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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jackie F. on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGT 308 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Christine Hagan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Training and Development in Business, management at University of Miami.
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MGT 308 Test 1 Required Materials: th Werner, J. M., & DeSimone, R. L. (2012). Human Resource Development (6 edition). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning, ISBN-13: 978-0-538-48099-4: ISBN-10: 0-324-538-48099-8. An e- text version of the text is available at www.cengagebrain.com. Individual chapters and text rentals are also available at the same website. Please be careful. Various options are available at this website. So, take your time, check carefully before ordering, and I’m sure you’ll be fine. UM’s campus bookstore may also be able to assist you with e-texts and rentals. Chapter 1: Introduction to HR Development Training = the process of providing KSA’s specific to a job Development = long-term focus on preparing for future job responsibilities while increasing the capacities of employees to learn their current jobs HRD = the set of systematic and planned activities designed (customized) by an organization to provide its members with the opportunities to learn necessary skills to meet current and future job demands Learning = core of HRD Key (4) differences between Training and development: 1. current v. future opportunity 2. short term v. long term 3. change happens more gradually in development (training has clear beforeafter) 4. development has higher financial risk Key contemporary issues: High-leverage training (aka High-Impact Training) = contains four characteristics that make it likely to succeed 1. based on a needs assessment 2. linked to the business strategy (program works with goals of company) 3. program uses instructional design based on adult learning. 4. benchmark the practices to excellent companies Continuous Learning = involves environments that gather, share, and incorporate data into their everyday work Learning organizations = organizes the information and shares it around The goals of Human Resource development: 1. Create, sustain higher performance levels in general a. high performance work systems i. greater profitability, lower turnover, greater recruits 2. Create conditions for “continuous improvement” 3. Prepare for future a. solve problems early History and milestones of HRD: (reading) *KNOW THE ORDER The term hrd has only been in common use since the 1980’s Early apprenticeship training programs (1700s) o small shops operated by skilled artisans produced all household goods o demand drove owners to employ additional workers and had to educate and train them themselves (Apprentices) o Apprentices who mastered all the nec. skills were called “yeomen” and could est. their own craft shops o yeomanries guild formed to counterbalance the powerful craft guilds yeomanries were the forerunners of modern labor unions Early vocational education programs (1800s) o DeWitt Clinton founded 1 recognized privately funded vocational school (aka manual school) in NYC. o purpose was to provide occupational training to unskilled young people who were unemployed or had criminal records o 1917 Smith-Hughes Act recognized the value of the voc. education by granting funds o important about skills gap Factory schools (1872+) (originally for engineers, mechanics; General Electric) o Industrial revolution late 1800’s, machines replaced artisans. o scientific management principles o demand for engineers, machinists, and skilled mechanics Factory Schools shorter than apprenticeship programs and narrower focus. Early training for semiskilled and unskilled workers (1913+) (movement to mass production) o two significant historical events: 1. Model T by Henry Ford in 1913 mass-produced using assembly line 2. outbreak of ww1 demand for military equipment, so factories had to retrain their workers Charles Allen “Show, Tell, Do, Check,” later named job instruction training (JIT) and still in use Human Relations Movement (1930-1940s) (Chester and Douglas) o undesirable treatment of unskilled workers o spurred national anti-factory campaign led by Mary Parker Follett and Lillian Gilbreth o campaign gave rise to human relations movement advocating more humane conditions highlighted importance of behavior on job The Functions of the Executive by Chester Barnard, described org. as a social structure integrating traditional mgt. and beh. science application o cont. into 1940s with ww2 o Abraham maslow Establishment of Training Profession (WWII) o outbreak of ww2 o federal government established the Training Within Industry Service (twi) to coordinate training programs across defense-related industries o American Society for Training Directors (astd) formed to est. standards w/in emerging profession Shift from “Training” (Gen 1) to “Development” (Gen 2) (1960s–1980s) o 1960’s: training and development competencies expanded to include interpersonal skills such as coaching, group process facilitation, and problem solving o American Society for Training and Development o 1980’s: Astd approved the term human resource development to encompass the growth and change Emergence of “Organizational