Final Hour Exam Study Guide
Final Hour Exam Study Guide History 1A
Popular in Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843
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This 44 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to History 1A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Phillips in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843 in History at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 12/08/15
History 1A Rome to Charlegmane Study Guide Part I: Identifications Romulus and Two men involved in the legend of how Rome was founded. It is said Remus that Mars, the God of war, impregnated by a woman and had two children named Romulus and Remus Romulus and Remus were abandoned, but were saved by a shewolf who gave them to a shepherd to raise them. They eventually founded the city of Rome in 756 B.C. Romulus kills Remus because Remus jumped over his wall and Romulus wanted to declare that anyone who came over his wall would be killed. Influenced the culture of Rome Aenaes An ancestor of the Trojans who had lost to the Greeks in the Trojan war centuries earlier Roman myth says that Aenaes was a nobleman who was instructed by the Gods to go and found a new city He eventually reaches Italy and settles in Lacia His son founded the city of Albalonga Twelve tables 450 B.C. o Written by a committee of 5 patricians and 5 plebeians o No real innovation in their laws, the innovation was that they were published and everyone knew exactly what the law was, meaning officials were held accountable for accurately enforcing the laws o Significant victory in the Struggle of the Orders o Primitive code representing the values and culture of an agrarian society Debt was a large problem but the tables didn't do anything to alleviate that If a person sang or wrote an offensive song they would be clubbed Intermarriage between patricians and plebeians was banned, but this law was rescinded after 5 years o Livy refers to the 12 tables as the source of all private and public law o Remained the foundation of Roman law for hundreds of years Lex Hortensia 287 Before, if the senate didn't ratify an assembly law then it only was enforced on plebeians plebiscita binding on all Roman citizens without ratification by Senate. Achieved political equality with the senate End of the Struggle of the Orders. Leges lininiae laws passed in the year 367. C. , proposed by the tribunes of the plebs sextaie Key Licinio Calvo and L. Sextius Sextino . Represented an important victory for the commoners against the privileges of the patrician. The law established a limit to the extent that a citizen could occupy public land, That interest on a loan must be deducted from the amount borrowed and of the two consuls appointed annually one could come from the class of commoners. Hannibal Commander of the Carthaginians in the Second Punic War (218201) Invaded Italy by crossing the Appalacians and is initially successful Suffers losses and flees to Spain He is followed by the Roman commander Africanus Loses the war in Cannae Q. Fabius Maximus (Cunctator) Chosen as the dictator for the time if the war New tactic of delaying because the pitch battles hadn't been working battle of Cannae, 216 Romans were getting impatient Decided to try a pitch battle 80,000 Romans die, only 15,000 Carthaginians Causes many allies to rebel against Rome and for the soldiers to go back to the strategy of delaying Zama A battle in 202 marked the end of the Second Punic War. A Roman army led by Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (Scipio), with crucial support from Numidian leader Masinissa, defeated a Carthaginian force led by the commander Hannibal. Despite Hannibal possessing numerical superiority many in his army were recent conscripts and the vaunted Numidian cavalry Hannibal had employed with great success in Italy had switched sides to the Romans. Scipio conceived a strategy to confuse and defeat his war elephants. Scipio's troops then routed the Carthaginian infantry, thanks in part to superior Roman cavalry. Soon after this defeat on their home ground, the Carthaginian senate sued for peace, which was given to them by the Roman Republic on humiliating terms, ending the 17year war. Tiberus tribune 133 Gracchus Motivated by the decline of the Italian small farmers and the lack of man power in the military o To serve in the military you had to be a citizen who owned land o Drop in eligible men to serve because of how many farmers had to sell their land and due to large numbers of casualties agrarian bill o Limited amount of land each person could legally own o The bill passed but the senate purposely underfunded the division of the government responsible for enforcing this o Tiberius wasn't happy about that and said that he would make them use another source of revenue to earn the money because his bill needed to be enforced o The senate now didn't like him and arranged for his assassination Gaius tribune 123122 Gracchus revival of agrarian commission grain law o Grain has to be sold at a price affordable to lower class military law o No drafting boys under 17 o Senate must provide all food and clothing for soldiers Asian taxes farmed to equites (worth 400,000 sesterces or more) extortion courts