test 2 complete study guide
test 2 complete study guide MGT 308
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jackie F. on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGT 308 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Christine Hagan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Training and Development in Business, management at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
MGT 308 Test 2 review Top Sleep 0 12 hotels 0 best model would be pretest posttest control group design Chapter 5 designing effective HRD programs The Training Design Funnel the what of training 0 content of training l Iticntify teaming maimcmts with 1 moulds assasmmmt designati fur target pupula liun 2 Email clusters uflmming 3 Eltwnlnp goals 4 Darwin harming nhjunti vcs for with gnarl cugniliw m bchmtimta 53 Flam fur pmgmm dlnlivury o 1 Identify learning requirements with a needs assessment designed for target population 0 2 Create clusters of learning outcomes 0 what do you want them to know afterwards 0 cluster outcomes together 0 3 develop training program goals 0 4 develop learning objectives for each program goal cognitive What you know or behavioral What you do 0 goal v objective 0 objective subordinate to goals tactics used to achieve goals 5 Plan for program delivery 0 instructional tech who is going to train etc Develooind Prooram Obiectives Effective Training Objective characteristics 0 clearly and directly relate to needs assessment 0 form the basis for selecting program content 0 describe the 1 performance you want trainees to learn the 2 conditions under which they must do it and 3 criteria used in judging its success 0 cognitive v behavioral objectives cognitive test to see if it worked is easier than behavioral observe to see if it worked 0 form the basis for determining which instructional methods should be used provide a foundation for program evaluation 0 usually include use of SME s 0 give them a culture Things to think about 0 write sep statement for each important outcome 0 write as many as you need 0 give written objectives to trainees o to write useful objectives continue to modify a draft until these q are answered 0 1 what do I want trainees to be able to do be very specific 0 2 under what conditions do I want them to be able to do this o 3 how will we judge whether they re doing it successfully keep in mind writing behavioral and skillsbased objectives are easier than identifying obj for training that s designed to change attitudes and emotions o affective training goal is to shift attitudes or how one feels about something eg sexual harassment training and diversity Training Obiectives tvoicallv use 3 dimensions of soecificitv o 1 Quantity the amount how many of work after training 0 eg number of words typed number of applications processed per day 0 2 Quality if it s done effectively of work after training 0 eg errors scrap loss 0 3 Timeliness written deadline of work after training 0 eg schedules met 0 4 Cost savings how inexpensively as a result of training 0 eg sales expense reduction equipment downtime Purchasing and Outsourcing HRD Pr0grams Services can include 0 needs assessment 0 training materials 0 setting objectives fullprogram program design 0 train the trainer 0 Considerations Expertise 0 cost more expensive outsourcing or insorcing 0 timeliness size of hrd number of trainees x factor 0 subject matter protect competitive adv when outsourcing 04gtCJDN L the more trainees greater pressure to do in house training because it costs less for outsourcing cost think in terms of value added Choosing a Training Vendor Key Decision Criteria cost credentials background expenence thosophy delivery methods used content actual product results support bench strength comparison to rfp Selecting the Trainer not an issue for large companies two capabilities needed 0 1 training competency o 2 subject matter expertise other options 0 training teams 0 train the trainer programs take sme s and teach them how to be a trainer 0 use technique that doesn t involve a live trainer computer based training Chapter 6 Implementing HRD Programs 3 Ways OTJ Off the Job Ctraining CBT blended On the Job Training OJT oldest form of training 0 industrial revolution learning from people who have done job before very popular 90 of organizations OJT training or learning that takes place during normal work setting 2 Advantages o 1 High probability of good transfer 0 2 Low cost least expensive 4 disadvantages o 1 Physical Constraints in middle of disruptive departmentwork location not conference room 0 2 Equipment can get damaged 0 3 Customer service issues trainees don t know answer 0 4 Safety Issues eg trainee putting something wrong on assembly line Types of OJT o 1 Job Instruction Training JIT just in time sequence of specific instruction and activities used by trainer as they work job 4 steps 0 1 Prepare find out how much trainee knows o 2 Present show and tell 0 trainee demonstrates to them 0 3 Practice trainee tries and give feedback 0 4 FollowUp o a good trainer is going to refresh what the person learned in a few days or 23 motnhs does successful JIT hinge on trainer or trainee 0 trainer could still be formal and structured which is more effective research information 0 most done by supervisors or coworkers 0 most firms spend money to put those people through train the trainer programs 0 2 Job Rotation over a period of time an