus gt located in coronary sulcus of the heart supported by adipose CT Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Pulmonary circulation 18 Heart 12 Systemic Systemic Systemic Systemic veins capillaries arteries circulation 70 o 5500 1000 Different components of CVS gt different amounts of blood systemic contain the most 10 Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Simple gt one major artery delivers blood to organs or body regions then branches into a smaller and smaller arteries to become i arterioles Alternative gt Anastomoses and portal systems differ in number of either arteries capillary beds or veins that serve a body region Portal system gt venous blood is directed through the capillary bed of another organ first before going back to the heart b Alternative pathways Anastomoses Venous tanastomoses i Portal system T Capillary bed Capillary bed J z a Portal vein vA 39 I fquot f A 939 5 5 39 11 Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Right common carotid artery Right subclavian artery Brachiocephalic trunk Axillary artery Internal thoracic artery Brachial artery Deep brachial artery U 1 g I 1 V I t 1 n l u A i t 1 Radial artery Ulnar artery Palmar arches External carotid artery Internal carotid artery Left common carotid artery Left subclavian artery Aortic arch Ascending aorta Descending aorta Celiac trunk Superior mesenteric artery Renal artery Gonadal artery Inferior mesenteric artery Common iliac artery External iliac artery Internal iliac artery Deep femoral artery Femoral artery Popliteal artery Posterior tibial artery Anterior tibial artery 55 39 Right subclavian artery Right common carotid artery Left common carotid artery Left subclavian artery Brachiocephalic trunk Aortic arch Ascending aorta Left coronary artery Right coronary artery Descending thoracic aorta behind heart Diaphragm Descending abdominal aorta Right common iliac artery Left common iliac artery a Arteries anterior view Systemic Circulation Arteries blood to heart 12 Transport blood from heart to systemic capillary beds systemic veins return this Right subclavian vein Right brachiocephalic vein Axillary vein Brachial veins Basilic vein Cephalic vein Median cubital vein Ulnar veins Radial veins Palmar venous arches Deep femoral vein Femoral vein Great saphenous vein Popliteal vein Posterior tibial veins Anterior tibial veins Dorsal venous arch Three Main Arterial Branches Emerge from Aortic Arch Copyright McGraw Hill Education Permission required for reproduction or display 11 a U v Superficial veins Deep veins b Veins anterior view Left external jugular vein Left internal jugular vein Left subclavian vein Left brachiocephalic vein Superior vena cava Hepatic veins Renal vein Inferior vena cava Gonadal vein Common iliac vein External iliac vein Internal iliac vein Right brachiocephalic vein Left brachiocephalic vein Superior vena cava Right atrium Diaphragm Inferior vena cava Right common iliac vein Left common iliac vein Brachiocephalic trunk Right common carotid artery arterial blood to right side of head and neck and right subclavian artery supplies right upper limb and some thoracic structures 13 Left common carotid artery supplying left side of head and neck Left subclavian artery supplying left upper limb and some thoracic structures Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Branches of external carotid artery Branches of common carotid artery Superficial temporal artery parotid gland part of scalp Internal carotid artery quot Maxillary artery teeth gums nasal cavity brain and orbit r V 39 mastication muscles meninges 1 EXtem l FaTOt39d artery r i Posterior auricular artery ears and part of scalp superfrcral head and neck v i 3 Q i structures Iquot 1r Occipital artery posterior scalp 391 l Facial artery face Paired arteries to head and neck 4 Thyrocervical trunk Llngual artery tongue thyroid gland part of neck and shoulder Ascending pharyngeal artery pharynx 9Q Superior thyroid artery thyroid gland and larynx Costocervical trunk deep necquot and upper Thyroid cartilage Intercostal muscles Vertebral artery brain BraChlocePhaliC artery Common carotid artery Subclavian artery 3 Arteries right lateral view Anterior