transferred from Senate to equites senatus consultum ultimum, “final decree of the senate” o Gaius ran for the senate the third time and slot o Him and his supporters were killed and persecuted optimates vs. populares Optimistes (the best men) supported the traditional way of government Populares (of the people) supported the Gracchus was of government Marius consulships (107, 104100) Served 6 times, was the most favored political figure This changed when two of his supports were declared against the state and were killed Caused his popularity to drop legionary reforms Solved the military soldier problem by ignoring the land possession qualification Legions divided into conherts to increase flexibility of the legions Made each soldier carry their own supplies and tools so that they would be more self sufficient Increased effectiveness and solidarity of the legions Sulla 88 elected consul Assigned a military position in the east for the first muthridaric war First Mithridatic War, 8985 return to Italy; battle of Colline Gate, 82 o Took control of Rome reign of terror, 8279 o Kind to his supporters, merciless to his enemies o constitutional reforms In 82, Sulla was appointed dictator "to write the laws and arrange the public for an indefinite leopard of time" Transferred criminal juries back to the senate System of standing criminal courts with senatorial jurors Added 6 more extortion courts (treason, electoral fraud, homicide, public violence) Added more people to the senate, reduced the powers of the tribunes of the plebs most of his reforms didn't last after his resignation in 79, but the extortion courts did Polybius A Greek captive, wrote about the history of Rome to explain to his fellow Greeks how the Romans became so powerful as to be the biggest empire of the time and defeat them Cicero During the chaotic latter half of the 1st century BC marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Gaius Julius Caesar, Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government. Following Julius Caesar's death Cicero became an enemy of Mark Antony in the ensuing power struggle, attacking him in a series of speeches. He was proscribed as an enemy of the state by the Second Triumvirate and consequently executed by soldiers operating on their behalf in 43 BC after having been intercepted during attempted flight from the Italian peninsula. His severed hands and head were then, as a final revenge of Mark Antony, displayed in the Roman Forum. Julius Caesar 10044: early career Climbed the course of public offices quaestor 68; aedile 65 pontifex maximus, 63 o High priest of the Roman sate praetor 62; governor of Further Spain, 61 Joins First Triumvirate Gallic Wars: 58 o Displayed outstanding ability as a general o Secured support from his soldiers o Make a lot of connections and friends Civil War, 4945 o Pompey and Caesar aren’t getting along, Pompey tries to banish Caesar o Caesar crosses the Rubicon:alea iacta est “the die is cast,” 49 Begins the civil war as Caesar and his army go into Italy Pompey was not prepared for war Many of his troops fled as Caesar came toward them Gave him a clear path to Rome which allowed Caesar to defeat Pompey in only two months o battle of Pharsalus, 48 Pompey had fled to Greece, Caesar followed Pompey fled to Egypt Caesar in Egypt: Pompey was assassinated but Caesar still needed to fight against his supporters Cleopatra was installed as pharaoh by Caesar Caesar in Pontus 47 veni, vidi, vici, “I came, I saw, I conquered" Defeated the political upheaval Caesar in Africa: 46 Campaigns in Africa against rebellious people M. Porcius Cato (the Younger) Famously committed suidice Known as a martyr battle of Munda, 45 End of the civil war Gave him a lot of political influence Caesar was still high priest because it's a lifelong thing Given sole military power in 48 dictatorship of Caesar, 4744 o dictator, 47; extended for 10 years, 46; extended for life, 44 o censorial powers and right of first speech in Senate, 46 o soleimperium and control of treasury, 45 o all future decisions ratified in advance, 44 reforms o Senate increased (600→900) and number of magistrates increased Appointed his friends and clients into these positions o grain dole recipients decreased 320,000 to 150,000 building and public works programs o Launching a building program in Rome Goal was to reduce unemployment and urban congestion o colonization, Romanization, and coinage Schools and library's to increase literacy Effects o integration of Rome in Italy o Italy in empire o Revived the economy, reduced unemployment, reduced number of landless citizens o calendar reform: Julian calendar Solar calendar based on the one used in Egypt 365 days, new year is January 1st Still in use, modified a little in 1500s The dictatorship of Caesar is clearly unconstitutional and goes against the republic o His reign would only end if he resigned or died o Senators of the old aristocracy wanted to return to the old republic Some truly believed that the republic was a form of government they needed to protect Others wanted the power for themselves o Plot against Caesar Included over 60 senators, Headed by Brutus and Cassius We're going to kill him in the ides of March Caesar was said to be warned, but ignored the