test 2 review
test 2 review COS 112
Popular in Interpersonal Communication
Popular in Communication Studies
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jackie F. on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COS 112 at University of Miami taught by Valerie Giroux in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Communication Studies at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
COS 112 Test 2 review Chapter 5: Listening Actively Listening = most primal and primary communication skill; involves receiving, attending, understanding responding, and recalling sounds and visual images 5 Step Process: (1) Receiving = seeing and hearing hearing = vibrations travel along acoustic nerves to brain, which interpret as words and voice tone receiving = first step, critical to listening hampered by noise pollution (sound in surrounding environment that distracts our attention from auditory input) o hearing impairment = restricted ability to receive sound input across humanly audible range more than 40% college students, only 8% think it’s a problem (2) Attending = devoting attention to the information you’ve received determined by its salience (degree to which it seems noticeable and significant) o stimulating, unexpected, or personally important o limited control over salience but we control our attention level o Improve attention: 1. limit multitasking brain plasticity = our brains adapt to the tasks we perform regularly during our waking hours 2. elevating attention (a) develop awareness of your attention level (b) take note of encounters you should listen but trigger low levels of attention (c) consider optimal level of required attention for adequate listening during these encounters (d) compare level of attention you observed in yourself v. level of attention req., identifying attention gap (e) elevate attention to the point nec. to take in info you’re receiving o mental bracketing = systematically putting aside thoughts that aren’t relevant to interaction at hand (3) Understanding = interpreting the meaning of another person’s communication by comparing newly received information against our past knowledge when you receive and attend to new information, you place it in your short term memory, the part of your mind that temporarily houses the information while you seek to understand its meaning call up relevant information from your long term memory, part of mind devoted to permanent information storage (4) Responding = communicating their attention and understanding to you use feedback, the verbal and nonverbal behaviors, to communicate attention and understanding while others are talking offer backchannel cues, verbal and nonverbal behaviors such as nodding and making comments like uh huhh that signal you paid attention to and understand specific comments Four suggestions: o 1. make feedback obvious o 2. make it appropriate o 3. make it clear by avoiding beh that might be mistaken as negative feedback o 4. provide it quickly in response to what speaker just said paraphrasing = summarizing others’ comments o checks accuracy but use judiciously because it can cause lapses (5) Recalling = remembering information after you’ve received, attended to, understood, and responded to it crucial because we judge effectiveness of listening based on ability to accurately recall info Recall accuracy is high when we have no task other than simple memorization we tend to recall our own behavior as positive and constructive and of others as negative varies on situation enhance recall: o mnemonics = devices that aid memory o bizarreness effect = causes us to remember unusual information more readily than commonplace info because it triggers heightened level of attention and requires us to work harder to make sense of them The 5 functions of listening (adapting our listening purposes) Listening functions = purposes for listening; comprehend, discern, analyze, appreciate, and support (1) to comprehend = e.g. listening to coworker explain how to use software app, listening to your teacher (2) to discern = focus on distinguishing specific sounds from each other, e.g. listen carefully to someone’s vocal tone to assess mood and stress level trying to figure out if boyfriend is mad at you by hearing about sound I’m fine (3) to analyze = carefully evaluate the message you’re receiving and you judge it, e.g. analyzing father’s neutral comment about medical checkup, listening for signs of worry (4) to appreciate = to enjoy sounds and sights you’re experiencing and to respond by expressing apprec, e.g. listening to child share story or friend tell funny story (5) to support = providing comfort and suspend judgment to take in what someone says without evaluating it, and openly expressing empathy We adapt between the 5 frequently. Understanding listening styles Listening style = habitual pattern of listening behaviors which reflects your attitudes, beliefs, and predispositions regarding the listening process 4 Listening Styles o (1) ActionOriented Listeners = want brief, tothepoint, accurate msgs. from others; info they can use to make decisions or initial courses of action can grow impatient e.g. when faced with upset spouse, want info about what caused problem and generate solution o (2) TimeOriented Listeners = prefer brief and concise encounters; tend to let other know in advance how much time they have available o (3) PeopleOriented Listeners = view listening as opportunity to establish commonalities between themselves and others; cite concern for others emotions; empathetic score