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AU / Anthropology / ANTH 1000 / What is naïve realism?

What is naïve realism?

What is naïve realism?

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School: Auburn University
Department: Anthropology
Course: Introduction to Anthropology
Professor: Christopher berk
Term: Fall 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam Study Guide
Description: Notes from whole semester with test questions highlighted
Uploaded: 12/09/2015
41 Pages 62 Views 4 Unlocks
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Chad Block (Rating: )

Yes YES!! Thank you for these. I'm such a bad notetaker :/ will definitely be looking forward to these



Anthropology  


What is naïve realism?



Exams: September 21, October 28, December 9

Fields:

1. Cultural Anthropology

2. Archaeology

3. Physical/Biological Anthropology

4. Linguistic Anthropology

Lecture 1***What is Anthropology? ***Kottak 1, CC 31, 39 What is Anthropology?

∙ Historically, anthropology focused on nonindustrial people away from the  anthropologist’s country or region of origin.

∙ Anthropology provides a uniquely, cross-cultural perspective on human  behavior, thought, and culture.

o Make the familiar strange

o Make the strange familiar

∙ A holistic discipline

o The study of the whole human condition as opposed to specific groups  and/or cultures


What are the four domains of spoken language?



The Nacirema

∙ American spelled backward

∙ Describing our lifestyles in a strange way

∙ Makes us seem very weird when you think about the customs we have  adapted to

∙ The magic ridden people

Culture

∙ A learned social phenomenon from birth

o Indirect- observation

o Direct- told what to do

 Enculturation(socialization)

∙ Involves small things

o How you dress

o What colors you associate with

o How to talk

∙ Our beliefs shape our physical appearance in relation to culturally  constructed ideas of desirability


What behavior by one of the students offended the barbadian villagers?



Archaeology

∙ Reconstructs, describes, and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains(artifacts)

∙ Allows archaeologists to draw conclusions about diet, social organization,  culture shift, etc. Don't forget about the age old question of Who discovered that tobacco grows well in a warm climate?

Lecture 2***

Quantitative vs. Qualitative

Ethnography- based on fieldwork and provides an account of a particular  community, society, or culture.

Ethnology- based on cross-cultural comparison and examines, compares, analyzes, and interprets the results of ethnography.

Bronislaw Malinowski

∙ Polish Anthropologist

∙ Father of American Anthropology

∙ Argonauts of the Western Pacific

∙ Trobriand Islands

∙ Approach

o Cut yourself from your own kind of people

o Immerse yourself in the social world you’re studying

o Find patterns, structures, “anatomy” of social life

o Fill in details of everyday life, the “imponderabilia,” through close  observation

o Collect a “corpus inscriptionum,” a set of telling examples If you want to learn more check out Who was the roman emperor from 161 to 180?

o Do all this in order to “grasp the native’s point of view, his relation to  life, and to realize his vision of his world.”

Anthropological Research

∙ Based around firsthand personal study of particular cultural settings. ∙ Ethnography usually involves:

o Long-term residence in a community

o Learning a new language(or at least a new context)

o Develop intimate relationships with people who aren’t like you ∙ There will always be embarrassment

Ethnography

∙ Things remote are made to seem nearby(and vice versa)

∙ The familiar is gradually turned into a sense of Otherness(and vice versa) Techniques

∙ Participant Observation

o Forming relationships with people in the culture you are studying o Key Cultural Consultants-People of the culture being studied We also discuss several other topics like For how long was there no difference between a christian and a jew?

∙ Genealogical Method

o Using family trees to figure out

 Who lives with who

 How many people usually live together

 Who marries who

∙ Life History

o Recollection of lifetime experiences that has shaped the culture ∙ Contracting Perspectives

o Emic-Insider’s perspective

o Etic- Outsider’s perspective

∙ Different Models:

o Problem-Oriented, Longitudinal, Team Research, Multi-sited  

Ethnography

Dr. Berk’s Research

∙ Australia(spent most of time in Hobart)

∙ Buzzfeed 25 reasons why Tasmania is great

∙ Tasmanian Aboriginal People

o Ancestors traveled to landmass about 40,000 years ago

o Geographically separated from mainland Australia at the end of the ice age, 12,000 years ago

Gmelch (CC Reading)

1. What is naïve realism?

a. Assuming that everyone views things the same as you do.

2. What behavior by one of the students offended the Barbadian villagers? a. She was close to one of the students in the village and was shunned. In our country we assume that everyone is middle class and don’t see the big divide in class. Don't forget about the age old question of He/she became the first chief of the division of forestry, who is he/she?

3. What part does social class play in this event?

a. The strong divide in social classes is what made the Barbadian  villagers shun her.

4. Why is this story a good example of naïve realism?

a. She thought that everyone thought that social classes aren’t a strong  divide. She also thought that everyone should accept an anthropologist hanging around multiple social classes because it is her job to study  different cultures and social classes.

Sterk (CC Reading)

1. What were some of the techniques Sterk used to enter the field, conduct her  research, and leave the field? What problems did she face? We also discuss several other topics like What are the four statues of fraud of verbal agreements that must be in writing?

2. What are some of the ethical issues faced y anthropologists when they  conduct ethnographic research?

Lecture 3***What is Culture***

1. Features

2. Levels and Scales

3. Cross-Cultural Misunderstanding

4. Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism

5. Cultural Dimensions

6. Cultural Change

Culture

∙ Culture, or Civilization, taken in its wide ethnographic sense, is a  complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of  society

∙ Human Cultures are dependent on: If you want to learn more check out When does personality predict performance best?

1. Symbolic Communication

2. Learning

 Ex. Walk on the right side

∙ Linked to the side we drive on

 Ex. Language/Context

∙ Phrases for hello and goodbye

 Ex. Ways to dress

∙ Styles and Modesty

 Ex. Ways to address people

∙ Teachers- Professor/doctor/Mr./Mrs.

3. The ability to live in groups

4. ***Biology does not distinguish culture or civilization***

∙ Distinct Features of Culture

1. It is learned

2. It is shared(hot wheels, Barbie, prom)w

3. It is symbolic

4. It shapes and channels nature

5. It is all-encompassing

6. It is integrated

7. It is adapted and maladapted

8. It is changing

9. It is inclusive and exclusive

∙ Levels and Scales

1. Anthropologists also recognize cultural systems that are larger, and  smaller, than nation-states

2. National Culture

3. International Culture

4. Subcultures

∙ Cross Cultural misunderstanding  

∙ Richard Lee: Easting Christmas in the Kalahari

 1. What was the basis of the misunderstanding experienced  by Lee when he gave an ox for the Christmas feast held by  

the Kung?