prophecies He entered the senate, sat down, the senators came and stabbed him First 60, Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar Triumvirate Three most influential political figures unite Pompey wanted ratification of his settlement in the east Crassus got tax breaks from his clients in the western corner Caesar was given the consul position and promised advancement afterward Cicero banished, 58 o Resisted the triumvirate because he say it says a threat to the republic o The triumvirate banished him from Rome Augustus Octavian (adopted son and heir of Caesar) becomes Augustus, 27: beginning of the Roman Empire Tries to resign his power, the senate refuses to accept this and extends his power for 10 years Official first citizen of Rome Announces the principals will be the first part of Roman government provincial administration o Divide the provinces into multiple parts:imperial, senatorial, o Imperial: Trouble parts were seen as likely to rebel, had a strong military presence o Senatorial: interior provinces, senate appoints governors Finance o Treasury traditionally controlled by the senate o Augustus possessed a personal estate from his inheritance from Julius Caesar Had to often use him money to bail out the Roman people Judiciary o Courts began to function as they had before o The imperial court was added that included Augustus and his legal advisors Court of appeals for cases throughout the empire Continually indeed in power Rise of power Consul from 2723 Power of tribune for live Power to convene the senate 22 Second Second Triumvirate, 43: Octavian, Antony, M. Aemilius Lepidus Triumvirate Given a 5 year reign deification of Caesar death of Cicero Philippi and the division of the empire, 42 Battle between the armies of Brutus and Cassius and the second triumvirate Brutus and Cassius lost and killed themselves Cleopatra Installed as Pharoah of Egypt in 48 B.C. by Caesar Octavian vs. Antony Fought for control of the entire empire Cleopatra, pharaoh of Egypt, was involved with Antony He bestowed her the title queen of kings, appointed her co ruler of the east with himself Octavian convinced Rome to go to war against Antony and cleopatra by making it seem like they were threats to the Roman Empire and republic Actium, 31 Battle between Antony and Octavian Antony lost, they fled to Egypt o Their military base had disappeared o Antony thought cleopatra had been killed, kiss himself o Cleopatra kills herself after Antony does to avoid being shamed by Rome Nero 64, roman emperor Blamed the Christians for the fire because he needed a scapegoat in order to avoid suspicion that he started the fire Recorded show a lot of Christians being exiled or executed on false charges of arson Marcus was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180. Aurelius He ruled with Lucius Verus as coemperor from 161 until Verus' death in 169. He was the last of the Five Good Emperors, and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers. During his reign, the Empire defeated a revitalized Parthian Empire in the East: Aurelius' general Avidius Cassius sacked the capital Ctesiphon in 164. In central Europe, Aurelius fought the Marcomanni, Quadi, and Sarmatians with success during the Marcomannic Wars, although the threat of the Germanic tribes began to represent a troubling reality for the Empire. A revolt in the East led by Avidius Cassius failed to gain momentum and was suppressed immediately. Jesus Jesus, 4 B.C.ca. A.D. 29 Messiah = Christos = “Anointed” At this time, Judea (the land of the Jews) was ruled by the Roman Empire The Jews were unhappy being ruled by another people and looked to the prophesy that a Messiah would come and God would restore political order Twelve Apostles Instructed his followers to believe in his teachings to receive salvation faith, charity, love, humility, and prayer Look after the poor and needy Love your enemies, revolutionary idea because the world he loved in was so focused on revenge In Luke 9, the Apostles were all arguing over who was the best, Jesus said which of you is least is the greatest (aka be humble) Predicted his own crucifixion and resurrection Actions that created conflict By saying he was the Messiah, many Jewish leaders believed that he was lying and therefore being blasphemous Worked on the Sabbath, breaking the fourth commandment Taught that divorce was equal to adultery Associated with more “undesirable” people, such as criminals, the poor, and the disabled Parables and miracles Revealed his identity as the son of God through these methods Parables are metaphors used to convey a specific message relating to Jesus teachings Parable of the sower and the seed, the Good Samaritan Jesus healed the sick, raised the dead, cured those with disabilities Last Supper: a “new convenant” Had bread and wine, compared them to his flesh and blood that he sacrifices for them o Origin of the sacrament (communion) He sets forth the new covenant, which is the New Testament Betrayal, trial, and crucifixion The apostle Judas betrays Jesus to the Roman authorities He is taken to Pilate, a Roman official who is the only one with the ability to give a death sentence. Under pressure from an angry mob, Pilate does sentence Jesus to death Jesus and two other criminals