Learning” (Gen 3) (1990s-present) o efforts were made to strengthen the strategic role of HRD (how it links to and supports the goals and objectives of the organization) o emphasis within Astd on performance improvement as the particular goal of most training and hrd efforts and on viewing organizations as high performance work systems. Strategic Management = is the continuous planning, monitoring, analysis and assessment of all that is necessary for an organization to meet its goals and objectives. Strategic HRM = is an approach to managing human resources that supports longterm business goals and outcomes with a strategic framework. open systems theory = alignment issues = Hrd strategic challenges: participate in strategy formulation specifically link programs to business goals provide strategic mgt. edu. training eval. based on business metrics Business strategy and tactics + HRM strategy and tactics strategic HRD initiatives hrd activities results Other Organizational Characteristics Affecting hrd: 1. Roles of employees and manager a. in empowering sit., more t&d b. the way work is split up affects kinds of training going on 2. Level of top mgt. support a. more resources b. encouragement 3. The number of SBU’s (strategic business units) and degree of integration a. amount of different businesses a company has and their degree of integration 4. The degree of globalization a. involves money and good training 5. general business conditions a. general and industry environments b. workers are capable and effective and don’t need training 6. Other hrm activities a. amount and type of HR planning b. staffing i. build versus buy c. reward systems Current business (and hrd) challenges: 1. global economy 2. aligning HRD with business strategy 3. focus on “learning” 4. advances in learning technology 5. managing talent (workforce diversity) a. developing the “right” talent b. skills gap difference between organization’s skills needs and what they have 6. Lifelong learning 7. Organizational learning U.S. Workforce decline: 1. 42% of new workforce applicants with high school diplomas or GED’s lack basic skills (that they should have when hired) 2. US ranks 20 in world in H.S. graduation rate 3. Steep decline in vocational training funding a. too much pressure to earn college degree? 4. Avg. U.S. craft professional worker is 47 years old. 5. by 2014, the no. of workers aged 35-44 yrs. is proj. to decline by 2.8 million 6. “baby boomers” are readying to retire as the best educated and most skilled workers in U.S. history The HRD Process Model (ADDIE MODEL) Assessment, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation Assessment: assess needs prioritize needs ensure readiness design and development: establish goals and objectives develop content design learning environment develop evaluation plan vc select trainer/leader select methods and techniques carry out logistics Implementation: deliver the hrd program or intervention Evaluation: interpret results e.g. Training and dev. dept. looking for trainer responsible for program What stage are they in? design and development stage Why do HRD programs fail? lack of alignment with business needs failure to recognize non-training solutions lack of formal objectives, before training begins the “real solution is too expensive” regarding training as an “event” participants not held accountable for results transfer of training issues failure to carefully evaluate and isolate the results of training lack of commitment and involvement from top mgt. failure to provide meaningful feedback and to use information about results Common misperceptions about hrd? (do we need to know this) training is an expense, not an investment training isn’t valuable any sme can be a trainer the training dep. is a safe place to put disappointing performers training is the responsibility of trainers and the training office Chapter 2: Influences on Employee Behavior situational theory = human behavior is the product of the interaction between people and situation, and from that interaction emerges behavior explains why a person can be successful in job A and not job b. Motivation = energy that drives performance Model of Employee Behavior forget completely about external environment 3 Major Forces: (Internal to Organization, external to employee) Supervisor o Leadership style (the way the supervisor operates leadership role) Leadership = non-coercive influence to direct and coordinate activities of others LMX (Leader-Member exchange) = say leaders quickly look at their subordinates and sort them into in-groupers and out-groupers (negative leadership model) Path-goal theory = says effective leaders set goals and clear paths for subordinates so nothings stands in the way of getting things done o Cues (hints that leaders send off to their subordinates) not explicit, workers decipher o Performance expectations (company’s expectations of your work) are they realistic to you and clearly articulated? o Rewards (leaders have access and decides who gets them) Organization o Reward structures (extrinsic or intrinsic) o Culture (collection of values, norms, beliefs) 2 elements: 1. shared by people (employees understand it) 2. used to decipher organization (what’s welcome or taboo) sense-making technique o Job design Coworkers and Teams (powerful affect on what people don’t and do) o Norms (norms are to groups as cultures