 2. Why do you think the Kung ridicule and denigrate people  who have been successful hunter or who have provided them with a Christmas ox? Why do Americans expect people to be  grateful to receive gifts?

∙ Laura Bohannan:

 1. In what ways does Bohannan’s attempt to tell the story of  Hamlet in the Tiv illustrate the concept of naïve realism?

 2. What are the most important parts of Hamlet that the Tiv  found it necessary to reinterpret?

Lecture 4***Language***

Language

∙ Anthropologists are interested in language-human speech and writing because it is our primary means of communication.

Distinctive Features

∙ Conventionality

∙ Productivity

∙ Displacement

∙ Cultural Transmission

Non-Human Primate Language

∙ Other primate species rely on call systems.

o A particular sound is associated with a particular circumstance o They do not involve displacement. They have a fixed and immediate  relationship to what they signify.

∙ They can also manipulate symbols.

o They have learned American Sign Language

 Only in places where humans have taught them

o Cannot speak

How did human language capacity evolve?

∙ FOXP2 gene

∙ Has increased and become more complex over time.

o Vocalizations became more elaborate.

o Use of symbols became more complex.

o Social environments that depended on the abilities, and encouraged  them, emerged.

Non-Verbal Communications

∙ Nodding your head

∙ How close you are when you talk

∙ Hand signs

∙ Vocalizations

∙ Ritual Gestures

o Bow, kiss cheeks or hands(Signs on respect)

Four Domains of Spoken Language

1. Sounds used(phonetics; phonology)

o Phonology is the study of speech sounds. It considers what sounds  are present and meaningful in a different language.

o Phonemes are sounds that contrast that make a difference. Phonemes are discernable sounds, and the differences between sounds are what  differentiate meaning.

2. Meaningful combinations of sounds(morphemes; morphology) o Morphology studies how sounds combine to form words

o It focuses on morphemes, which are words and their meaningful  parts.

3. Systematic combinations

4. Semantics and Reality

Sociolinguistics

∙ Sociolinguistics investigates the relationships between social and linguistic  variation.

o Focus on the features that vary systematically with social position and  situation.

o Style Shifts

o Diglossia

o Gender

o Class

o Ethnicity

o Race

Historical Linguistics

∙ Relationships between languages and groups over space and time. ∙ Protolanguage- A parent language that has branched off over time into  daughter languages

o Break off into subgroups.

Grammar/Syntax

∙ Systematic Combinations of morphemes into phrases

∙ Syntax is the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences Semantics and Reality

∙ Semantics refers to a language’s meaning system.

∙ Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis- looks to understand differences in how we view  our surroundings based on our languages.

o Language shapes our perception of reality

o Different languages create different realities

o No reality exists independent of language

∙ Has our language changed our reality or has our reality changed our  language?

Accents

∙ We all have accents. Some may seem subtle or understates. Other may seem broad and excessive. Some people may argue that they don’t have an accent at all. Just perspective.

Focal Vocabulary

∙ We all have certain terms that don’t translate or overlap with the terms or  other groups or regions.

∙ These specialized sets of terms and distinctions that are particularly  important to certain groups are known as focal vocabulary.

Lecture 5***Race and Ethnicity***

EMIC-Insiders perspective 

EDIC-Outsiders perspective 

1. Race and Ethnicity as Analytical Concepts

a. Ethnicity- based on the similarities and differences in a society or  nation.

i. Often share beliefs

b. Race- a biological concept.

i. Not wholly a biological concept.

c. *Race and Ethnicity are always social constructions

i. Don’t exist separately from thoughts and beliefs

Social Constructions and Real Consequences

d. “If people define a thing to be real, it is real in its consequences” i. Genocide-Nazi Germany  

ii. Ethnocide- Native American Boarding Schools

1. forced culture on the inhabitants

iii. Cultural Colonialism-former soviet union

2. The Nation-State and Imagined Communities

a. Nation-State

i. Imagined

ii. Limited

iii. Sovereign

iv. Community

3. The Nation-State and the Management of Difference

a. ***NOT DETERMINED BY SIZE***

b. Minority

i. Subordinate groups with inferior power and less access to  

resources.

c. Majority

i. Dominant or controlling groups in a social-political hierarchy

d. Social Stratification

*Apartheid-South Africa-Political system based on racial differences (whites  more powerful)

e. Hyperdescent- “reverse one-drop rule”

f. Assimilation v. Acculturation

i. Assimilation- the process of change that a minority group may  experience when it moves to an area where another culture  

dominates.

g. Metaphors

i. Melting Pot(Assimilation)

1. Put in diverse ingredients, put them in a melting pot, they  

become uniform.

ii. Tossed Salad(Acculturation)

1. Put in diverse ingredients, but you can still see all the  

pieces

h. Plural Society

i. Groups maintain their ecological specializations so that  

competition and antagonism between them is minimized.

i. Multiculturalism

i. Cultural diversity as desirable and something to encourage

*Multiculturalism is positive, Plural Society is an acceptance out of  necessity

4. Defining Race and the Problems with Racial Typologies

a. Race:

i. Constructing difference within a context of similarity that is  

universal and natural

ii. Defined in relation to some physical inheritances

iii. An endowment “beneath” or “apart from” culture that is  

typically used to rank populations, higher/lower, in their ability  

to act culturally.

b. Racial Typology problems:

i. The groupings of physical traits we use are arbitrary and  

superficial

ii. Symbolic

iii. Sloppy

iv. Based on phenotype, not genotype

5. Census Activity

a. We believe that all people in Africa are the same race.

i. Actually the most racially diverse continent

Lecture 6***Genetics***

NOTES IN NOTEBOOK ON LAB

Lecture 7***The Primates***

Why We study Non-Human Primates

∙ because they provide the standard to assess human uniqueness ∙ humans are closely related to them

∙ share an evolutionary history

∙ the fact that many of our behavioral adaptations are found among other  primates help us make sense of behaviors that are thought to be distinctly  human

∙ Did we evolve from monkey NO

∙ How are human similar, different from monkeys and apes? ∙ What can anthropologist learn about humanity by looking at the similarities  and differences?