are put on the cross Jesus dies, is buried in a tomb, and is resurrected three days later Paul conversion of Saul = Paul Previously persecuted the Jews and followers of Jesus was converted and became active in spreading the gospel Paul has a vision of a man from Macedon, pleading for him to come to Macedon and “help us” o Paul goes to Greece trying to convert people Experiences little success in Athens, only converting one man, then goes to Corinth and is very successful Paul’s accounts of his conversion of Gentiles led to his arrest Paul was a Roman citizen, giving him the right of appeal to the Roman empower, which he utilized He was then taken to Rome and imprisoned He wrote 4 letters during his 2 years in jail that appear in the new testament, and was finally released about 63 There was a huge fire in Rome in 64, the emperor blamed the Christians. According to the gospels, Paul was reimprisoned and martyred because of it Perpetua and 203, killed for following christianity Felicitas Resulted in new literature called the Martyr acts Accounts of their last days before killed The martyrdom of many Christians resulted in increased membership of this religion which is the opposite of what the roman government wanted to happen Diocletian r. 285305 Became sole emperor of the Roman world He understood the importance of a defined succession of the throne o Rule of the tetrarchy o Two coempowers at the top: Augusti (Diocletian, Maximian); two vice empowers, Caesars (Constantius, Galerius) o Each had a zone of control and an official imperial residence or palace in the empire o The Augusti were positioned in the empire where the army was present o None resigned in Rome, even though it was the capital. Results in tendency toward decentralization Marks change from the Principate (27 B.C. A.D. 285) → Dominate (285476) reforms: military and economic o Doubles the size of the standing army to now have 7 legions o The economy was suffering due to increased military budget and half a century of turmoil o Introduced new coinage in gold and silver, which just led to further inflation o Edict of Prices, 301 second great persecution of Christians, 303 o Last Roman empower under which the Christians were heavily persecuted o Edicts said that all Christian books should be destroyed, all priests would be forced to worship the Roman gods o Not enforced uniformly but varied throughout the empire Becomes sick in 305, had to give up his power Urged his co Augusti to do this as well, led to the Caesars stepping up to be Augusti Dietician was the one holding the tertiary together, so when he was gone it left the 4 rulers all competing with each other Edicts of Written in 311 Toleration Restored all rights and privileges to the Christians Officially recognized Christianity as an acceptable and legitimate religion Constantine 324337 battle of Milvian Bridge, Constantine vs. Maxentius, 312 Constantine said that before the battle, he saw a cross in the sky saying "en toutôi nika, meaning “Conquer in this” o Also said he had a dream where Jesus appeared to him Was now able to become sole emperor o Celebrated with the foundation of Constantinople, 324330 o Was to be a new Rome, a second Rome o First city in history expressly founded as a Christian city Constantine is the first emperor to influence Christian doctrine Continues to respect Roman gods but maintains that the God of the Christians is highest Baptized as a Christian as his death bed Battle of A battle between Constantine and Mexentius in 312 Milvian Bridge Constantine won, believed it was because he had favor with God, and was able to become the sole emporer of the Roman empire Council of 325 Nicaea Constantine address growing tensions in the Christian church Discussed the Arian heresy o Question 1: is Christ the son of God with the same substance of God? o Question 2: is the son coeternal with the father o Arian says no to both questions, council says yes Nicene Creed: Son consubstantial and coeternal with Father relation to Christianity Arianism is officially condemned as heresy Atilla the Hun the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. Attila was a leader of the Hunnic Empire, a tribal confederation consisting of Huns, Ostrogoths, and Alans among others, on the territory of Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, he was one of the most feared enemies of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires. He crossed the Danube twice and plundered the Balkans, but was unable to take Constantinople. His unsuccessful campaign in Persia was followed in 441 by an invasion of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, the success of which emboldened Attila to invade the West. He also attempted to conquer Roman Gaul (modern France), crossing the Rhine in 451 and marching as far as Aurelianum (Orléans) before being defeated at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains. He subsequently invaded Italy, devastating the northern provinces, but was unable to take Rome. He planned for further campaigns against the Romans but died in 453. After Attila's death his close adviser Ardaric of the Gepids led a Germanic revolt against Hunnic rule, after which the Hunnic Empire quickly collapsed. Romullus an emperor (alleged