are to organizations) culture of a group o Group dynamics (what goes on behaviorally in a group) social loafing = phenomenon that occurs when you increase size of group, indiv. contribution goes down group think = a drive to consensus, pressure to agree o Teamwork (how healthy is what goes on between us) Group trust = believe in members of group Group cohesiveness = how well group sticks together o Control over outcomes teammates have control over who succeeds; can be + or -. Internal Factors: Employee = influenced by their own characteristics Motivation o Needs-Based0 o Cognitive-Process o Non-cognitive Attitudes KASOCs Personality Behavior Task performance (how well they do their job) OCB (Organizational Citizenship Behavior) o voluntarily do extra step Outcome Personal (what happens to individual) Organizational (general overall effectiveness) Feedback loop! In training and development scenario: it answers two questions 1. Is an individual trainable? (capacity) if not? waste of money. Where do you find this? The employee box. 2. Will the training be effective? Transfer of training issue Internal Factors: Trainee Characteristics (nested in individual employees) Motivation = energy that drives performance Pre-training motivation = how you feel about training before you even go into it motivation to learn during training motivation to apply what is learned to future behavior (am I going to be more successful) how do I think this organization views training? MOTIVATION THEORIES: Motivation = energy that drives arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior arousal: what gets you excited to start direction: getting things done persistence: how long you stick with it 1. Needs-based approach = we have a drive to fix things we are lacking individual approach to motivation motivation explained by deficiency states response to shortfalls that creates motivation (a) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory o physiological safety connectedness self-esteem self-actualization o How to motivate people using it: decipher what level they’re at and fulfill lowest needs first o (-) tough to implement (b) Alderfer’s Existence, Relatedness, and Growth (ERG) Theory o 3 levels instead Existence (physiological + safety) Relatedness (belongingness) Growth (self-esteem and self-act.) o you can go up and down (c) Herzberg Two-Factor Theory o needs are based on two types: survival and growth you manage across both rather than pinpoint Survival (hygiene) extrinsic stuff (working conditions) prevent dissatisfaction but once you get to a certain point, you can’t become more satisfied without…. Growth involves intrinsic (feel good things) o How to create motivation: structure situations for people with enough structure that they’re not dissatisfied and now glom on growth stuff o (-) only Herzberg said this was valid. 2. Cognitive Process Approach = rational theories that say we think things through motivation explained by sequences of conscious thoughts and decisions (a) Expectancy Theory = people are motivated to do things they think they can achieve if they can expect a reward (Am I going to be able to do it) o When confronted with a task to do, ask 3 questions and must have YES – YES- YES. (b) Social Learning Theory = Self-efficacy (I know I can do it) o the difference between social learning and expectancy is confidence matters in social learning most. o model starts at self-efficacy input info about task analysis of task (the what) o Learning element: observing others behavioral modeling behavioral shaping and chaining (c) Equity Theory = social comparison of outcomes to inputs o under-rewarded will feel cheated, over-rewarded will feel guilty (d) Goal-setting Theory = set S.M.A.R.T. goals. 3. “Non-Cognitive Theory” = behavior Reinforcement Theory = behavior occurs because people did it in the past and had certain results people avoid doing things that they have gotten negative results in the past. Attitude = a general feeling of positivity or negativity toward a person, place, or thing Where do we get attitudes? experiences, expectations, important people and references Common attitudes: o how important is my job to me? o How important is competence or advancement to me? How do attitudes influence behavior? o a lot of things we do don’t align with attitudes, cognitive dissonance Trainee Characteristics (also an internal factor) KASOCs = represent the bundle of capability that resides in an individual o knowledge = understanding of a body of information, usually of a factural (what is) or procedural (how to) nature, that makes for successful performance of a task cognitive process o skill = level of proficiency or competency in performing a specific task (often relates to psychomotor tasks) o ability = more general, enduring capability an individual possesses when he or she begins to perform a task personality = the stable set of personal characteristics that account for consistent patterns of behavior (relatively stable) o Locus of control = diff. b/n event-making person (make things happen) or eventful person (think things just happen to them) o Achievement drive = high achiever will aim for ring in middle, want consistency and control and ability (achievement is not luck) o Independence = work on own and make own choices o Sociability = work situations that you have people around you that you’re comfortable with