Anterior communicating artery connects right and left anterior cerebral arteries Anterior cerebral arteries FtL Internal carotid artery Posterior communicating arteries FlL Posterior cerebral arteries RL internal carotid artery Anterior cerebral artery Ophthalmic artery Middle cerebral artery Cerebral arterial circle circle of Willis Posterior cerebral artery Basilar artery Vertebral artery Posterior b Arteries of the brain inferior view Common carotid Arteries Supplies most of blood to head and neck lnternal carotid artery brain and orbit External carotid artery superficial head and neck structures 14 Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Veins of neck and superficial head structures Occipital vein Superficial temporal vein Maxillary vein Posterior auricular vein Major veins draining head and neck Retromandibular vein Vertebral vein Facral vein External jugular vein LIngual vein Internal jugular vein Superior thyroid vein Right subclavian vein Right brachiocephalic vein Superior sagittal sinus Inferior sagittal sinus Straight sinus Occipital sinus Cavernous sinus Marginal sinuses Transverse smus Superior petrosal sinus Sigmoid sinus Inferior petrosal sinus Ophthalmic veins Facial vein Internal jugular vein b Dural venous sinuses right superior anterolateral view 3 Primary pairs of veins drain head and neck Vertebral vein and external jugular vein drains primarily superficial head and neck structures both empty into subclavian vein Internal jugular vein joins with subclavian vein to form the brachiocephalic vein drains drains blood from cranial cavity 15 Copyright McGraw Hill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Aortic arch Costocervical trunk Right subclavian artery 5 21L A L k Supreme intercostal artery Left subclavian artery Brachiocephalic trunk Internal thoracic artery Posterior intercostal arteries 1 and 2 posterior intercostal spaces Anterior intercostal arteries 1 6 anterior intercostal spaces Posterior intercostal arteries 3 11 posterior intercostal spaces Descending thoracic aorta Musculophrenic artery anterior intercostal spaces Anterior intercostal arteries 7 9 Descending abdominal aorta Superior epigastric artery superior abdominal W3quot Lumbar arteries 5 pairs posterolateral abdominal wall Common iliac artery Median sacral artery sacrum and coccyx Inferior epigastric artery inferior abdominal wall a Arteries anterior view 16 Right subclavian vein Right brachiocephalic vein Superior vena cava Internal thoracic vein Anterior intercostal veins Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Azygos vein Posterior intercostal vein Inferior vena cava Musculophrenic vein Superior epigastric vein Inferior epigastric vein b Veins anterior view 17 Left subclavian vein Left brachiocephalic vein Supreme intercostal vein Posterior intercostal veins 1 3 Accessory hemiazygos vein Posterior intercostal vein Hemiazygos vein Diaphragm Inferior vena cava Lumbar veins Median sacral vein Common iliac vein External iliac vein internal iliac vein Copyright McGraw Hill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Cellac trunk and branches Left gastric artery part of stomach esophagus Splenlc artery spleen part of stomach and pancreas Common hepatic artery Hepatic artery proper Left hepatic artery left half of liver Right hepatic artery right half of liver gallbladder Right gastric artery part of stomach Gastroduodenal artery part of stomach duodenum pancreas Liver Esophagus Stomach Left gastro omental artery part of stomach Spleen Right gastroomental artery part of stomach Duodenum Pancreas Internal thor Superior mesenteric artery Descending abdominal aorta Interior vena cava a Celiac trunk branches Esophageal Transverse colon Superior mesenteric artery and branches Superior phi Celiac trunk Middle colic artery most of transverse colon Intestinal arteries jejunum and ileum Right colic artery ascending colon lleocolic artery ileum cecum appendix Descending colon Descending abdominal aorta Inferior phre Musculophre Inferior mesenteric artery Right renal a and branches Left colic artery distal part of transverse colon most of descending colon Sigmoid arteries part of descending colon and sigmoid colon Ascendlng