usurper) reigning over the Western Roman Empire Augustulus from 31 October AD 475 until 4 September AD 476. His deposition by Odoacer traditionally marks the end of the Western Roman Empire Corpus Iuris Written by Constantine in 529 Civilis Codifies the law of the empire Most important legacy to the west So advanced, complete, and complex in its thought, it ended up being the foundation of most European countries Muhammad ca. 570632) Founder of Islam Had a vision said to have been from God which got him into trouble with officials hijra (“flight”) to Medina, 622 o Rose to a position of political leadership and gained a lot of followers Went back in 630 to capture Mecca, died two years later Pillars of Islam 651 confession of faith, prayer, almsgiving, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca Still fundamental parts of islam today Battle of Tours 732 o One of those most crucial baffles in the history of western civilization o Muslim army was defeated by the Frank's o King Charles Martel was able to turn back the Muslim army, ensuring that the rest of Europe would remain Christian Charlemagne (Carolus Magnus, Charles the Great: r. 768814) Son of King Charles Einhard, Life of Charlemagne expansion and administration of Carolingian Empire o Conquered northern Italy and Corsica in 744, saxony and Denmark in 750 o Political system was named Carolingian after himself o Divided his empire into sections known as counties o He remained at the top, overseeing his empire with a number of officials under him Carolingian Renaissance o Invited scholars, artists, other humanities people to his royal court o Founded schools that made it so that every young boy learned how to read and write o Established a standard literary form of Latin in the empire coronation as Holy Roman Emperor, 800 o The popes in Rome and the eastern Roman emperors are in much disagreements over doctrine in the church o Pope Leo the 3rd held strongly belief that there could be no such thing as a female ruler o Charlemagne was proclaimed emperors of the entire Roman Empire, west and east The Holy Roman Empire was the theory behind this Polybius, The Histories Senate duties Control the treasury Infrastructure Investigate crimes Foreign diplomacysend ambassadors, declare war Triumphs o Bestow or revoke honors Described as the aristocracy Consuls duties In charge of military o Appointing generals o Giving orders o Recruit soldiers from home and from allied countries Organize meetings Right to expend all the public money they see fit Police Described as the monarchy Peoples duties Possessors of virtue Punishers o Make up a jury o Decide life or death Vote on senate proposals Bestow offices Pass and repeal laws Ratify/nullify treaties and war Described as democracy Checks and Balances Senate checks consuls o Can elect or remove the consuls o Approve funding and supply distribution People check the senate o Tribune veto o Decide the punishment for crimes Tiberius and Gaius 1 Law passed that no one could have more than 300 acres of land o Meant to help out the poor and prevent slavery o This was abused by many rich people, who would use fake names and ended up owning all the land anyway o Poorer people had no interest in joining the military or being educated People wanted their land back o Tiberius made s moderate law o Wealthier people were able to be compensated for their return of the land they unlawfully had possession of People were upset at how weak this law was o Octavius helps oppose the weak law o Tiberius then makes a new law that is more strict, and even cancels all public events until it gets passed o No compromise at all Tiberius vs Octavius Different conceptions of what is best for the people Tiberius removes Octavius from the senate o Concerning to other senators and the people De legitimizes the positions of the senate and himself o Changes attempted Grant public lands to be divided among the poor Clothe soldiers at state expense Italians given to the voting rights of Romans Lowered price of grain Reduced the amount of senators Democratic elements Very appealing to the people, gave him almost kingly power Power between Gaius and the senate Elected as tribune even though he didn't run (very popular among the people) Came up with policies and laws that the people liked, which threatened the senate Libius, another tribune, was used by the senate to undermine Gaius and one up him Fall out between senate and consul Senate and consul begin fighting Gaius tries to flee and commit suicide, he prays to the gods that the people remain in slavery because he provided them with a way to freedom yet now they were all abandoning him Turning point, citizens realize how corrupt the senate is and how other political figures tend to have the will of the people in mind Christianity Timeline 4 Jesus birth(BC) 60150: writing of the New Testament 285: Rome splits into an eastern and western portion 337: Constantine, first Roman Empire to be converted to Christianity 39192: theodosius, made christianity the official religio if Rome 486: fall of the Roman Empire (western portion), beginning if the dark ages 800: Charlemagne, first leader outside of Rome given the name emperor. Given to him by the pope Teachings Love/charity o Love everyone o