Chapter 2 Case: On the Effectiveness of NOT Holding a Formal Training Program Chapter 3: Learning & Hrd Learning = the relatively permanent change in behavior, cognition, or affect that occurs as a result of one’s interaction with the environment 1. learning involves a change 2. relatively permanent change (long-lasting, endures over time) 3. targeted at any 3 things: behavior, cognition, or affect. a. behavior: things you’re going to do diff. after learning b. cognition: things you know after you leave c. affect: the way you feel about something i. attitude ii. e.g. things like diversity training or sexual harassment 4. comes from outside the individual a. learning occurs as a result of a person interacting with their environment b. the environment presents things and we respond to it Two historical philosophies about learning: (1) Behavioral philosophy (since 1890’s) = original first major learning theory If you want to know what someone knows, watch what they do Thorndike, Pavlov, Skinner Three fundamental behavioral laws of learning: o (a) Law of effect (foundation of behavior) good reward o (b) Law of exercise (chaining and shaping behavior in steps; incremental learning) o (c) Law of readiness (ready to learn) How would behaviorist make training program? manipulate environment, put trainees in job-related opportunity and share their behavior to teach them to successfully deal with environment (2) Cognitive (since 1950’s) there is also a fundamental mental piece to learning and it may not be illustrated in behavior J. Piaget, Gagne, and Bruner if you want people to do differently, get them to think differently learning through discovery (get new info, try it out, decide if it is good) Instructional Psychology = focus on the individual learner (1960). Robert Glaser Theory = focus on the environment that helps people learn and indiv. learner 4 Steps: o (1) describe learning goal to be obtained (what you want them to learn). o (2) Analyze the initial state of learner (are they ready, what do they know) o (3) Customize learning conditions (techniques, procedures, etc) o (4) Assess and monitor learning process Cognitive Psychology = (1970) focus on information processing routines the mind as a computer Focus on adult leaners = (1960 and 1970) pedagogy = child-related learning andragogy = adult learning A Model for Maximizing Learning: 4 Components (1) Trainee Characteristics (the right trainees): the WHO of training. o Trainability motivation, ability, perception of work environment o Personality and attitudes (2) Training design: the HOW (how training is going to be done) (3) Training Content: the WHAT of training (4) Training transfer: What happens after training occurs Trainee Characteristics trainability = f( M x A x PWE) o multiplicative relationship parallels well with model of employee behavior Pre-training motivation affects learning o perceptions about training o perceptions about own ability (training content) o pre-training negative events on job (historical post-training) o participation in training decisions o Will training lead to benefits? Training design Andragogy: o 1. self-directed (empowered people) o 2. Knowledge and experience considered want training where knowledge and experience considered consider past, building block o 3. Readiness to learn relevant things o 4. Motivated to learn in order to solve problems immediately adult learners are problem solvers o 5. Learn by doing hands-on, real world, practice, and feedback Andragogy v. Gerontology o Gerontology = older adult learning theory, what happens to adult learners as they age o Older workers: tend to take longer to learn make more mistakes in practice situations (more practice needed) o Levels of post-training performance for older workers is equal to younger workers Contingency Approach o assess individual trainees o application of instructional psychology model o Approach individual learner and customize what they need Conditions of practice: how we rehearse the ways things need to be done (rehearsal session) o Active practice: trainees should do stuff hands-on, cases, descriptions, exercises, and discussions mental practice: visualization o Massed v. spaced: how long the sessions and how often preference o Whole v. part: holistic blog or broken down? when breaking things down, something is always lost and you really need to tie the pieces together o Overlearning: about work that is performed under condition of crisis and need to be able to do things on autopilot o Feedback: the knowledge of results o Task sequencing: order in which you cover material, can affect how people see the unified whole Retention of learning: how long something sticks o not the same as transfer of training o it’s about slippage o Retention is affected by 3 things: 1. Meaningfulness of content (relevant, rich associations) 2. degree of original learning how much from the ground up greater the original, greater the slippage mix original learning and tie it to things they already know. 3. Interference (the toughest training challenge is trying to change long- term experts to do something different) Transfer of Training = the degree to which what you learned in training is transferred back to your job and you applied it 1. Positive transfer: see a difference, using tools learned in training 2. negative transfer = worse performance (shows training is not a no-risk