colon Superior rectal artery rectum Cecum Appendix Sigmoid colon Rectum b Superior and inferior mesenteric arteries 18 onchi aorta nch artery artery Ial aorta rtery Inferior vena cava Hepatic veins Copyright McGraw Hill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Liver Sinusoid processes blood from hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery Hepatic portal vein Duodenum Pancreas cut Superior mesenteric vein Ascending colon Victor P Eroschenko 19 Diaphragm Stomach Spleen Splenic vein Inferior mesenteric vein Descending colon Small intestine Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display VW39 39 39 a V gt 393 O r r39 Unpaired arteries Vw o V Paired arteries inferior phrenic artery diaphragm and part of adrenal gland Celiac trunk Xx EC j Superior mesenteric Middle suprarenal artery artery adrenal gland Renal artery kidney and part Descending abdominal of adrenal gland aorta Gonadal artery gonads Inferior mesenteric artery Common iliac artery Median sacral artery Internal iliac artery pelvis and perineum External iliac artery inferior abdominal wall external genitalia lower limb a Abdominal wall anterior view Common iliac artery Internal iliac artery and branches Superior vesical artery bladder External iliac artery Superior gluteal artery gluteus medius and minimus Inferior gluteal artery gluteus maximus Medial umbilical ligament closed Middle rectal artery umbilical artery of fetus rectum Vaginal artery vagina Internal pudendal artery anal canal and perineum Uterine artery uterus Obturator artery medial thigh muscles b Female pelvis medial view Paired arteries gt descending abdominal aorta supply blood to adrenal glands kidneys gonads and pelvis L amp R internal iliac artery gt distribute blood to pelvic organs on right side of body 20 Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display i l Brachiocephalic vein 4 Subclavian vein Subclavian artery Axillary artery axilla Axillary vein chest wall shoulder humerus Cephalic vein Brachial artery humerus and elbow Basilic vein Deep brachial artery muscles of arm Brachlal veins Median cubital vein Basilic Cephalic vein Ulnar veins R d I Ulnar artery Radial veins 3 3951 artery medial forearm wrist lateral forearm hand wrist hand 1 Deep palmar arch Deep palmar venous arch Superfrcral palmar arch SuperfICIal palmar venous arch Dorsal venous network 1 7 Digital arteries fingers Digita39 veins j Super cial veins Deep veins a Arteries of right upper limb anterior view b Veins of right upper limb anterior view Upper and Lower Mirror Each Other Upper and lower limbs supplied by A main arterial vessel Subclavian for upper limb and external iliac artery for lower limb Have main artery bifurcating at either the elbow or the knee Have superficial and deep networks of veins Subclavian artery gt oxygenated blood to upper limb Radial Ulnar gtforearm and wrist brachial divides into R amp U Veins merge to return deoxygenated blood to heart 21 Copyright McGraw Hill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Anterior Posterior t Common iliac artery I Internal iliac artery External IllaC artery lnguinal ligament Femoral artery knee leg Deep femoral artery hip joint femur most thigh muscles Popliteal artery knee popliteus muscle Anterior tibial artery anterior compartment of leg Posterior tibial artery posterior compartment of leg Fibular artery lateral compartment of leg Fibular artery lateral compartment of leg Plantar arterial arch formed from a branch of dorsalis pedis and lateral plantar artery Dorsalis pedis artery foot Lateral plantar artery part of plantar surface Digital arteries toes of foot Medial plantar artery part of plantar surface of foot Digital arteries toes a Arteries of right lower limb 22 Great Saphenous Vein gt drains into femoral vein Small Saphenous Vein gt drains into popliteal vein Have perforating branches that connect to the deeper veins if valves in these veins become incompetent varicose veins develop Anterior and posterior tibial veins merge gt popliteal vein gt anterior portion of thigh gt femoral vein Femoral vein gt inguinal ligament gt external iliac vein E amp l iliac veins gt pelvis forming common iliac vein L amp R common