Taxonomies and Classifications

∙ Taxonomies assign and organize organisms to categories according to their  relatedness and resemblance

∙ many similarities between organisms reflect their common phylogeny-their  genetic relatedness based on common ancestry

∙ similarities used to assign organisms to the same taxon are  called homologies

∙ analogies and Convergent Evolution

o Table 5.2 in K: 97

 Primates—> Prosimians

—> Anthropoids—> Platyrrhines (New World Monkeys)

—> Catarrhines—> Cercopithecoids  

(Old World Monk)

 hominoids  

o Analogies traits are obtained through evolution, not shared ancestor  a similarity between two organisms that develops independently as adaptations to a common function 

o Convergent Evolution: Process by which unrelated organisms  independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments Primate Evolutionary Tendencies

1. Grasping ability

o born with 5 toes + fingers

o have thumbs

o can pick stuff up with our feet

1. use our hands more than feet for grasping

o walk up right, on two feet(bipedalism)

o have nails instead of claws

2. Reliance on Sight over Smell

o see in color & depth

3. Reliance of Hand over Nose

o rely on sense of touch

4. Brain Complexity

o human have largest brain  

o ratio of brain to body is greater

5. Parental Investment

o almost all primates give birth to a single baby

o baby primates have easy time learning

6. Sociality

o live with other members

Classifications, distinctions, and the Primate Family Tree

∙ Prosimians vs. Anthropoids

o Prosimians tend to be smaller along with relatively smaller brains o Prosimians are nocturnal—> have a Tapetum, extra layer on eye  o Anthropoids tend to be diurnal

o Prosimians tend to be solitary

o Anthropoids tend to be social

∙ New World vs. Old World Monkeys

o Platyrrhines= New

 only in South and Central America

 have Prehensile Tails—> grasping tail

 small, quick and agile

 arboreal (Tree-Dwelling)

 Nasal Morphology—> flat nose

o Catarrhines= Old

 Africa, South Asia, China, Indonesia

 More terrestrial

 larger

 tails aren’t prehensile

 greater degree of sexual dimorphism

 refers to difference between male & female

o share many traits but they are analogies

 in different locations

∙ Family Tree

o Platyrrhines: New World Monkeys

 IF A MONKEY HANDS YOU SOMETHING WITH ITS TAIL IT IS A NEW WORLD MONKEY 

o Catarrhines: Old World Moneys and Apes

 More terrestrial

 Greater degree of sexual dimorphism

Geographic Distribution of Apes

∙ Similarities

o Larger bodies

o Longer lifespans

o Longer birth intervals and period of infant dependency

o A tendency towards upright posture(knuckle walk; not fully upright like  humans)

o Larger brains

o Shorter faces

o No tails

∙ Gibbons

o Extremely long arms

 For an arboreal

o South Asia, China, Indonesia

∙ Orangutans

o Live in small areas

o Very long lifespans with long birth intervals

o Partially arboreal

o Sexual Dimorphism  

o Live in jungles, feed in trees

o Solitary amongst the apes compared to others  

∙ Gorillas

o Only live in Africa

o Males twice as big as females

 Male-6ft…400 lbs

o Bulk green vegetation

∙ Chimpanzees

o Chimps and bonobos considered the same subspecies o Less sexual dimorphism

o Much smaller than gorillas

∙ Bonobos

o Smaller than chimps

o Arboreal

o Bonobos use sex to settle differences

 Females use sex to retain popularity

o Hunt rabbits

Primates

∙ Many things that we may consider uniquely human amongst our primate  cousins

o Learning(washing potato)(using large rock to open fruit-kid watching  mom then trying)

 Observing, imitating, practicing, curiosity

o Tool use(stone tools-break open nuts)(using stick to fish for termites in  nest)

 Termites taste like cashews

o Hunting

 Line with spacing between

 Silence

 Sit and wait or noise

 Move to ambush

 Scream and make loud noises

o Symbolic Communication

∙ There are things we do that our near primates do not.

o Share food widely and routinely

o Cooperate in planning and carrying out complex, multistage tasks o Use spoken language

o Classify others as kin of various types and interact with them for life  ∙ question

o where do you spend your time?

o how do you get around?

o when are you awake?

o what do you eat?

Our Brethren, the Hominoids

Human Distinction and Uniqueness

Lecture 8***The Early Hominins***

Deep History

∙ Let’s Imagine Earth’s history is a 24 hour day where each second is 50,000  years

o Earth originates at midnight

∙ Primates have evolved and radiated over the last 65 million years ∙ Prosimians were flourishing by 54 million years

∙ Hominids- 8 million years ago

∙ Hominins- 2-5 million years

∙ Human ancestors split off from chimp and gorilla ancestors about 6 million  years ago

∙ Hogopan- 8-6 million years ago

∙ Hogopans split their ecological niches and their diets became specialized ∙ How do we decide whether a fossil is hominin or hominid?

*Tool Use

*Bipedalism

*Australopithecines

Hominin Evolutionary Trends

∙ Body Size

∙ Locomotion(movement towards bipedalism)  

∙ Cranial Capacity(big brains)

∙ Tool Use

∙ Dentition(tooth size/type)

∙ Cranial Morphology(Brow Ridge, Sagittal Crest, Zigomatic Arches) ∙ Diet

Phylogenetic Tree for Apes, Hominids and Hominins

∙ Sahelanthropus tchadensis(7 mya)

o Toumai

o Discovered in chad in 2001

o 6-7 million years ago

o Blends apelike and human characteristics

o Lived in mixed environments

∙ Rift Valley

o Toumai is the outlier here

o (East Africa) where all remaining early hominin evolution took place o Open grasslands/savanna ecology

∙ Genus Ardipithecus

o Ardipithecus kadabba(5.5-5.8 mya)

o Ardipithecus ramidus (4.4 mya)

o Bipedal but apelike in size, anatomy, and habitat

o Earliest hominin?

∙ Ardi

o 4.4 mya

o Most complete early hominid

o 110 different pieces of fossilized bone found

o 120 pounds and around 4 feet tall

∙ Australopithecines

o Ape-like from the top down

 Cranial capacity, dentition, (skulls)

o Human-like from the bottom up

 How they move, legs, bones(locomotion)

o Locomotion

o Size

o Cranial Capacity

o Sexual Dimorphism

o Smaller than later species, but larger robust features

o Dentition(molar size)-eat coarse/gritty vegetation

o Cranial Morphology(sagittal crest, Zigomatic arches)

Lecture 9***Genus Homo***

Key hominin Evolutionary Trends

∙ Body size

∙ Tool Use

∙ Cranial Capacity

o growing brains were accompanied by related anatomical changes  birth canals got wider

 immature birth—> what solved strain

 babies born undeveloped

 this effects bipedalism

 put evolutionary strain on brain size

∙ Locomotion

∙ Cranial Morphology  

∙ Dentitions

∙ Diet

Homo habilis, Homo erectus and Leaving Africa

∙ Genus Homo

o Homo habilis (2.4-1.7mya)

 coexisted with

 long arms, small body

 small brain

 flatter face

 large front teeth

 Oldowan tools

o Homo erectus (1.9mya- 300,000 BP)

 Only 200,000 years later, H. habilis had evolved into or  potentially coexisted alongside H. erectus

 modern body and limbs

 bigger brain, between 900 & 1250 cc

 lived from 1.9 mya to 300,000 BP

 is it an example punctuated equilibrium

 has to do with rapid change after a period of calm

 better tools (Acheulian)

 led to increase reliance on hunting

 less robust cranial morphology and dentition

 head and body still very robust  

o Archaic H. Sapiens (300,000- 28,000 BP)

o Neanderthals

o Homo Sapeins

∙ Tool technologies

o tool-mkaing traditions, following Oldowan

o Lower Paleolithic (Acheulian, H. erectus)

o Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian,

o Upper Paleolithic (

∙ where did they live?