Love your enemies, your neighbors, the needy o Love God Humility o Pg 511 o Don't show off or boast o Emphasis on individual worship and relationship with God Faith o Eternal life as a reward o Do good deeds and the results will be seen in heaven o Spiritual wealth above material wealth o Belief that Jesus is the messiah and the son of God Obedience o Ten Commandments Shift in how they are interpreted o Obey God before you obey the secular laws o "Whoever loves his father or mother more than me is not worthy…." Change in family values Start of the idea of martyrdom with how people knowing that they need to declare their faith and obey this new idea in order to receive salvation Honesty o Redefines adultery and lying o No cheating Forgiveness o Turn the other cheek o Don't retaliate with your enemies o God will forgive you for your sins if you forgive yourself and others for theirs o Redemption through baptism which washed away all sins LECTURE NOTES The city of Rome Situated in central Italy, inland from the Mediterranean Sea on the Tigris river Surrounded by hills Ideal situation o Allowed for high places and citadels o Central location o Access to fresh water o Access to the sea for trade The ancestors of the Romans were believed to be Trojans, who had lost the Trojan war o Anneius was told by the gods to go and found a new city o He founded the city lacin Mars, the God of war, impregnated by a woman and had two children named Romulus and Remus o Romulus and Remus were abandoned, but were saved by a shewolf who gave them to a shepherd to raise them o They eventually founded the city of Rome o Romulus kills Remus because Remus jumped over his wall and Romulus wanted to declare that anyone who came over his wall would be killed Archeological evidence o The city of Rome was founded on the Palatine in 756 o The Latins were the people living in this area Etruscans o We don't know much about them, including origin and language o According to Herodotus, they were immigrants from Asia Minor o Others claim they are indigenous to Italy o We know it's not an indo European language o Religion Sacrificed an animal, the liver contained signed that predicted the future o More advanced than many other people of this time Their kings ruled Rome for some time through the end of the Roman Empire Some think that the Romans got their alphabet from them. Who got it from the Greek colonists in the area Greek influence o Colonists gave the Romans the idea of city states based on the Greek polis o They also gave them the alphabet, and therefore literacy Political development In early times, Rome was ruled by kings (753509) o There is an early list of 7 kings, which most scholars don't accept as is o Shows that it was in fact a monarchy o Also confirms that there were Etruscan kings toward the end of the monarchy Kingship o The king had religious and military power Senate Council of advisors from the king o o Started with men from the leading families of Rome o Couldn't pass laws, it's function was simply to advise when asked o When the king died, the senate had royal power until the next king was chosen Assembly o Met when summoned by the king o Had some law making powers Late monarchy o 2/3 of the last kings were Etruscan o We know this based on their names that are traditionally Etruscan At this time Rome was flourishing o Most important reform was the reorganization of the royal army Extends citizenship for the purpose of getting more soldier Puts people into 12 separate tribes Your tribe determined how much you were taxed Age groups in the classes, juniors and seniors Citizens were brigaded into centuries of 100 men Wealthy ones were Calvary because they were the only ones with enough money to have and maintain horses, actually had fewer than 100 men each Middle class was infantry Lowest class was support groups, such as carpenters, blacksmiths etc. Roman family and class structure We get the word family from the Roman word familia More extensive than our families today, Included immediate family, spouses, slaves Men Had multiple names o First was given name and then the name of their gent o Then included their given name, gent name, and name for their gent division o Women normally only had one name, which would be the feminine version of the gent name Porcius turns into porcia More than one daughter, becomes porcia 1, porcia 2, etc. Strictly patriarchal o The oldest living make of the family had basically absolute power o In theory, he could put to death any member of the familia o In practice, almost none ever killed their dependents Customary to consult other important men and women in the family before making any important decisions Patron and client o Patrons San clients formed bonds sanctified by both law and custom o Patricians and plebeians o Origin is in economic and necessity o Patrons would try to get the most clients o Characterizes the internal and external Roman Empire The romans see their allies as their clients and they the patrons This means that Rome needed to protect the ally and the ally needed to pay them Patricians o Tended to be wealthier than plebeians Plebeians o Pretend political power o Real political power Roman religion Noumena was the belied that Above all the spirits reigned