high on measures of extraversion and overall communication competence o (4) ContentOriented Listeners = prefer to be intellectually challenged; enjoy complex provocative info; take time to evaluate facts and details before forming opinion likely to ask speakers clarifying or challenging questions o most of us use 1 or 2 styles, 36% ppl use one across all encounters o to be an active listener use all 4. Gender o women = people oriented and content perceive listening as an intellectual, emotional, and relational activity o men = time oriented and action hurried, time approach Culture o individualistic = time oriented and action; emphasis on time limits o collectivistic = people and content oriented listening Preventing incompetent listening Avoid most common pitfalls (1) Selective Listening = taking in only bits and pieces of information that are immediately salient during an interpersonal encounter and dismissing the rest (2) Eavesdropping = when people intentionally and systematically set up situations so they can listen to private conversations a. Erving Goffman noted that the presence of other individuals within auditory and visual range of a conversation should be considered the rule and not the exception b. inappropriate, unethical, and personally damaging (3) PseudoListening = behaving as if you’re paying attention though you’re not; somewhat unethical because it’s deceptive (4) Aggressive Listening = ambushing; attend to what others say solely to find an opportunity to attack their conversational partners a. people who do this think less favorably of themselves, have lower marital satisfaction, more physical violence in their relationships b. provocateurs = people who engage in aggressive listening online, trolls, to annoy others (5) narcissistic listening = is selfabsorbed listening, the perpetrator ignores what others have to say and redirects the conversation to him or herself and own interests a. they provide pos feedback as long as they’re center of attention, but moment topic switches they give neg feedback Chapter 6: Verbal Communication Verbal communication = the exchange of spoken or written language with others during interactions; defined by our use of language Understanding Language (1) Language is symbolic symbols = using items to represent other things words are the primary symbols we use to represent people, objects, events, and ideas (2) Language is governed by rules rules govern meaning of words, arrangement, and order constitutive rules = define word meaning o tell us which words represent which objects o e.g. dog domestic canine o whenever you learn vocab of a language regulative rules = govern how we use language when we verbally communicate o traffic laws controlling language use, do’s and don’ts o spelling, sentence structure o e.g. I before e except after c (3) Language is flexible personal idioms = words and phrases that have unique meanings to them o average romantic couple had created more than half a dozen idioms dialects = when large groups of people share creative variations on language rules (accents) o Jesse delia conducted a study that showed listeners formed positive impressions of persons who used dialects similar to their own (4) Language is cultural language = the set of symbols that members of a culture create to communicate their thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, and values with one another highcontext cultures = (china, korea, japan) people presume that listeners share extensive knowledge in common with them o as a result, don’t need to provide a lot of explicit info to gain listeners understanding o talk around points, don’t directly address them lowcontext cultures = people tend not to presume that listeners share their beliefs, attitudes, and values, so they tailor their verbal communication to be informative, clear, and direct o openly express their own viewpoints, don’t imply nor hint (5) Language evolves constantly changes, constitutive rules shift and new words are added, rules change Functions of Verbal Communication (6 Ways Language guides our Interactions) (1) Sharing Meaning two kinds: o 1. denotative meaning = literal meaning of words as agreed on by members of your culture o 2. connotative meaning = additional understandings of a word’s meaning based on the situation and the knowledge we and our communication partners share; implied hinted suggested relationship intimacy plays a role: you’re MY big ugly bear (2) Shaping Thought what we see in the world depends on language because language is our primary means of sharing meaning with others, it affects how we perceive others and our relationships SapirWhorf Hypothesis = we can’t conceive of that for which we lack a vocab, and language defines the boundaries of our thinking o linguistic determination = language defines the boundaries of our thinking linguistic relativity = people from different cultures would perceive and think about the world in a very different way e.g. Italians have many different words for pasta (3) Naming = creating linguistic symbols for objects naming determines meaning and perception of those objects our names are the most powerful symbols that define who we are throughout our lives e.g. gay people not wanting to be referred to as homo (4) Performing Actions Speech Acts = actions we perform with language e.g. knowing a q is a q (5) Crafting Conversations The 4 Fundamental Characteristics to a conversation o 1. Interactive (at least 2 people) o 2. Locally managed (local management = we make decisions regarding who gets to speak