∙ Why did they expand?

∙ When did they leave Africa? Why? Who?

∙ Group selection

o it’s with H. erectus that culture, inclusince fitness and group selection  became major factors in a species success, joining natural selection based  on individual differential success

o this can be understood as a shift from Darwinian to increasingly  Lamarachian section

 culture, as a learned and shared phenomena, became  something of an acquired characteristic, passed down direct and  indirect to one’s offspring

Archaic Homo sapiens and Neanderthals

AMH’s and Behavioral Modernity

Social Organization, Diet and Fire

∙ Terra Amata campsite in France 400,000 years old

∙ This diet allowed them to be able to leave Africa

o HOMO ERECTUS FIRST TO LEAVE AFRICA

Homo neandertalensis

∙ Did Neanderthals evolve into homo sapiens sapiens or did they die out? Denisovans

∙ Southern Siberia

∙ Split from ancestral Neanderthals about 400,000 years ago o Distant cousin of Neanderthals

∙ Tooth unlike Neanderthal or AMH

Homo Florensiensis

∙ Indonesia

∙ Lived from 95,000 to 12,000 BP

∙ Human like but with very small brains

∙ “Hobbit”

Behavioral Modernity

∙ Relying on symbolic thought, elaborating cultural creativity, and as a result  becoming fully human in behavior as well as in anatomy

Lecture 10***Food Production***

7 world areas but focused on Middle East

Cosmologies

∙ Genesis 3:17-19

o Food production-bad consequences

o Adam expelled from Garden of Eden and has to eat grain

∙ Kottak 11: 251

*** Both texts place humans in an original “state of nature”*** ∙ Utopia- Perfect society

Broad Spectrum Revolution

∙ Global Warming

∙ Receding Glaciers

∙ Expansion of Human Range

∙ Foragers pursued a more generalized economy, focusing less on large  animals

∙ Beginning of what was called the Broad Spectrum Revolution(C. 15,000 BP to  12,000 BP)

∙ By 10,000 BP people lived in settlements and domesticated plants and  animals

∙ The Hilly Flanks

o Fertile Crescent in the Middle East

o Vertical Economy consisting of four geographically close but very  different environmental zones

o High plateau

o Piedmont Steppes

o Hilly Flanks

o Alluvial Plain

∙ The Natufians

o 12,500-10,500 BP

o Built permanent villages in Hilly Flanks

o ***First with settlement to stay by grain*** SEDENTARY o Learned how to use water to areas that did not have enough o Irrigation made it possible to live in large towns and cities on Alluvial  Plain

 Rich soils

o Created larger surpluses

 Required greater administration and oversight

∙ Led to evolution of the State

∙ The State

o Form of social and political organization that has a formal central  government and division of society into social classes

 Social Classes

∙ Surplus Takers

∙ Production Organizers

∙ Food Producers

o Early States

 First emerged in alluvial plains(Tigris and  

Euphrates/Mesopotamia) of what is now Iraq and Iran

 Unuk, capital city of Sumer

 China, Egypt, and India/Pakistan

∙ All by rivers

 Key Attributes

∙ 1. Larger and more densely populated than previous  

settlements

∙ 2. Productive farming economies, supporting dense  

populations, often including cities

∙ Taxation

∙ Social Stratification

∙ Monumental Architecture

∙ Some form of record keeping(not always writing)-

Cuneiform

∙ Surplus Production

o 1. Greater organization of harvest

o 2. Greater limitation of access

o 3. Increases routinization of distribution

o 4.  

 Once they reached carrying capacity, the population spilled into  new ecological niches and marginal zones.

∙ Domestication

o Domestication was the gradual result of attempts to recreate  Hilly Flanks economy on new climates

o Involved both plants and animals

o Far more specialized and focused on much smaller food sources o Plants

 Wild Wheat/Barley

∙ Brittle axis-Break off easier and spread

∙ Hard Husks-durable through weather and animals

 Domesticated Wheat/Barley

∙ Hard Axis-control the seeding so they don’t fall out when  

moved

∙ Brittle Husks-to grind and have easier access

o Animals

 Sheep and Goats

 Bred to be smaller and more docile

 Bred to be more efficient producers of wool, hair, milk, fat, and  meat

∙ New Problems cause by food production

o Poor diets

 Less nutrition- less protein and more carbs

o Spread of diseases and epidemics

o Poverty, Inequality, and Crime

o Large Scale Warfare

o Environmental Degradation

Lecture 11***Making a Living***

Economy- a system of production, distribution, and consumption of research Economic Anthropology- the study of anthropology in comparative perspective

∙ Adaptive Strategies and Correlations

o Subsistence

 Satisfaction of the most basic material survival needs: food,  clothing, shelter= making a living

 Until 10,000 years ago, foraging and making a living were  

considered the same thing

∙ With the introduction of plant and animal domestication  

and farming, this began to change

o Fewer than 30,000 people on the planet make a  

living by foraging

o Making a living

 Most humans live in economics based on:

∙ 1. Cultivation

∙ 2. Pastoralism

∙ 3. Trading Goods and Services for cash

∙ 4. Industrial Production

∙ 5. Management and Control

o Adaptive Strategies

 1. Foraging

∙ Hunter gathering, live in small groups, travel to food ∙ 1. Depends on naturally available food

∙ 2. Small Population

∙ 3. Mobile

∙ 4. Relatively Egalitarian

∙ 5. Gendered division of labor

o Examples: Hadza of Tanzania, San of Southern  

Africa, Australian Aborigines

 2. Horticulture

∙ 1. Slash and burn farming(Swidden)

∙ 2. Hand-held tools

∙ 3. Lower yields

∙ 4. Inequalities appear

o Age and gender

∙ 5. Not constant or intensive

o Examples: Kawelka of Papua New Guinea, Kuikuyu  

of central ?