iliac veins gt IVC Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Anterior Posterior Common iliac vein External iliac vein Internal iliac vein Femoral vein Deep femoral vein Great saphenous vein Popliteal vein Anterior tibial veins Fibular veins Fibular veins Posterior tibial veins Great saphenous vein Small saphenous vein I A Dorsal venous arch Medial plantar veins Lateral plantar veins Deep veins SuperfICIal veins Digital veins b Veins of right lower limb Chapter 21 Lymphatic System lymph vessels lymphatic tissue and organs Tissue and Organs Primary Thymus Red Bone Marrow Secondary Tonsils Lymph nodes Cervical Axiary Spleen MALT Mucosa associated lymphatic tissue in small intestine Lymph nodes inguinal Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Lymph vessels Lymphatic tissue and organs Right lymphatic duct Thoracic duct Cisterna chyli Lymphatic trunks Lymphatic vessels Valve closed backtlow of lymph is prevented Direction of lymph flow Primary Secondary lymphatic lymphatic structures structures Tonsils Lymph nodes cervical Thymus Lymph nodes axillary Spleen MALT mucosaassociated lymphatic tissue in small intestine Red bone marrow Lymphatic capillary Lymph nodes inguinal Overlapping endothelial cells 24 Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display I GreenAr a drained by right lymp atic duct flow i r r 39 quot r YellowAr adrained b Green Lymph I i acicd ct y flow Black venous Lymph drains gt lymphatic trunks gt 2 lymphatic ducts RLD amp TD empty into junctions of right jugular and right subclavian veins and left jugular and left subclavian veins Right Lymphatic Duct Drains Right Side of Head and Neck Right Upper Limb Right Side of Thorax Returns lymph into junction of the right subclavian vein and right internal jugular vein RLD drains lymph from upper right quadrant of body 25 Chapter 23 Copyright McGraw Hill Education Permission required for reproduction or display l Structural organization Nose Nasal cavity Upper respiratory tract Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchus Bronchiole it 4 39t 39 Lower respiratory Terminal bronchiole i tract 39 8d Lungs a Respiratory bronchiole 47 Alveolar duct 1 Alveoli General Organization of the Respiratory System 2 Structural regions Upper respiratory tract gt Nose nasal cavity and pharynx Lower Respiratory tract gt larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles alveolar ducts and alveoli 2 Functional Regions Conducting zone gt passageways that serve to transport or conduct air Respiratory zone gt structures that participate in gas exchange with the blood Respiratory Mucosa Forms inner lining of respiratory tract 3 major layers epithelium basement membrane lamina propria Types of epithelium thinner along length of respiratory tract Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium lines nasal cavity paranasal sinuses nasopharynx trachea inferior portion of larynx main bronchi lobar bronchi Simple ciliated columnar epithelium lines segmental bronchi smaller bronchi large bronchioles Simple ciliated cuboidal epithelium lines terminal amp respiratory bronchioles 26 Simple squamous epithelium alveolar ducts alveoli Nonkeratinzed stratified squamous epithelium lines region of respiratory tract subject to abrasion Copyright McGraw Hill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Nasopharynx OVOPharYnX Pharynx Laryngopharynx Nasopharynx Pharyngeal tonsil Auditory tube opening Tubal tonsil a Oropharynx Hyoid bone Laryngopharynx Thyroid cartilage of larynx Larynx Esophagus Trachea b Larynx VOICE BOX Lower respiratory tract 9 pieces of cartilage held in place by ligaments and muscles Functions of the Larynx Serves as passageway for air Prevents ingested materials from entering the respiratory tract Produces sounds for speech Assists in increasing pressure in abdominal cavity Participates in both sneeze and cough reflex 27 Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Epiglottis Epiglottis Hyoid bone Hyoid bone Thyrohyoid membrane Thyrohyoid membrane extrinsic extrinsic Thyroid cartilage Thyroid cartilage Thyrohyoid muscle extrinsic Cuneiform cartilage Corniculate cartilage Laryngeal prominence Arytenoid cartilage g Q Oblique