indiv has opportunity to do diff jobs in diff units in order to create jobrelated skills shows indiv how dep work together and operation how things get done around here based on philosophy that people learn more by doing seeing and trying out things I experiential o 3 Coaching using a trainer or outside coach usually focusing on performance finding out what indiv does well and what they fall short on and make program for them to improve 0 4 Mentoring technique for management development so similar to coaching but coaching is focused on performance while mentoring involves 2 diff people from 2 diff levels mentor and prodig mentors open doors for people helps them learn roles behavioral modeling why do people get mentored preparing them for an enhanced role Classroom Methods any training that occurs away from the work setting 0 offlocations disadvantages 0 high cost 0 transfer of training if doing class group project on offsite training must include methods to increase transfer of trainability advantages 0 1 number of trainees can train more at same time economically advantageous o 2 more control over learning climeateenvironment keep disruptions out flexibility o 3 a lot of variety of techniques you can use 0 4 specialized trainers feel comfortable everyone is getting same training Types of Classroom Training 0 1 delivery of information by SME disadvantage one way communication experts say lectures are efficient ways to transfer cognitive information in a short period of time need 0 1 good lecturer SME o 2 good facts behind it good model for blended instruction bad reputation o 2 Conferencediscussion method 2 way multiway presenting questions and issues to people in different formats 0 3 Audiovisual methods 0 4 Experiential methods putting your hands on stuff and trying it on your own 0 relation between case studies and simulations Case studies examining a case and analyzing it 0 a description of a situation and a job of the analyzer is to draw on modelstech that they learned and apply it to the situation 0 also involves a set of recommendations Simulations computer games 0 diff from case study cause they use computers 0 in simulations you make a decision relation between role play and behavioral modeling role play acting out kinesthetic single event behavioral modeling roleplaying over and over again under watchful eye of an expert who critiques and recommends what you do differently 0 several events mold and shape behavior outdoor education outward bound 0 team building 0 problem if not expertly run can be bad 0 Computerbased training CBT aka technologymediated learning 1 Computeraided instruction CAI lowest level 0 In general takes place using PC and range from electronic workbooks drill and practice to CDROMS disad inflexible o advantages 1 some interaction not as strong as systems with Al 0 can quiz trainee based on response and can present various levels of learning 2 selfpaced feature 0 trainee controls speed of learning 3 easy logistics internal distribution systems means travel to participate in training not required 0 can make copies of CD s really easily 4 if company has learning management system can track trainee progress 0 resource allocation issue 0 disadvantages 1 loss of personal interaction in training 2 customization can be expensive 3 requires computer skills eg training housekeepers who aren t computer literate o 2 Webbased training elearning 0 online learning additional access to information contact with other trainees trainers experts and additional information after training 0 2 types a internetbased training PCs with capacity to link different operating systems 0 privacy safeguards that limit access via firewalls encryption routines that encode and decode data and passwords b Intranetbased training IBT company s own network of internal computers used for training 0 has most features of CAI CDROMS but much improved faster communication among people included in network 0 advantages more builtin flexibility to design test revise inhouse training programs modules can change program increased communication with other trainees trainer particularly useful in global operations that share consistent practices 0 disadvantages major limitation network bandwidth may lack compatibility with browser software configurations pushing learning to trainees offtime not paid when doing training at home 0 3 Intelligent computerassisted instruction ICAI o ICAI intelligent computerassisted instruction 0 CBT which includes artificial intelligence or expert capability o 2 types a Intellident Tutoring Svstems ITS Instructional systems using artificial intelligence 0 3 Types 0 Tutoring instructional system that uses AI get material put in front of you and can ask Q to computer computer can explain things to you restructures material 0 Coaching about opportunities to practice can also watch the structure of your answers and provide additional tutoring o Empowering environments trainee structures own learning experience mess around with information each trainee has unique customized experience 0 How ITS is distinguished from other training technologies matches instruction to individual trainee needs communicates and responds to trainee models trainee s progress decides what information is needed makes decisions about trainee s level of understanding modifies teaching process and content based on ongoing assessments Intelligent computerassisted