situation) 3. zero transfer = nothing changes, no evidence that any part of training has influenced job performance Near-transfer or far-transfer o near-transfer = things people are going to do everyday so they won’t forget it o far-transfer = don’t do it that often so higher potential to forget database can help 5 Transfer Principles: The 5 Techniques to make sure you do the best you can to transfer training o 1. Identical elements (high fidelity) physical fidelity = machinery, etc. psychological fidelity = train people in the kinds of environment that they’re going to have to work in o 2. General principles “if this is true, do that” menu-type options most common techniques o 3. Stimulus variability (more depth than identical elements or general principle) a lot of opportunities to practice w/ diff. examples. o 4. Self-management Strategies trainees consider what is going to get in the way for improving performance and figuring out ways to get over that may have trainer follow up with trainees later o 5. Support in the work environment (supportive leaders) without transfer, waste of money Self-management strategies: (during training) o 1. determining the degree of support and negative consequences in the work setting for using newly acquired capabilities o 2. setting goals for using learned capabilities (after training) o 3. actually applying learned capabilities to job o 4. monitoring use of learned capabilities o 5. Self-reinforcement Self-management: Sample Content o 1. discuss lapses (note evidence of inadequacy, provide direction for improvement) o 2. identify skills targeted for transfer o 3. Identify personal and environmental challenges contributing to lapse low self-efficacy, time pressures, support limitations o 4. discuss coping skills and strategies o 5. identify when lapses are likely o 6. discuss resources to ensure transfer of training Summary: Best practices for Training Transfer 1. develop and follow clearly stated objectives for the training 2. use an instructor recognized for providing high quality instruction 3. maximize the similarity between the training situation and the job situation 4. provide ample opportunity during training to practice the task 5. use a variety of situations and examples, including both positive and negative models of intended behavior 6. identify and label important features of a task 7. make sure trainees understand general principle 8. provide support back in the work environment, including clear goals, checklists, measurement, feedback, accountability, and rewards for suing the new behaviors on the job 9. provide ample opportunity to perform what is learned back on the job Learning Strategies and Styles: What people do when they learn (1) Kolb’s Learning Styles = feeling watching doing deciding o There are 4 stages to learning and most people don’t use all 4 but the best do o Strategy: get you to use all four o o Steps: concrete experience = feeling (people encounter things they might not have seen before) reflective observation = watching (watch and absorb what you don’t recognize) abstract conceptualization = thinking (hypothesis) active experimentation = doing (decide what it is, what you’re going to do about it, and if it is something of value to you) o Types: diverger = feeling and watching assimilator = taking a lot of info and making sense about it converger accommodator = just go from new idea to experimentation o a universal theory (2) Weinstein & Mayer’s Learning Strategies = different people do different things to learn o thoughts and behaviors a learner engages in during learning o 1. rehearsal strategies = some people make lists (underline, highlight, notes) o 2. elaboration strategies = start w/ details about nature of something and build incrementally (start with micro) o 3. organizational strategis = putting things in an outline form hierarchy of materials generally org. materials into pieces rel to each other o 4. comprehension monitoring strategies = self-question self-test with flash index cards with questions monitoring how well you know the material o 5. affective strategies: learners who get stressed about the act of learning and need to relax before they learn, setting the mood (3) James & Galbraith’s Perceptual Preferences = people take in information differently from the external environment o people have diff. preferences about how they want to take info in (sensory preferences) o 1. print (reading, writing) o 2. visual (charts, graphs) (most prefer) o 3. aural (listening) o 4. interactive (discussion groups, asking questions, challenging each other) o 5. tactile/ manipulative (hands-on, touching, feeling it) o 6. kinesthetic/ psychomotor (role-playing, act it out) o 7. olfactory (associating ideas with sense of smell) o women tend to use greater variety, men tend to use just one (4) Gagne-Briggs Theory of Instruction = contingent on what you’re going to do for it o fundamentally different learning outcomes are produced in different ways o e.g. why students want to know format of test. your goal & outcome will drive learning style 1. verbal information = being able to recite something, pure memorization (flash cards) 2. intellectual skills = procedural knowledge (how to do something) need to practice them 3. cognitive strategies = over-arching skills that control an individuals learning in general, higher order that overarches first two. 4. attitudes = shifting attitude have to do a lot of reflection consider why you feel this attitude today and how you’re going to get to the new one 5. motor skills = using hands for manipulating something o Kapp’s Knowledge Types and Learning Strategies (chart but she said it wasn’t on the quiz) Other Emerging Theories: Instructional and cognitive psychology o moving from thinking to doing o ACT*/ACT-R = act rational; computerized data base that uses a series of prompts to get you from what your thoughts are to how to get you to use them o Self-regulation and control = what makes experts learn better than novices What do experts do that novices don’t? 1. Gauge difficulty (of task before they do it) 2. Make good judgments about those things (and of how tough it will be) 3. Allocate their time 4. set goals (to predict outcomes) 5. self-check along the way (and their progress) Expert or exceptional performance o common things experts have: o 1. optimal environmental conditions place to practice resources o 2. deliverate practice mentoring, tutoring, coaches o 3. incredibly high levels of motivation o 4. the maximum amount of time they spent practicing 4 1 hour sessions a day o peak times:20, 30, and 40’ Social Learning Theory: Learning component (confidence and self-efficacy) learning has 3 issues to it that are important 1. observing others a. good learners observe others 2. behavioral modeling a. practicing skills that we’re trying to develop b. role-playing under expert supervision c. done mult. times 3. behavioral shaping and chaining a. how people put effective behaviors together b. putting small behaviors together to create a broader impact Implications of Learning Theories for hrd Instruction employees need to know why they should learn o give trainees goals and objections employees need meaningful training content o useful, well presented employees learn through observation, experience, and interacting with others employees need opportunities to practice that are effectively structured o practice involves experience o massed v. spaced o whole v. part some training may need to be committed to memory o overlearning employees need feedback employees need training to be well-coordinated and administered employees need to retain learning Chapter 4: Assessing hrd needs needs assessment = process by which T&D needs are identified and articulated Why is it important? Critical starting point o specifically identifies: organization’s goals v. effectiveness in reaching goals actual skills v. required skills current skills v. future skills conditions under which t&d will occur (resources, money) o gap-closing process the only other gap-closing process is Human Resource Planning. not sure if this is on it: What is HRD need? Performance deficiencies (gap-closing process) Diagnostic needs (looking at what you’re really good at) Analytic needs (Blue-skying = the ideal scenario) Compliance needs (doing what your regulators require you to do) democratic needs (new; says you still shouldn’t avoid people’s opinion about what should be done) Why it’s often bypassed in real world organization: 5 general reasons: 1. Action-oriented (co. favors action over planning) 2. Co. claims they know what the problem is 3. Needs assessment is time-consuming and difficult process to go through 4. A lot of HR people don’t know how to do them 5. It’s never asked for by the CEO, so why would they do it. What do they do instead? duplicate last year’s training and tweak it check what top management wants consult with other powerful/influential people The 3 levels needs assessment is performed: 1. Strategic/ Organizational analysis (broadest, do first) 2. Task analysis 3. Person analysis Strategic/organizational analysis: Answers: “Where in org. is there a need for training? and under what conditions will training be conducted?” Issues to be included: o organizational goals (are we meeting goals, target of interest is the organization as a single entity) o organizational resources (always risks with outsourcing; facilities for training; will let you know how well you will be able to conduct the training) o organizational climate climate v. culture culture = anthropological route, the way things are, how things are done around here (tough to change) climate = psychological route, how things are right now o how people are feeling today (changes very quickly) o more on the surface, easier to find out what it is o environmental constraints = how supportive is work environment Why important? o (1) this is where you make linkage between business strategy and hrd program hrd program should be enabler of business goals o (2) these issues set frame work for the training how much you’re going to be able to do Where does a training analyst get this information? (from handout) o 1. organizational goals and objectives where hrd or training can and should be placed provide normative standards of both directions and expected impact o 4. organizational climate indexes labor mgt. data, strikes, attitude surveys, grievances, turnover, absenteeism, accidents, productivity, observations of behavior o 7. Management requests or management interrogation o 8. exit interviews (identify problem areas) Why establish partnership with top mgt? o to agree on why assessment needs to be done o to identify where specific cooperation is needed o to learn aobut planned and likely future changes in the organization o where is the organization heading? o find out: What do we do well? What needs improvement? o to understand top management’s expectations o top management is critical source of info. regarding the organization Task analysis/ Job analysis: aka position analysis, work analysis, operations analysis Answers: What tasks and kasocs must be included in training? and how do these tasks relate to the unit’s activities and ultimately to organizational effectiveness? 