arytenoid muscles intrinsic Cricothyroid muscle extrinsic quot Cricoid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Cricotracheal ligament extrinsic f39 r Flu Posterior cricoarytenoid l r muscle intrinsic h 0 Trachea l Trachea all v x a Anterior view D Posterior view c Posterior oblique view Trachea connects to larynx superiorly and to main bronchi inferiorly Trachial cartilages anterior and lateral walls supported by these 1520 cshaped rings of hyaline cartilage Anular ligament connects tracheal cartilages superiorly and inferiorly Tracheal wall Mucosa gt GOBLET CELLS Submucosa Tracheal Cartilage Adventitia 28 Bronchial Tree conducting passageways that originate at the two main bronchi at end of terminal bronchioles Main bronchi primary bronchi inferiorly and laterally into a lung Lobar bronchi secondary bronchi each lobe of the lung Right Lung Has 3 Left Lung Has 2 Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Main bronchi Lobar bronchi Segmental bronchi Smaller bronchi b Right main bronchus Left main bronchus Right lobar bronchus Left Iobar bronchus Right segmental bron us a segmental bronChus 4 t 4 61 39 quot S aller bronchi R 39 39 quot lt Smaller bronc i u 39 aquot l a Anterior view 29 Structure of the Bronchial Wall Bronchioles NO CARTILAGE gt smooth muscle Allows for bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation gt change size of lumen gt regulate amount of air reaching the alveoli Bronchoconstriction gt smooth muscle contracts narrowing diameter and decreasing amount of air Bronchodilation gt smooth muscle relaxes widening diameter of bronchiole and increasing the amount of air Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Trachea Main bronchi Lobar bronchi Cartilage Cartilage plates r Smaller bronchi W t Bronchiole Cross sections of bronchioles Terminal bronchiole 0 No cartilage YAlveolar duct r g I a Alveoli Muscularis Respiratory bronchiole Submucosa Mucosa Bronchoconstriction Bronchodilation 30 Bronchioles and Alveoli Terminal ends of respiratory passageway bronchioles alveoli Terminal bronchioles respiratory bronchioles in respiratory zone Pulmonary vessels bronchioles capillaries around alveoli for gas exchange Elastic tissue gt around alveoli Copyright McGraw Hill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Respiratory Alveolar Alveolar bronchiole sac ducts Alveoli Branch of 3 13 it 1 ulmonary artery quot3 35 J p K a f I Bronchiole Terminal bronchiole gift L M 60 gtlt Pulmonary Branch of arteriole pulmonaryvein Pumonary capillary beds Respiratory bronChiOIe Terminal Respiratory Alveolar bronchiole Alveoli bronchiole duct Pulmonary Alveolar duct Alveoli Alveolar pores TSOX Elastic fibers Connective tissue 5 E M a c b McGraw Hill EducationAl Telser photographer 0 DrDavid PhillipsVisuals UnlimitedCorbis Alveoli and Respiratory Membrane Gas exchange between alveoli pulmonary capillaries gt thin respiratory membrane Respiratory membrane gt Alveolar type 1 cell endothelial cell of capillary fused basement membranes Oxygen diffuses gt alveolus into blood within capillary Carbon dioxide diffuses gt opposite direction 31 Position of the Lungs Thoracic cage borders protects Lateral to mediastinum Base gt on diaphragm Apex gt superior and posterior to clavicle Copyright McGraw Hill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Apex of Apex of right lung left lung Clavicle Scapula Heart Sternum Costal surface Base of Base of left lung right lung Mediastinal surface Diaphragm Diaphragmatic surface Vertebral column Lungs Lobe separated by fissures RIGHT LUNG 3 LOBES IN LATERAL VIEW LEFT LUNG 2 LOBES Hilum extension of pulmonary vessels and bronchi Medial View 32 Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Apex Superior lobe Horizontal fissure Oblique fissure Middle lobe Cardiac notch Inferior lobe Lingula Base Right lung Left lung a Lateral views Apex Superior lobe Oblique fissure Pulmonary artery Main bronchus Hilum Pulmonary veins Root of the lung Horizontal fissure Cardiac impression Middle lobe Cardiac notch Inferior lobe Oblique fissure Oblique fissure Base Lingula Right lung Left lung b Medial views Pleural Membranes And Pressures Associated w Lungs 2 Pleura Visceral outer