 3. Agriculture

∙ Permanent, much larger, terracing to evenly distribute  water

o Terracing=less erosion

∙ 1. More Complex Tools

∙ 2. Permanent Plots and Fields

∙ 3. Sedentary Lifestyle; Higher Population Density

∙ 4. Increased Specialization

∙ 5. Higher Productivity

∙ 6. Individual Ownership

 4. Pastoralism

∙ Side development of agriculture, domesticated animals,  live with herds of animals(nomads), really cold or really  hot, move to plants

o Pastoral nomadism(Masai in Africa)

 Frozen-Christoph and Sven(reindeer herder)

o Transhuman  

∙ Higher lactose tolerance-rely on milk from their animals  5. Industrialism

∙ Based on the machines and chemical processes, which  

make possible the development of manufacturing, mass  

production, and mechanization

∙ Mode vs Mean

o Mode of Production- ways of organizing  

production

 Structured in ways that alter the character of

what an individual wants, what they consider

scarce or valuable, and how they can get  

what they want

∙ Auburnites

time/money/status/choice/autonomy

∙ Khung- meat(sharing)

o Means of Production- major productive  

resources, such as land/territory, labor, technology

∙ Karl Marx

o Focused on importance of human labor for  

transforming raw materials into desired products

o Labor links humans to the material world around us

and is fundamentally social activity

o Different modes of production

o Capitalism-means of production owned by the few  

(bourgeoisie)

o Correlations- associations or co-variations between two or more  variables

 Factors are linked and interrelated

 Typically found together

 When change happens to one, it tends to happen to the other  Correlations between subsistence strategies:

∙ 1. Social/Political Organization

∙ 2. Environment/Geography

∙ 3. Population Density

∙ 4. Diet

o ALL not always perfect, general patterns, not  

evolutionary schema, not mutually exclusive

∙ Capitalism and Industrialism

∙ Economic Systems

o Economy- a way of understanding how goods and services are  produced, distributed, and consumed in modern, cash-based market  economics

 Infinite wants—Scarce means—rationality--

 Neoclassical Economics

∙ “Free Market”= free because no traditional restrictions  

determining distribution

∙ The market determines levels of production

∙ Capitalism- only rational economic system

 Formalists v Substantivists

∙ Formalists- applied neoclassical economics to non

Western societies and portrayed them as “closet  

capitalists”

∙ Substantivists-argue

o There is more than one economic rationality

∙ Principles of Exchange

o Karl Polanyi

 Three Principles of Exchange

∙ 1. Reciprocity

o Generalized-exchange with no expectation of  

immediate return

o Balanced- exchange with anticipation of equal  

return

o Negative- the attempt to get something for nothing

o Kula Ring

 Once in the Kula, Always in the Kula

 Must be passed on, taking 2-10 to make the  

full cycle

 Travel counter-clockwise

 Exchange—Ceremony

 System based on trust, obligation, and  

shame

 Creates social networks and marriage  

options

 Kula=exchange on inalienable objects

 Kula=like exchange in industrial societies

 Kula=rational and interested transactions  

between independent individuals

 Most items don’t have monetary value

o Continuum Questions:

 How closely related are the parties of the  

exchange?

 How quickly and unselfishly are gifts  

reciprocated?

∙ 2. Redistribution

o When goods, services, or their equivalent move  

from the local level to a center

o Eventually flows into reverse, from the center back  

to people

 Taxation, Pooling, Tribute, etc.

o Food surplus that drives state formation

o Potlatches

 Northwest coast of America

 Community members, often chiefs and other  

leaders, give away food, blankets, copper,  

and so forth, in order to gain prestige

 Through the lens of classical economic  

theory, in which the profit motive is  

considered to be a human universal,  

potlatching is irrational and wasteful

∙ Ethnocentric and fails to consider  

alternate meanings and social  

functions

 Cronk argues that potlatching was a  

substitute for war

 It can also be interpreted through an  

ecological lens(those with plenty gave more  

to those who were facing scarcity… paid  

back at a later date)  

∙ 3. Markets

o All-purpose money

o Supply and Demand

o “relation” substitute

o Fluidity, diversity, and diversity of exchange

o These principles of exchange are not mutually  

exclusive

∙ Ex. You have someone for dinner, they SHOULD have you  

over-balanced

o Dating, Courtship, and Marriage among Americans

 Early Stages

∙ Can I trust you?

∙ Negative Reciprocity

 Things become closer

∙ Still somewhat distant, expecting something in return

 Love

∙ All of me loves all of you

∙ Closer relations, nothing immediate expected in return

 The breakup

∙ Moves back to negative

∙ “you cheat on me, I cheat on you”

Lecture 12***Kinship and Descent***

∙ What is kinship?

o Relatives in the US are not based on shared blood or genetic  relatedness

o Based on: gender, age, generation

o Signifies 3 things:

 The totality of relationships based on ideas of shared substance  and mutuality that link individuals in a web of special rights and  obligations

 The kinds of groups formed in a society based on these ideas  and relationships

 The systems of terms used to classify relatives and distinguish  them from each other and from people who are not related

∙ Nuclear Family

o Parents and siblings

 Small and impermanent(U.S.)

o Matrilaterally skewed

 Women seem to be doing more of the work of kinship in the  nuclear family in contemporary Western societies.

o Based on non-kinship institutions

 Hospital-take care of us

 Nursing Home-live there when we are old

o Divorce is more prominent

 55%

o Nuclear families in households decreased

 Women joining the work force

 Later age of first marriage

 Divorce rate

 Increase in single parent families

 Trend towards smaller families

o Family

 Brazilians weeping-death without mothers

 Many societies, extended families are primary social unit

∙ Muslims of western Bosnia- nuclear families within large  

extended patrilineal, patrilocal families called zadrugas,  

each headed by a senior male and wife

∙ Nayar of India- matrilineal society in which extended  

families live in compounds called tarawads, each headed 

by a senior female, without on biological paternity 

o Women had many partners, children rarely knew  

their fathers

∙ Descent

o A permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry o Patrilineal-membership based on lineage of male ancestors o Matrilineal- membership based on lineage of female ancestors o Unilineal- only uses one line of descent

o Ambilineal- a person chooses which side they want

 Also unilineal

o Bilateral- don’t have descent groups

o Groups

 Predominate in horticultural, agricultural, pastoral, and other  pre-industrial economies.

 More rare in foraging economies and modern, industrial,  

capitalist societies.

 Not continued with flexibility, high mobility, and easy access to  kin.