5 Step Process: o 1. Ascertain each job’s overall purpose and contribution o 2. Identify tasks (steps) required to perform duties (req. behaviors) o 3. Identify kasocs required to perform job successfully (job specifications) o 4. Identify areas that can benefit most from hrd o 5. Prioritize areas that can benefit most from hrd developing job information o Step 1: Job description = summary statement of overall job purpose and contribution outlines the job in terms of typical duties and responsibilities but is not meant to be all-inclusive; helps define performance discrepancies o Step 2: Identify major tasks What’s done, How it’s done, How it varies over time seasonal, and Why it’s done Apply task analysis methods (the different methods for job analysis) Stimulus-Response-feedback (horizontal) o 3-Step Process: Stimulus (cue, knowing when you need to do some work) Response (behavior, you do in order to do your job) feedback (how well did I do it) Time Sampling = have people watch and write observations about what they see Critical Incident Technique = find examples of ineffective performance and really spectacular performance Job Inventory Questionnaire = ask what did you do? how much time do you spend on it? how important is each of the tasks? Job-Duty-Task method (vertical approach to work analysis) o Industrial engineering application breaking stuff down o (1) start with overview (2) go into detail. future-oriented job analysis = how is this process going to change in the near future? o Step 3: Identify what it takes to do the job: kasocs Knowledge = an understanding of a body of information, usually of a factual or procedural nature, that makes for successful performance of a task Skill = an individual’s level of proficiency or competency in performing a specific task (often relates to psychomotor tasks) Ability = more general, enduring capability of an individual possesses when he or she first begins to perform a task other characteristics How do we move from tasks to kasocs? Inferential process SME’s = anyone who has information of value about work direct questioning/ observing job performers examine previous successful/ unsuccessful performers (look at credentials, archival information) o Step 4: Identify areas that can benefit most from hrd (multiple needs and limited resources) o Step 5: Prioritize areas that can benefit most from hrd Who decides? on what basis? Supportive top management specific participation (panel of consultants, advisory panel allows people from a variety of influential areas to get involve in ground floor.) broad support Where does training analyst get this information? 1. Job descriptions (outlines the job in terms of typical duties and responsibilities but is not meant to be all-inclusive; helps define performance discrepancies) 2. Job specifications or task analysis: kasocs o lists specified tasks required for each job o more specific than job descriptions o specifications may extend to judgments of knowledge, skills, and other attributes required of job incumbents 3. Performance standards (objectives of the tasks of the job and standards by which they rae judged; this may include baseline data as well) 5. observe job-work sampling 7. Ask questions about the job o of the job holder o of supervisor o higher management Person Analysis Answers: exactly who needs training? Steps: o 1. review performance appraisals (one of weakest areas) o 2. compare with position kasocs o 3. gap analysis o 4. select appropriate information key source of information: performance appraisal records o 360 degree appraisal = network of appraisers current performance deficiencies v. future developmental needs Performance Appraisal Model * know implications it has for training * compare individual behaviors to others behaviors or to an ideal Ensuring Readiness for Training do employees have personal characteristics to learn and apply new material? o fn (m x a x pwe) Will work environment absorb and facilitate new learning and application? o if people are going to transfer training, need to feel confident that there is support in the work environment. Who should participate in needs assessment? top mgt., employees, people who moved in organization, supervisors, and other trainers in hrm this can be a broad grouping of people with a lot of differences in background because more perspectives is obviously better. Traps to avoid when doing needs assessment? (not sure if this is on test) focusing only on indiv. performance deficiencies conduct a training needs assessment o assumes training is the answer just sending out questionnaires asking people what they want and think they need using soft data only o opinions need to be linked to performance and consequences using hard data only o performance data is often collected on what’s easy to measure, missing other critical information in the process.
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