surface Parietal lines inner surface of thoracic wall Pleural cavity potential space in between 2 Pressures Intrapulmonary within lungs Intrapleural within pleural cavity 33 Chapter 24 Urinary System 2 Kidneys 2 Ureters 1 Urinary Bladder 1 Urethra F39g39 24391 Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Diaphragm Adrenal 9393quot Kid ys I quotmm Pm al artery Renal vein quot vena La Descending abdominal aorta ululclu Parietal peritoneum cut 39J in y bladder a Anterior view Adrenal gland Left kidney Right kidney Ureters Urinary tract Urinary bladder Urethra b Posterior view a McGrawHill EducationPhoto and Dissection by Christine Eckel 34 Kidneys Filter blood and process filtrate to form urine Formation of calcitriol Production amp release of erythropoietin Potential to engage in gluconeogenesis Fig 243 Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Renal cortex Renal medulla Rena Sinus contains Renal column Minor calyx Minor calyx Renal Major calyx Renal pelvis Corticomedullary junction Renal artery Renal column Renal vein Major calyx Renal pelvis Renal lobe Ureter Fibrous capsule Ureter Right kidney coronal section McGrawHill EducationRebecca Gray photographerDon Kincaid dissections Parenchyma gt Functioning Tissue 2 Regions Renal Cortex outer Renal Medulla inner Renal sinus minor and major calyces and renal pelvis Blood Supply To The Kidneys Renal artery gt segmental arteries gt interlobar arteries gt arcuate arteries gt interlobar arteries Afferent arteriole gt glomerulus gt efferent arteriole gt peritubular capillaries vasa recta Blood from peritubular and vasa recta gt lnterlobular veins gt arcuate interloper veins gt renal columns gt renal vein 35 Fig 248 Copyright McGraw Hill Education Permission required for reproduction or display l gt Interlobar artery gt Arcuate artery gt Interlobular artery Afferent arteriole Nephron Segmental artery Glomerulus 1 Interlobular Renal artery Efferent arteriole l Peritubular capillaries Vasa recta associated associated with with convoluted nephron loop tubules Renal vein A Nephron loop Interlobar vein 4 Arcuate vein 4 Interlobular vein 36 Chapter 26 Digestive System 2 Parts GI Tract Accessory Organs Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Accessory Digestive Organs Gastrointestinal GI Tract Teeth Oral cavity Tongue Pharynx Salivary glands Esophagus Liver Gallbladder Stomach Pancreas Small intestine Large intestine Anal canal Tunics of Abdominal GI Tract Wall Has 4 Mucosa Submucosa Muscularis Adventitia Substances gt epithelium of mucosa through membrane transport processes to be absorbed into the blood capillaries or lymphatic capillaries Motility gt peristalsis propels material through the lumen of GI tract mixing type of muscular contraction that facilitates the blending of materials within the GI tract Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Mucosa Epithelium Lamina propria Muscularis mucosae Submucosa Submucosal nerve plexus Muscularis Inner circular layer Myenteric nerve plexus Outer longitudinal layer Serosa a Tunics Vein artery lymph vessel within mesentery Motility Perlstalsls Wave of contraction Wall of GI tract V J Relaxation ll Mixing gt Further mixing gt W 7 c Muscularis Motility 38 Absorption lumen of the GI tract through the epithelium quot A Digested substances are transported from the Microvilli Epithelium Basement membrane Lamina propria Most nutrients are absorbed into the blood capillaries Lipids and lipidsoluble vitamins are absorbed into the lymphatic capillaries b Mucosa Absorption The Esophagus Pharynx esophagus oral cavity to stomach Esophagus normally collapsed tubular passageway Superior esophageal sphincter pharyngeosophageal sphincter contracted ring of circular skeletal muscle at the superior end of the esophagus esophagus and pharynx meet closed during inhalation of air so air does not enter the esophagus and instead enters the larynx and trachea Inferior esophageal sphincter gastroesophageal or cardiac sphincter contracted ring of smooth muscle at the inferior end of the esophagus isn39t strong enough alone to prevent materials from refluxing back into the esophagus instead muscles of the diaphragm at the esophageal opening contract