Jupiter, who was the equivalent of Zeus Borrowed Greek and Etruscan gods o Ended up borrowing the entire pantheon o Some were changed, like how o Others were unchanged like Apollo Reead omens from the flights of birds Fed the sacred chickens Thought both gods and humans had reciprocal obligations that they were responsible for o Humans were responsible for strict following of rituals o Gods owed them prosperity Expansion of Rome Begins with the transition from monarchy to republic o 508/7, the Romans dispose of their last king o The new chief magistrates were two men elected annually. With the name of consuls Rise of Roman power Following the deposition of the monarchy, the Romans are threatened by other Latin speaking cities around then To reassert their dominance over the league, a treaty is drawn confirming them as being the heading city Outside Latium, other countries were encroaching on their territory resulting in a lot of small border quarrels Livy relates a highly dubious tradition that the siege of Veii lasted 11 years Gallic invasion 390 or 387/6 o Galls attack Rome o Rome barely wins because the war because the geese of Juno warn them of a surprise attack o Galls demand 1000 pounds of gold Latin league o Continues to resent Roman leadership o After the Gallic invasion, many of the states defected from the league but Rome brought them back in o Rome gave the citizens of allied cities more rights in their country o Not everyone was satisfied so some still rebelled (340338) o Rome won and the league was no longer in existence, it was just Rome in control of a large area Samnite war o First war (343341) Didn't result in much gain on either side o Second (326304) Infamous because afterwards, the Roman soldiers had to walk under the yoke of the victorious Samnites, which was considered very shameful and embarrassing for the Romans o Third (298275) Rome won Samnites were forced to surrender and become Roman allies After the Samnites, Rome continues to expand throughout Italy Tarentine War (280275): Pyrrhus of Epirus By , all of the Italian peninsula is bound to Rome either by conquest or ally Organization of Italy Latin allies o Included several towns in Latium, colonies founded by the Latin league, and new colonies founded by Rome after the dissolution of the Latin league o Enjoyed rights of local autonomy (govern itself, make its own laws), commerce and intermarriage, and could vote in the Roman plebeian assembly also could become Roman citizens by leaving a son of military age in their home town Italian allies o The rest of the conquered and allied peoples of Italy o Each had their own separate testy with rom that outlines their rights and expectations o Obligation to provide military support o Agreement yielding control of foreign policy to the Roman senate o Could do business with Romans and intermarry o Served as auxiliary units in the Roman army o Enjoyed internal autonomy in domestic government and law Reasons for Romes success o The Romans adapt their terms of alliance in a case by case basis depending on the needs of the Romans themselves and the capabilities of their allies o Effective public relations The terms of peace usually showed some leniency toward conquered foes In war they could be merciless o Cohesion Established cohesion among the diverse peoples of Italy who eventually all began to think of themselves as Italians rather than Etruscans, Latins, etc. Provides them with a solid home base when at war with non Italian people Internal development of the Roman state The king was replaced by two consuls o Equal partners, each exercising veto power over the others decision o Annually elected, new rulers each year o Collegiality And annuality are two new characteristics of government it seen before Incorporate in the other offices praetors aediles Quaestors Only could go from be aedile if you had been a quaestor Dictator o During a time of emergency and conflict, the people would elect a dictator who could serve a maximum of 6 months o L. Quinctius Cincinnatus, ca. 460 Farmer in Rome Elected as dictator, went and defeated the enemy, resigned after 16 days Roman legions o Flexibility over those hoplite o Rearmed and reequipped Javelins and short thrusting sword called a gladious The struggle of the orders Dominated Roman domestic policy for over 2 centuries First secession of the Pleps in 490 o Plebeian troops went on strike and went to a sacred mountain o The Roman army is now left powerless because most troops were plebeians o On the mountain, chose two people to be tribunes Tribunes were the champions for their cause and were protected by the gods o Pressed for the codification and publication of Roman law Wanted to prevent magistrates from not properly administrating justice 450 the twelve tables o Written by a committee of 5 patricians and 5 plebeians o No real innovation in their laws, the innovation was that they were publish and everyone knew exactly what the law was o Primitive code representing the values and culture of an agrarian society Debt was a large problem but the tables didn't do anything to alleviate that If a person sang or wrote an offensive song they would be clubbed Intermarriage between patricians and plebeians was banned, but this law was rescinded after 5 