when and for how long each time we exchange turns) what makes convo diff than debate and drama o 3. Universal (forms foundation for most forms of IC) o 4. Adhere to Scripts scripts = rigidly structured patterns of talking; esp. true in first encounters 95% of topic changes of first convo of college students followed same pattern regardless of any demographic (6) Managing Relationships create relationships by declaring powerful, intimate feelings (“ you are beautiful!”) romantic partners who verbally communicate frequently with each other and with partners’ friends and families experience less uncertainty in their relationships and aren’t as likely to break up otherwise. Cooperative Verbal Communication (creating understandable messages) Cooperative verbal communication = produce messages that have 3 characteristics o 1. speak in ways that others can easily understand using language that is informative, honest, relevant and clear * honesty is most important o 2. take active ownership for what you’re saying using “I” language o 3. you make others feel included rather than excluded using “we” language Understandable messages o Cooperative Principle = making our conversational contributions as informative, honest, relevant, and clear as is required, given the purpose of the encounters in which we’re involved o 1. Informative = present all info that is relevant and appropriate, avoid being too informative o 2. Honesty = most important don’t share info you’re uncertain about o 3. Relevant = responsive to what people have said o 4. Clear = present info in straightforward way dealing with misunderstanding o misunderstanding = when one person misperceives another’s thoughts, feelings, or beliefs as expressed in the other individual’s verbal communication results from failure to actively listen actionoriented listeners often become impatient with others while listening and frequently jump ahead to finish other people’s points o occurs online if a particular message absolutely must be errorfree or if content is controversial, don’t use email or txting to communicate it Using “I” Language I language = taking ownership of feelings, opinions, and beliefs o less likely to trigger defensiveness o creates clearer impression on listeners avoid “you” language = phrases that place attention and blame on other people Using “We” Language We language = wordings that emphasize inclusion couples who use this tend to be more satisfied with their relationships * we language is the inverse of I language Gender and Cooperative Verbal Communication stereotypes say men appreciate informative, honest, relevant, clear language in western cultures, ppl think men communicate more straight forward research shows men and women are more similar than different o women don’t use more vague and wordy language than men o the primary det. of where people’s language is clear is if encounter is competitive or collaborative o both genders use clear language in competitive IP encounters e.g. arguing o both use vaguer wording during collaborative encounters e.g. lunch with friends Culture Communication Accomodation Theory = people are esp. motiv. to adapt their language when they seek social approval, establish relationships with others, and view others’ language usage as appropriate people tend to accentuate differences between their language and others when they wish to convey emotional distance research shows o when you moderately adjust your language use to match others from different cultures you will be perceived as having high communication skills the key to adjusting = adapt to others’ speech rate, clarity, and desired balance of turntaking avoid matching dialect and word choices culture has more influence on language than gender does! Barriers to Cooperative VC 1. Communication apprehension = fear or anxiety associated with interaction o also get physical symptoms o key to overcome is to develop Communication Plans prior to interacting communication plans = mental maps that describe exactly how communication encounters will unfold 2 Elements: 1. plan actions = moves you think you’ll perform in encounter o e.g. topics, behaviors 2. Contingency plan = the messages you think your communication partner will say and how you’ll respond 2. Defensive Communication = defensiveness, impoliteness in response to suggestions, criticisms, or perceived sights o miss validity, focus responses away o 4 Types: 1. Dogmatic messages = dismisses suggestions for improvement or constructive criticism, refuses to consider others views, and think their beh are acceptable “this is how I do and why would I change” 2. Superiority messages = speakers suggests they possess special know., ability, or status “I have experience and have been doing it longer” or because I say so 3. Control messages = person seeks to squelch criticism by controlling other person e.g. there’s no point to further discussion, I consider this matter closed also 4. indifference messages (not in notes) = implies suggestion is irrelevant, uninteresting, or unimportant o is interpersonally incompetent o chronic defensive communicators have high rates of conflict and lower satisfaction in personal and pro. relationships o key to overcome is to control its triggering factors anger management etc. o frequently stems from attribution errors (thinking other person is wrong) 3. Verbal Aggression = tendency to attack others’ self concepts rather than their positions on topics of conversation o can evolve into bullying o why are some people aggressive? stems from temporary mental