to help prevent materials from regurgitating from the stomach into the esophagus Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display I t f Mucosa V 5 Oropharynx 6 Laryngopharynx Superior esophageal Submucosa sphincter I Muscularis Esophagus 39 l Circular layer Esophageal Longitudinal hiatus Diaphragm layer Inferior esophagea Stomach Adventitia X sphincter Lumen E The Stomach b Esophagus transverse section b Alfred PasiekaScience Source a Pharynx and esophagus Copyright McGraw Hill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Esophageal Stratified Simple Gastric stomach squamous columnar pits border epithelium epithelium Esophagus Fundus Muscular sac where mechanical and chemical digestion of the 39 w bolus occurs g it Major regions cardia 3323 fundus body and pylorus g 7 Oblique rv 39 Body 3 Layers of smooth muscle r make up muscular tunic Cardia Gastric folds a Stomach regions anterior view Liver cut Lesser curvature Diaphragm I amt1 Esophagus Cardiac orifice Gastric folds Body of stomach Pylorus of stomach Greater curvature 0 Gross anatomy of stomach cut open b Victor P Eroschenko c McGrawHill EducationPhoto and Dissection by Christine Eckel Lower GI Tract Organs and Accessory Organs 3 Regions of Small Intestine Duodenum Jejunum lleum All continuous wn abdominal cavity by large intestine Accessory organs livergallbladderpancreas Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Liver Accessory Gallbladder Duodenojejunal organs Pancreas flexure Duodenum Jejunum Large intestine Small Intestine lleocecal valve Ileum Cecum Largest internal organ Primary digestive function gt produce release bile into duodenum 4 Partially separated lobes supported by 2 Ligaments liver R amp L lobe major lobes Falciform ligament separates right from left Hepatic artery branch of the celiac trunk that extends off of the aorta and transports oxygenated blood to the liver Hepatic portal vein part of hepatic portal system Transports deoxygenated and nutrientrich blood from the capillary beds of the GI tract spleen and pancreas 4O Pancreas Endocrine Exocrine Endocrine gt produce and secrete hormones insulin glucagon Exocrine gt pancreatic juice to assist w digestive activities Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Common bile duct Body of pancreas Tail of pancreas Pancreatic lobule Main pancreatic duct 39 r r r 39 D Diaphragm Spleen a quot Rite j a 39 a39lrg39w l Q r 1 r quot f Gallbladder Minor duodenal papilla Duodenojejunal Inferior flexure I vena cava Hepatopancreatlc ampuna Liver cut Major duodenal papilla Head of pancreas Duodenum Jejunum Head of pancreas Left Tail of kidney pancreas Duodenum Abdominal aorta McGrawHill EducationPhoto and Dissection by Christine Eckel Large Intestine Distal end of GI tract 3 Major regions Cecum Colon Rectum 41 Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display colon Cecum Vermiform appendix Anal canal Rectum Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon Right colic flexure Omental appendices Teniae coli Descending abdominal aorta Inferior mesenteric artery Rectal valve Levator ani muscle Vermiform appendix Anal canal Rectal veins Rectum Sigmoid mesocolon Sigmoid flexure Internal anal sphincter External anal sphincter Anal canal I I Anal columns Anal sinuses a Large intestine anterior view b Anal canal 42 Chapter 28 Female Pelvic Region Uterus Vesicouterine pouch Urinary bladder Pubic symphysis Urethra Clitoris Vaginal orifice Labium minus Labium majus External urethral orifice Copyright McGraw Hill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Ureter Uterine tube Ovary Fimbriae of uterine tube Rectouterine pouch Cervix of uterus Rectum Vagina An u s a Sagittal view Uterine tube Uterus Broad ligament Urinary bladder Round ligament b Anterosuperior view b McGrawHill EducationPhoto and Dissection by Christine Eckel 43 Male Pelvic Region Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Ureters Urinary bladder Pubic symphySis quot luv x l I x t 3910 7 33quot 5 4 3 A Ductus deferens w y H Ampulla of ductus deferens Seminal vesicle 11 O Ejaculatory duct Urogenital diaphragm Prostate gland Bulbourethral gland Anus 44
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