instruction ICAI b Trainind Suoport Technoloqies 0 technologies focused on o capturing and conveying training content so that it is available to those who have no actually attended training 0 provide information and decision rules on asneeded basis job aids 3 types 0 1 expert systems database full of things can ask it about it o 2 groupware electronic meeting software allows several people to work on document at the same time and maintain tag know what each person has contributed o 3 electronic performance support systems EPSS capturing and storing important information job of CLO catalogue and mange intellectual assets use electronic performance system consulting firms etc Situations in which Training Suoport Technoloqies are most needed about job aids performance of task is infrequent far transfer task is lengthy difficult and information sensitive consequences of errors or damaging high risk performance relies on knowledge procedures or approaches that change frequently there is high employee turnover little time is available for training or resources for training are few dev database employees are expected to take full responsibility for learning and performing tasks Final Issues blended learning using 2 or more formats for the same training arranging the physical environment 0 seating where people are sitting o comfort is the environment comfortable 0 physical distractions are people being pulled out of training 0 interruptions How to choose training technolooies 4 criteria 1 nature of learning outcome 0 what you want to accomplish goal drive choice 0 eg attitudinal structure differently 2 available resources money time people 3 characteristics of trainees o eg if you do computerbased must be computer literate 4 characteristics of trainers o if trainers aren t SME they shouldn t be training until they become better enabled Chapter 7 evaluating HRD programs Evaluation the systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information necessary to make effective training decisions related to selection adoption value and modification of instructional activities NQP N systematic there s a plan collection data gathering process 2 types of info collecting o descriptive info explains what goes on o judgemental info was it effective use it to make good training decisions related to all those activities alternative definition the determination to the extent to which training programs meet their goals Primarv reasons for evaluations did we achieve objectives what were programs strengths and weaknesses what changes should be made cost benefit ratio how much change for what kind of financial responsibility who should participate in future programs which participants benefitted the most what have we learned about marketing future programs how does this influence future decisionmaking other reasons 0 to substantiate contribution training and dev makes to org 0 to build credibility 0 document return Evaluation Barriers Why is it not done more often not required takes time effort and resources opportunity costs training managers may lack KASOCs Risky systematic intertia a tendency of system to stay same and not change until someone makes it mult explanations for why performance doesn t improve may not be that training failed increased outsourcing Evaluation Levels Donald Kirkpatrick model ROI Process Model 1 Reaction lowest level 0 asks trainees to examine program and say what they liked about it 0 happy sheets 0 asking them if they think their behavior changed 0 79 of organizations report collecting reaction data 2 Learning 0 if you want to know if learning occurred test them 0 the cognitive piece 0 did they absorb what you wanted them to o collected in 38 in companies 3 Behavior 0 can they do what you need them to do 0 how to test this after 36 months 1 ask supervisors coworkers knowledgeable others 2 observe o 15 of companies do this 0 4 Results 0 only 9 of companies 0 5 ROI return on investment 0 a little bit diff than the other 4 0 financial calculation about how much improvement actually got 0 Data Collection Methods act of collecting data is in parcel of evaluation SOURCES OF INFO 0 questionnaires structured requests to preestablished questions consist q to make comparisons and assess opinions obvs and beliefs 0 adv inexpensive can analyze quantitatively o disadv you have to make sure you have uniqverse you re looking for impersonal ppl who design surveys never see the people who complete them 0 written tests structured situation to assess an individual s knowledge or proficiency to perform some task or behavior 0 adv clear base line 0 disadv have to have people design them and correct them more expensive than questionnaires people get nervous taking tests 0 interviews conversation with 1 or more indiv to assess their opinions obs and beliefs 0 interpersonal interaction real life 0 adv flexible can go more in depth and further rich source of data 0 disadv expensive 0 TYPES OF DATA whatwhere you focus on o indiv performance 0 group performance 0 systemwide performance org as whole or business lines 0 financial data 0 selfreports 0 CRITERION what we actually look at o 1 validity accuracy measures what we think it is measuring and well 0 deficiency stuff in training program that we never evaluate trained people and never measured about outcomes identified by needs assessment and included in training hrd program content 0 contamination stuff you