state, chronic hostility, and helps them achieve short term interpersonal goals 3. Deception = occurs when people deliberately use uninformative, untruthful, irrelevant, or vague language for the purpose of misleading others o most common is concealment (leaving out important information) o commonplace online Chapter 7: Communicating Nonverbally nonverbal communication = the intentional or nonintentional transmission of meaning through an individual’s unspoken physical and behavioral cues principles of nonverbal communication It uses multiple channels (simulatenously) It’s more ambiguous (long hug, romantic or friendly) Has fewer rules (more informal norms such as impolite to stare) Has more meaning o greater impact on overall impressions of attractiveness during first encounters o escalates when people display mixed messages, in which verbal and nv behaviors convey contradictory meainings we will trust nonverbal Influenced by our culture Influenced by our gender o websites say women are better at nonverbal comm than men and better at reading it o Psychologist Judeith Hall found four consistent patterns: 1. women better at sending and receiving nv mgs 2. women greater facial expressiveness and smile more 3. women gaze more at others during IP interactions mutual gaze more common with women 4. men more territorial, more physical space It is liberated through technology o two outcomes 1. we can now choose more than just two communication modes 2. better to maintain intimate, longdistance relationships nv and verbal combine to create communication o both forms essential and combine to create meaning NV communication codes = the different means used for transmitting information nonverbally (1) Kinesics = visible body movement o facial expression = rank first among all forms to influence IP impressions o eye contact = use to exp. emotion, signal turn, and show we’re listening prolonged staring to convey hostility o gestures emblems = represent specific verbal meanings (e.g. middle finger) gesture and meaning interchangeable illustrators = accent vrbal messages (e.g. hand up and down to illustrate when talking about a rollercoaster) regulators = control exchange of turns (e.g. pointing finger while trying to interrupt) adaptors = touching gestures that servce psychological or physical purpose o posture purposes: 1. intimacy (lean forward, straight back, arms open, high head) 2. power (ability to influence) (2) Vocalics = voice o calm and smooth voice more likely as attractive, positive, extraverted. o complex combo for 4 characteristics: 1. tone = richness and breathiness 2. pitch = women have higher pitch but men have more capability of using higher and don’t 3. loudness 4. speech rate moderate and steady rate not primary determinant of intelligibility, instead its articulation of words (3) Haptics = touch o first sense we develop in womb o Types 1. functionalprofessional touch (accomplish task) e.g. physicians and patients, coach athletes 2. socialpolite (social norms, handshake) 3. friendshipwarmth (show liking) 4. loveintimacy (convey feelings) 5. sexualarousal (stimulate person) 6. aggressivehostile (physical slapping hitting) (4) Proxemics = space o Types 1. Intimate space (018 in, close relatinoships) 2. personal space (18 in – 4 feet, encounters with friends, wingspan) 3. social space (412, workplace, classroom) 4. public space (12 or more, formal occasions, speeches, lectures) o territoriality = the tendency to claim physical spaces as our own and define certain locations as areas we don’t want others to invade without permission (5) Chronemics = time o Types 1. Mtime = monochromic orientation; time is money 2. Ptime = polychromic, don’t view it as important (6) physical appearance = visual attributes o attractive people perceived across cultures as higher levels of intelligence, persuasiveness, poise, sociability, warmth, power, and employment success!! o attractive friends makes you attractive o facial symmetry = attractiveness across cultures o clothing = influence judgements on profession, education level, socioeconomic status, and personality and personal values o dress as nicely as you can during job interviews (7) Artifacts = objects (8) environment = physical surroundings o Types 1. fixed features = stable, unchanging (walls) bigger more powerful 2. semifixed features = impermanent and easy to change bright lighting active blue and green relaxing yellow and orange arousing red and black sensuous gray and brown depressing functions of nv communication 1. Convey meaning a. e.g. thumbs up for good job! b. reiterating = repeating (saying up and pointing) c. contradicting (friend asks if you’re angry and you scream no) d. enhance (say I love you! and smile and touch) e. replace (shaking head for no) f. spotlight (increase loudness of one word) 2. expressing emotion a. affect displays = intentional or unintentional nv behaviors that display actual or feigned emotions i. through face and voice 3. presenting self 4. managing interactions 5. defining relationsips a. convey intimacy (feelings of closeness and union) b. dominance and submissiveness Chapter 8 Outline conflict and power Conflict = the process that occurs when people perceive that they have incompatible goals or that someone is interfering in their ability to achieve their objectives Conflict features 1. Conflict begins with perception (when people perceive incompatible goals or actions) a. perceptual errors shape 2. conflict involves clashes in goals or behaviors
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