∙ Family and Residence Rules

o We form kinship based on how and where we live after we marry o Families of Orientation-nuclear

o Families of Procreation-formed when you have children

o Residence

 Virilocality-live with relatives of the groom

 Uxorilocality-live with relatives of the bride

 Neolocality-live apart from relatives of both

 Patrilocality- children grow up in father’s village

 Matrilocality- children grow up in mother’s village

∙ Kinship Calculation

o System by which people in a society reckon kin relationships  Distinguishing between relatedness, blood, marriage, and  

descent

o Kin type v. Kin term

o Types

 Descent

∙ Lineal-> Direct line- parents, grandparents…)

∙ Collateral-> still blood but not directly related

 Blood and Marriage

∙ Affines/Affinal-marriage

∙ Consanguines/Consanguineal-blood

 Parallel vs. cross cousins

 Fictive kin

∙ Kinship Diagram

o Be able to read diagram

 Know parallel vs. cross cousins

o Distinctions

 Sex

 Generation

 Affinity

 Bifurcation

 Relative

Lecture 13*** Marriage***

∙ Marriage

o Marriage is supposed to be based on:

 Love

 Sex

 Choice

∙ Financial/emotional connection

o Marriage should not be:  

 Explicitly econpmic

 A decision made by parents

 Decision against the will of the espoused

 A decision made for reasons other than love

 A decision made for impersonal reasons

o Arranged marriage

o Homogamy: people tend to marriage same social groups, race, and …

o Marriage refers to the customs, rules, and obligations that establish a  special relationship between  

o Marriage, everywhere, involves the legitimation of sex, procreation,  gender, and kinship

o Same-Sex Unions(Nuer) 

 Patrilineal 

 His daughter can marry a woman if he has no other daughters  Any children wife has are recognized by the ”fatherly” woman  and her sons will pick up patrilineal descent 

∙ Incest and the Incest Taboo

o Cross cousin-fathers sister----preferred side of marriage 

o Parallel cousin-fathers brother 

o Incest: relations with a close relative

 Different cultures consider different things a human taboo ∙ Lakher of SE India

o Patrilineal group

∙ Royal Incest

o Incest Taboo

 While incest itself is culturally specific, a taboo against incest is  a human universal:

∙ 1. Inbreeding avoidance, instinctive and otherwise

∙ 2. Familiarity breeds contempt.

∙ 3. Prevention of domestic chaos.

∙ 4. Marry out or die out.

∙ Marriage and Groups

o Marriage is also considered a system of alliances between families and  descent groups

 One marries in order to preserve a resource, a state…

o Exogamy: Seeking a mate outside one’s own group

o Endogamy: Seeking a mate within one’s own group

∙ Marital Exchange

o Marriage is often more of a relationship between groups than  individuals

 Brideweath: gifts given by groom’s family to bride’s family ∙ Loss of brides and children’s labor

o Cattle 

 Dowry: gifts given by bride’s family to groom’s family

∙ For taking care of bride: almost like burden

o Money 

∙ Create debt and durable alliances between descent  

groups

∙ Conceptualized as compensatory acts

∙ Marital Alliances

o There are also customs that preserve the relationship between two  groups of kin in the case of spousal death:

 Sororate: widower marries one of his deceased wife’s sisters(or  another woman from her group if a sister is not available)

 Levirate: widow marries his brother

∙ Plural Marriage

o Cultural instances:

o Polygyny

 One man has multiple wives

 Most people tend to be monogamous  

 Reasons:

∙ Infertile wife

∙ Increase prestige of household positivity

o Polyandry: South East Asia

 Tibet 

∙ Fraternal Polyandry is and effective strategy when  

resources are scarce 

∙ Woman marries many brothers 

o Keep property within lineage 

o Allow brothers to pool resources 

o United States

 Serial Monogamy

∙ May have more than one spouse but not at the same time

Lecture 14***Gender***

∙ Sex/ Gender 

∙ Most auburnites assume that sex & gender are the same thing

o a “man” is basically a person of male sex (XY) and a “woman” is  basically a person of female sex (XX)

∙ but anthropologist discovered long ago that ways of being a man or woman  (gender norms) differed radically in time and

∙ f

∙ f

∙ Sex: biological distinction between male and females  

o male/Female

∙ Gender: culture construction of male and female characteristic o Man/Woman

o is a set of roles, assumptions, practices and stereotypes we use to give shape to male and female characteristics, both social and biological

o its like a costume we all must wear, and the importance of gender  differences is apparent in the consistency with which men and women  dress and adorn themselves differently

o gendered clothing, bo...

∙ Gender is more than just appearance

o the way we interact with other people, our temperament, the way we  occupy space, are uniquely gendered

∙ Gender stereotypes

o We all have very strong gender stereotypes that inform our  expectations of normal, or appropriate, behavior, dress and  

temperament for America…

∙ CC 14  

o Women in the Mine by Jessica Smith Rolston

o about women working in coal mines in Wyoming  

 women had to act “like one of the guys”—> Tomboys

 wore makeup, nail+hair done to work—> ladies

 ’too far’ on male scale—>Bitches  

 swearing too much

o “The way in which women act and positions themselves as particular  kinds of gendered people do have concerte…..

∙ Margaret Mead  

o Sex and Temperament in three primate societies

 Arapesh: men and women both acted as Americans expect  women to act— mild, nurturing, parental,

 Mundugumor: men and women both acted as we expect men to  act— fierce, aggressive

 Tchambuli: men act as we stereotype women— “catty”, overly  concerned with appearance, while women act as we stereotype  men— energetic, managerial, less emphasis on personal  

appearance

∙ Recurrent Gender Patterns and Third Sexes/Genders 

∙ in our society we tend to assume that a two-gender f

∙ g

∙ Third Sexes

o Intersex/ hermaphorism

 triple X syndrome

 Klinefeter Syndrome

o Transgender  

 doesn’t have to have roots in biology

∙ Third Genders  

o just as we Americans tend to wear gendered costumes that match our  anatomical sex, there are many people who can wear gender ward

o d

o Hijras in India  

 cultural defined as neither man nor woman

 identify with india mother god

 perform rituals at weddings or births, blessing child and parents o Two-Spirit amongst Plains Indian group  

 refers to male who adopts social roles assigned to a woman

 sex of male, spirit of female

∙ Gender Equality and Public-Domestic Dichotomy 

∙ Friedl Model

o males inherit ate psyche of domination over female 

o study 3 different hunter gather

∙ The contemporary movement towards equality is measured against the  backdrop of the “public-domestic dichotomy"  

o refers to a strong differentiation between the home and the outside  world

o when domestic and public sphere are clearly separated, public  activated tend to have greater prestige than domestic do

∙ CC 20

o Negotiating Work and Family in America by Dianna Shandy and Karine  Moe  

 women are leaving their well paid to jobs to return home

 What factors push women to “head home”?  

 the 100-Hour couple

 Child Care  

 neither spouse really raises the child

 The Second Shift

 domestic labor, household chores

 The Glass Ceiling  

 they can only go so far

 What factors pull women to do so?  