measured but never was in training program eg one person has ton of enthusiasm but not about training about outcomes measures in evaluation 0 relevance every part of training touches and measured and nothing left outside outcomes related to training try to increase criterion relevance 0 2 Reliability consistency how much it varies and fluctuates o a across time same people across time to check consistency o b across raters ask same rater to rate performance on mult days to check rater consistency 0 3 Practicability how easy it is to get a hold of it 0 about how much money 0 is it worth the money 0 Designs for Evaluating Training process not content imph Enigma iiimm UnaJam jJEhi39gr i39 a m 39 J39r l39gtra 1 Thain Magma J39 iin Magma i finefault raft15 Lift51 Erin39squot I uu39 Efiu39s lilg r i igl i ll39iL39iI 39l r ijiilig blu lm a ul mquot Tram l i39I lilEEEUE39I Mustugs Milu ux Maliafurl nquot Milanurn E c mrt Hirmyiic39 Me39ia n a mafia25 Fungil Iiiflat ii3939l39if3939 email mg jEUijt I NILemit Tram JEULIF E WJLHLE39E Iii1mm PIEEEJF a Hit tit1 L39a39Jtal39 reef 31m i135 i 39 l39j 39 iiiElf lm Hal Mullipil LJI le39 Za EEIIEE39E l iF39ai j 0 about how we go about doing it o in order of weakest to strongest o 1 oneshot posttestonly design 0 O O O simplest train ppl and measure after what they learn case only or case study no idea what they had coming in o 2 one group pretest posttest design 0 O O 0 take measurements first also Then train and then measure again Positive change between 1St and 2 39 training does that mean training is good Yes Missing untrained control group to compare it to o 3 multiple baseline design aka time series analysis 0 O 0 big in blue collar work take in mult measures before and after because of variation still no control group 0 4 pretest posttest with control group design best design but not most used 0 O O O 0 involves randomly selected 2 groups diagram selfexplanatory if first group improved training worked if second improved wasn t rtaininy need to make 3 comparisons 1 are control group and group 1 equvalent before the training 2 in group to be trained look before and after the training 3 are controlled and trained still equiv if so have a problem only model that answers the question was it training that caused the change 0 Other evaluation issues Threats to internal external validity Internal validity did training cause the change Degree to which you can say training created the change Eg does the control group know they re being control External validity degree to which we believe if we do training program we did here and bring it to another location are we going to see same results 0 Called generalized ability 0 Can u take it in setting A and translate it to company B Issues 1 small sample size 2 when you do lab studies eg college freshman amp assume those attitudes will be same other places 0 Chapter 8 Onboarding Employee Socialization amp Orientation 0 Orientation introduction getting resources and information you might need information session 0 Socialization process of transforming an outsider into an insider 0 Onboarding more general term in either socialization or orientation 0 Orientation most specific ll Onboarding most gen 0 Emplovee Socialization 0 new employee orientation most population training program 0 process of becoming an insider o the process by which an individual acquires the knowledge and skill to assume an organizational role 0 applies to new hires transfers promotions etc 0 complex lengthy process 0 why do organizations provide socialization 0 why no sink or swim 0 too much is at risk 0 effective socialization l benefits for company 0 applies to new hires etc 0 when its done right not a session but a complex lengthy process 0 What is at stake 0 individual satisfaction affective performance behavior and commitment to firm 0 group satisfaction and performance how are other people reacting 0 return on already invested costs expensive to hire someone o likelihood of staying people who get off to good start end up being good employees 0 additional costs if new employee fails or leaves 0 Basic Concepts 0 1 Organizational Roles set of behavioral expectations of individuals who hold a given position in a co a hierarchial dimension where does my job fit vertically 0 eg senior manager supervisor worker etc b functional dimension know duties assigned to them c inclusionary dimension social dimension that needs to be fulfilled when other ppl accept you in this role as credible person people fit in once they have all these dimensions if not 0 a role overload job has too much do to and can t get it done 0 b role conflict different stakeholders have diff expectations 0 c Role ambiguity get mixed messages and don t know what your responsibility is o 2 group norms control behavior in group group conduct what you do how you do it 3 types 0 a pivotal absolutely essential behaviors to organizational membership 0 b relevant desireable nice to have but not essential 0 c peripheral unimportant behaviors norms are to groups as culture is to organization 0 3 Expectations beliefsdegree about likelihood that something will happen where do they get them from everyone they ve interacted with during interview process Socialization Process should help employees with 3 things 0 1 master particular task they re responsible for o 2 resolve role demands 0 3 adjust work group norms and values What else do newcomers