years o Livy refers to the 12 tables as the source of all private and public law o Remained the foundation of Roman law for hundreds of years All bills passed in the plebeian assembly had full force of law if they were also ratified by the senate The law that banned mixed marriages between patricians and plebeians was rescinded, so now you can't intermarry and the h iodine of this marriage take the social status of the father New office of the curule aediles, 367 Only eligible for patricians Military tribune consuls Plebeians we're now allowed to be consuls No more than 300 acres of land per person Military consulship was abolished, only consuls but both classes could be in it lex Genucia (Genucian law), 342: one consul per year must be plebeian New consular aristocracy that has people from high up families that had past consuls They try to keep the consulship within their group and want to make sure the current consuls come from s family of consuls lex Publilia (Publilian law), 339: Senate must approve bills appearing before assemblies in advance of vote lex Poetelia (Poetelian law), 326/313: nexum abolished It was common practice to enslave a defaulting debtor Debt bondage=nexus Now no debtor may be enslaved for not paying Ap. Claudius Caecus, censor 312 Wanted to increase the political voice of the rural poor by distributing them among the tribes Public works o Build roles first aqueduct Cn. Flavius, aedile 304 Published a handbook of legal info to help citizens understand and apply the laws that were now posted lex Ogulnia (Ogulnian law), 300: pontiffs and augurs o Exclusively patrician priesthood until this law o It was then changed that the pontiffs be 8 members and 9 for augurs o Majority of members had to be plebeian lex Maenia (Maenian law), 290: Senate must ratify results of elections in advance of vote lex Hortensia (Hortensian law), 287: Before, if the senate didn't ratify an assembly law then it only was enforced on plebeians plebiscita binding on all Roman citizens without ratification by Senate. Achieved political equality with the senate End of the Struggle of the Orders. Punic Wars First (264241) Second (218201) Third (149146) Carthage: Founded by colonists from Phoenicia in 814 Commercial and military power in the western Mediterranean Great trading people and explorers Causes o Proximate/intermediate cause o Ultimate/deeper causes for Rome Romans were afraid of Carthage They were a powerful neighbor and their spheres on influence overlapped Roman aristocrats wanted military glory to enhance their prestige and help their political traditions For the entire history of tome, the best way to achieve political prominence was to be successful in war o Carthage reasons Must protect their reputation as being a very powerful people Also wanted to protect their material interests Carthage had a pretty good navy, Rome did not o 261, Romans realized that they needed to build up a navy if they wanted to be successful o They built hundreds of ships in only 2 months o Created a plank that they could drop on the enemy's ship and connect the two, forcing a naval battle to become a land battle on ships invasion of Africa and naval disasters o In 253, the manjirty of the Roman navy is lost due to storms o The commander of the navy was in charge of interpreting the omens He gave the sacred chickens their food, they wouldn't eat He took this bad omen as just the chickens being dumb and threw them overboard The Romans lost showdown in Sicily o Rome and Carthage fight over Sicily. Rome win Results 241 o Carthage agrees to keep all their ships out of Italians waters o Had to pay war reparations to Rome o Surrendered Sicily and other islands o By 238, Rome additional,h seized Corsica and asked for more money o Rome is now the most powerful empire in this area o Gave them their first overseas province, which then influenced their politics structure for the rest. Of their prominence Carthaginian revival Carthage starts to rebuild itself Rome gets worried at how quickly they are doing this and their expansion of power Ebro treaty, 226 o Treaty saying that no Carthage military can go past the Ebro river in Spain Roman expansion in Cisalpine Gaul and Illyria Second Punic War, 218201 Immediate cause o The siege of a Spanish city, ally of Rome, by the Carthage Desperate causes o Carthaginian anger and bitterness due to how they were defeated and had their colonies taken away from them o The Carthusian barca family, one of the most prominent families, hated Rome o For Rome, they needed to protect their ally o High families want political power from being successful in war o Rome has to protect its trade interests Hannibal Barca strategies of belligerents Hannibal’s invasion of Italy o Had to cross the Appalachian maintains in order to get into italy o Caused many of his men and war elephants to die o They succeed in the initial stages of their invasion Romans invade Spain's and North Africa Q. Fabius Maximus (Cunctator) Chosen as the dictator for the time if the war New tactic of delaying because the pitch battles hadn't been working battle of Cannae, 216 Romans were getting impatient Deceive to try a pitch battle 80,000 Romans die, on,y 15,000 carthania
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