 being with their children

 lower stress

 sense of responsibility

 teach them the right way

 Nostalgia

 Group Support Living within our means 

 friend group

∙ Domestic-Public Dichotomy

o amongst the !Kung

 less gender stratification

o Amongst Auburnites

 there is a distention but meaning is negotiable

o In general, male dominance (patriarch) and greater male prestige are  associated with the masculinization of the public sphere and the  feminization of the domestic sphere

 this ends…

∙ Modes of production and Sexual Division of Labor 

∙ Foragers

o little gender stratification

o simple division of labor (hunting and gathering)

o less of a public-domestic dichotomy (sprees aren’t necessarily  separate)

o status of men is noticeably higher only when their contribution is  subsistence is greater  

 its rare for men to have a greater status

∙ Horticulturalist

o more complex division of labor

o more gender distinction

o Status of men is higher when women contribute much more or  much less to subsistence

 they are isolated from the public domain, which the men  tend to control

o if there is local warfare and economic scarcity, male dominance is  likely

o if there is external or no warfare or economic scarcity, matrilocality  and matrilineally are more common and both work against male  dominance

∙ agriculturalists  

o more gender stratification

o more complex division of labor and political control

o status of men is higher when they contribute more to the overall as  well as the household economy

o public-domestic distinction is pronounced

o women are considered a drain (economically, aka dowry) or a  risk….

∙ industrialists

o among advance industrial societies, gender stratification persists

o division of labor is complex by not inherently dependent on gender  differences, so its more flexible

o the status of men and women is higher when they contribute more  to the household and general economies

o the public-domestic dichotomy persists, though neither space is  associated exclusively with males or females

o women are les likely o ….

∙ Kinds and Consequences of the Model 

∙ in advaned capitalist societies, the public sphere becomes a sphere of  nominal equality, but is it a masculinized or feminised sphere, or  something else entirely?

∙ if a person

∙ Recent Shifts in Gender Norms and Roles

∙ evidence suggest that our society is in the midst of a reduction of  male dominance and patriarchal values

1 d  

 more LGBT

2 d  

 public campaigns against sexual assault, gay bashing

 no longer blaming the victim

3 f  

4 df  

 gender equality

 stop of dowry killing

 female circumsticion

Lecture 15***Politics***

1. Contradictions and Dimensions of Stratification

a. Power-The ability to exercise one’s will over another

b. Authority- The formal, socially approved use of power

c. Max Weber

i. Sociologist- Three dimensions of stratification

1. Wealth- Economic Status

2. Power- Political Status

3. Prestige- Social Status

2. Typologies and Correlations

a. Politics

i. Shaped by an essential contradiction

ii. To use power and authority to influence the actions of others 1. Contain, channel, exploit, and resolve conflict

2. Limit, encourage, exploit

iii. Must cooperate to produce and reproduce and all modes of  productions that are based on division of labor and forms of  

inequality that lead to conflict

3. Bands, Tribes, and Chiefdoms

a. Anthropologist Edmin service listed four typologies:

i. Band

1. small kin-based group found among foragers

2. division of labor and forms of inequality based on age and sex

3. flexible membership and egalitarian

a. differences in status are achieved  

4. lack formal law

a. conflict resolution embedded in kinship and social  ties

5. Inuit

a. Indigenous population in Arctic region

b. Hunting and gathering by men

c. Egalitarian

d. Most important-nuclear family and the band

e. More male deaths than female---  

hunting=dangerous

i. Polygyny

f. Conflict

i. Wrong man can:

1. Murder(negative reciprocity)

2. Song battle(insulting songs)

ii. Tribe- economies based on nonintensive food production 1. Horticulturalists and pastoralists

2. Live in villages organized into kin groups based on  common descent

3. No formal government and no reliable means of enforcing  political decisions

4. Clearly defined social classes are not typical of tribes 5. Officials

a. Village heads, village councils, descent-group  

leaders, etc.

b. Limited authority

c. Lead through persuasion and by example

6. Yanomamo

a. Village Head

7. Melanesia and PNG

a. The “Big Man”

b. ONGKA

Pantribal Sodalities

c. Mende and Maasai

iii. Chiefdom- intermediate form between tribe and state 1. Sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state

2. Social relations based on kinship, marriage, descent, age,  gender, and generation

3. Some families are considered superior to others

a. The leaders of these families are called chiefs or  nobles

i. Receive gifts from villagers to spread through

to other villages

1. Regulate a regional economy

4. Social status based on seniority

5. Primogeniture-1st born male-inherit most of wealth

6. Endogamy

iv. State- formal government structure and socioeconomic  

stratification

1. Political units with social strata and formal government

2. Power, wealth, and prestige are monopolized by ruling  

elites and the functionaries who depend on elites for  

support

a. Superordinate

3. Social stratification is codified in the law

4. Sustained by 4 practices:

a. Population Control

b. Judicial Policy

c. Enforcement

d. Fiscal Support

4. Band-Tribe-Chiefdom-State Continuum

a. Several Shifts

i. The growing complexity of food production and the size of  

production surpluses

ii. The growth of political associations that are larger than kinship  and are defined in ways that transcend kinship, or limit it.

iii. The emergence of permanent offices as opposed to personality based roles

iv. The development of “politics” as a specialized activity as  

opposed to one dimension of more general forms of social  

interaction

v. The establishment of larger, more densely concentrated human  populations

vi. Increasing levels of social inequality

5. Paradoxes

a. We live in a society marked by radical, permanent inequality  sanctioned by law, yet most Americans are convinced that they live in  a “free society”

6. CC Readings

a. Law and Order

b. Navigating Nigerian Bureaucracies

c. Illegal Economies and the Untold Story of Amputees

Lecture 16***Religion***

1. Defining Religion

a. The standard approach emphasizes “the supernatural”, as if to imply  that spirits, gods, magic, and souls are not real, are imaginary/make  believe, and not really parts of nature.

b. Attempts to equate religion with the supernatural are ethnocentric and biased to what we think are real

c. Also a ritual activity

i. Democracy

ii. Voting

2. Religion as a Speculative

a. Religion, in this framework, is bad science or primitive thought b. E.B. Tyler

i. Animism

1. Earliest form of religion(evolutionary schema)

2. Religion grew out of a human need to explain dreams and  trance states

c. Mana

i. A sacred impersonal force in the universe, that is potentially  subject to human manipulation

d. Taboo

i. Setting mana-filled things apart as sacred, inaccessible,  

extraordinary, powerful, and dangerous.

e. Melanesian mana

i. Much like the western concept of luck

f. Polynesian mana

i. Attached to the political office

g. Azande Witchcraft

i. Granary falls because termite eat stilts

1. They say termites ate wood

2. Considered witchcraft because it fell at that precise  

moment

h. Limitations

i. Presumes that religion is illogical. False, or can be dismissed as  primitive, or can be dismissed as primitive or superstitious

ii. Cannot make sense of the fact that religious belief and practice  persist long after better explanations arrive

iii. The success of science as a way of explaining the universe has  not caused religion to disappear. Religion remains strong in our  developed, Western, industrial, society.

i. CC #28

i. What prognosis does Mueller provide for the survival of rab in  changing Senegalese society?