needs 0 accurate expectations 0 knowledge base kasocs 0 other insiders to help guide them What the Research Tells us Content of Socialization o Fisher s 5 categories of learning 0 Chao s 6 socialization dimensions 0 Feldman s 3 Stage Model of Socialization 0 People Processing tactics and strategies institutionalized wel all do it org level standardized v individualized we make own decisions and org may have tools we can use but dept is repsosible for individualized supervisor and coworkers most commonly do it o newcomers as proactive information seekers if they don t get efficient orientation they ll go out of their way to ask people about it and speed up process 0 socialization as a twoway street observing filling in gaps experiencing Outcomes o successful socialization knowledge attitudes and behaviors 0 unsuccessful socialization unmet expectations dissatisfaction lack of commitment turnover Socialization Content Fisher s 5 Categories 0 1 preliminary learning before you enter or upon entry realizing you need to learn 0 2 learning about the organization what are goals value culture 0 3 learning to function in work group relationship 0 4 learning to perform job task functions kasocs 0 5 personal learning what have I learned as a result of this accumulative effect of learning Chao s 6 Dimensions 6 subjects that should be covered 0 1 History 0 2 Company rules policies 0 3 Company language vocabulary o 4 Politics centers of power finding opinion leaders coalitions that have sway o 5 People work side of you 0 6 Performance proficiency Feldman s Model of Organizational Socialization o a prescriptive normative model iiii nzllquottitanr 5 Model of rg ni tilnal Seiillimtiu mti PHI UE REE 33935 Rutakin BibJul 5 Song4mm ul39 L39 grut r II39 quotn n 39 I quotJ quot 39739 39 w E39 39 n quotv5 39 V I I i A V I II d SUELHLLEHEIHJIII rbarhrhlujn WE KIwug FELL 1 hum Its maagur mluf Ef urmlgmmnl il39 f i w Holt a9in Inat39i tiin i irr Lml ilttm iii n 39un LET LIll39ill39 rilrgn39rurt 39 m l 39liJJ l l u lullZ ltri Emmy L39Iil iuitl ml tJntttzl m I39 HTi nmLTiu Evaluation 391 Adj ILflnluru39 lJ 39Eh ml it Eumiulttm I39 Tfk Em quotmm lJLlllihilitil ru jt cman g E13393 53 I39HiiJLCi 4 7 Helpquot gt v 39 nr quot3939quot A f n39 quot r J quot quot E39 39 r Tl 39vuul L39ilL39 Rulr ir wiFh HE 39 Innm39ulj arid i H i 3939 n A a anmml Lingmrtmlh I quotn warm11 r ritzw 39 F 39 uhum39 dtgu n alziy quotmgd 39 1pztntn11 ltzitusty quotDI J I A r u r39lLIT I Wl E39 l39rai if inlurnumm I I n39 39tlLrn39trrr39 1quoti outcomes satisfaction ii tiJI139zI1r 91 o 3 stages 1 Anticipatory Socialization info and percep you dev before 0 a realism about org understand organization 0 b realism about job 0 c congruence of KSAs o d congruence of needs and values feel you fit with company culture 0 where do u get this info recruiters interviews ads research 2 Encounter when you join 0 a mgt of outside life conflicts o b mgt of intergroup role conflicts 0 c role definition what role you are playing 0 d initiation to task 0 e initiation to group 3 change amp acquisition settling in WHERE SOCIALIZA TION ENDS o a resolution of role demands 0 b task mastery o c adjustment to group norms and values 0 2 outcomes 1 behavioral outcomes 0 a carry out role assignment dependently 0 b remain with org 0 c innovate and cooperate spontaneously 2 affective outcomes 0 a general satisfaction 0 b internal work motivation 0 c job involvement Socialization Tools Realistic Job Previews RJPs telling not selling 0 5 mechanisms 1 guards against unrealistically high expectations 2 encourage selfselection and deselection 3 perceives a sense of org honesty and caring NFDP 9SDNf39 9 4 creates positive coping effect 5 raises personal commitment 0 strong research 0 who are key players in socialization new employee target supervisor and coworkers 0 Effects of RJPs Wanous same thing as 5 mechanisms 1 vaccination against highly unrealistic expectation 2 opportunity to self select 3 perception of honesty and caring 4 coping mechanisms 5 commitment to choice of organization Traditional Orientation Proqrams introduce new employees to a job supervisor coworkers and org usually first day of work Problems too much emphasis on paperwork information overload infomation irrelevance scare tactics too much selling emphasis on formal 1 way communication one shot mentality no diagnosis or evaluation lack of followup 0 00000000 Characteristics of Effective Orientation Sessions run on needtoknow principle relevant and immediate info given first take place over period of days weeks or longer begin before and well after content should present healthy balance of technical information and social aspects twoway interaction trusting superior subordinate relationships first day has huge impact so carefully planned by people with good social skills and limit paperwork assign responsibility to immediate supervisors help adjustment by helping them get settled in the community and new housing a househunting assistance gradually introduce to people with whom they will work rather than superficial introduction on first day allow sufficient time to get their feet on the ground before demands on them are increased relaxing programs with a focus on celebration a decrease anxiety b seek to create positive attitudes systematically diagnose the needs of new recruits and evaluate effectiveness of programs
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