1. She believes rabs will continue this spiritual possession

a. Firmly grained in culture

3. Religion as a Practice

a. Explanatory function of r

b. Magic

i. Use of supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims ii. Magic may be:

1. Imitative: produces a desired effect by imitating it

2. Contagious: accomplished through contact

iii. Can give practitioners a sense of control over situations

1. Evil Eye in Jordan

a. Bloody handprint on car 

i. Protects from evil eye 

2. Sailing Magic amongst the Trobriand Islanders

iv. Americans think of Magic as superstition

1. Knock on wood

2. Hit roof of car after yellow light

3. Open umbrella inside

4. Picking up a penny on heads

5. Step on Auburn seal, won’t graduate in 4 years

6. Stepping on c racks

c. CC #29

i. What parts of baseball are most likely to lead to magical  

practice?

1. Routine before pitching or batting

2. Not to step on lines

ii. What is meant by the terms ritual, taboo, and fetish?

d. Rites of Passage

i. Activities, often rituals, that mark a person’s movement from  one social state to another

1. Separation

a. Withdraws from group and begins moving from one  

state to another

2. Liminality

a. Period during which participant has left on state but

not yet entered the next

b. Between two states

c. Communitas- collective liminality, characterized by  

enhanced feelings of social solidarity and  

minimized distinctions

d. Hazing is liminality 

3. Incorporation

a. Participant reenters society with a new status  

having completed the rite

ii. Maasai circumcision

iii. Vanuatu land divers

iv. Quinceanera 

1. Rite of passage girl to man 

4. Religion as a Regulator

a. The power of religion affects action  

b. Can be used to mobilize large segments of society through systems if  real and perceived rewards and punishments

c. Character of a religion is shaped by the type of society in which it is  found

5. Religion as a Force of Change

a. Revitalization

i. Social movements that occur in times of change, in which  religious leaders emerge and undertake to alter or revitalize a  society

ii. Iroquois

1. Led by handsome lake 

a. Preached in favor of adopting European farming  

practices and family structures 

iii. Cargo Cults

1. Papua New Guinea

2. Example of imitative magic

3. Imitation of European airplanes, cargo, building air strips

4. Tradition of big men distributing wealth

5. Expectation of Europeans

6. Final Definition

a. Religion is an attempt to link the world we inhabit to the worlds we  cannot see. This link is made using systems of beliefs and practices  that concern scared things. These systems of beliefs and practices  unite into one moral community

b. Politics

Lecture 17***World Systems and Structures of  Inequality***

1. The World System

a. Immanuel Wallerstein

b. Capitalist World System:

i. A single world system committed to production for sale or  

exchange, with the object of maximizing profits, rather than  

supplying domestic needs.

ii. The key claim of the world system theory is that an identifiable  social system with wealth and power differentials…..

c. Capital- wealth or resource invested in business, with intent of using  both…

d. Industrial Revolution(18th-19th century)

i. Transition from manual labor and draft-animal based economies  to machine-based manufacturing  

ii. British textile industry  

iii. Dramatic increase in production

iv. Population growth and rise in cities

v. Conflict between classes

1. Karl Marx- Class Consciousness  

2. Bourgeoisie: owners of means of production

3. Proletariat: those who only owned their labor power and  

had to sell this to survive

vi. Capitalism

1. The political, social, economic and cultural domination of  

a territory and its people by a foreign power for an  

extended time

2. Extractive vs. Settler Colonialism

vii. Imperialism

1. The policy of extending the rule of a country or empire  

over foreign nations and of taking and holding foreign  

colonies

viii. White Man’s Burden

1. Rudyard Kipling

2. The purported “duty” of modern peoples to bring

2. Systems if Stratification

a. Class(Open)

i. Based on mobility

ii. People move for work  

b. Caste(Closed)

i. Organizing populations of preindustrial societies, which tended  not to have strong market and money economies, has less  

mobility, social and otherwise

3. World Systems Theory

a. The spread of European empires and the development of industrialism  in the world system’s core led to the demise of independent,  

preindustrial states

b. This led to movement of people, things, and systems

i. Slavery, immigration, colonialization(moved people)

ii. Sugar, Cotton, Coffee, Cattle, Potatoes(moved plants, animals,  and their products)

iii. Nation-states, Firms/corporations, markets(moved and remade  political and economic systems)

c.

d. Conformity and Conflict 35

e. Triangular zones

i. States-define people as citizens

ii. Firms-define communities as markets, employees, and  

customers

iii. Communities

f. World systems=virus

g. The Noble Savage

4. Cannibal Tours

a. Papua New Guinea

i. CC #33

Lecture 18***Globalization***

1. World System and Globalization

a. Zones of the world system

i. Administered by a triangular relationships between states, firms, and communities

1. Become the norm over the past 200 years

ii. The world system is a virus

b. Globalization

i. Definition

1. Series of processes that promote change in a world in  

which nations and people are increasingly interlinked and  

mutually dependent

2. Systematic Connectedness

a. Speed of global communication

b. Scale of global networks

c. Volume of international transactions

2. Globalization as fact; Globalization as an ideology

a. FACT: The spread/connectedness of production and communication  technologies

b. IDEOLOGY:  

3. Neoliberalism, Cultural Imperialism, and Indigenization

a. Neoliberalism: the current form of classic economic liberalism which  advocates minimal government involvement in a nation’s economy,  free trade, and competitive markets.

b. Cultural Imperialism: spread or advance of one culture at the expense  of others, which it modifies, replaces, or destroys.

i. Spread of modern technology

c. Indigenization

i. It is often presumed that the spread of commodities and the  influence of multinational corporations and western culture will  lead to the demise of local cultures

ii.

4. Globalization and Environment

a. Globalization has made the world smaller

i. The homogenizing impact of it is overstated

Final Thoughts

∙ Trends and Tendencies

o Kinship as inclusion and exclusion and disconnection  

o Gender as complementary and hierarchy

o Exchange as balance and leveling and as inequality and stratification o Religion as a source of well-being and control and as a source of  control and domination

o Politics as regulation of social and economic systems and as inequality  within those systems

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